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107 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
-created out of the social conditions present in the southern United States
-musicians began synthesizing the oral traditions of Africa music and the literal traditions of
Western European music
-incubation period for the creation of jazz goes back to the beginning of slavery (early 1600s)
-not until 1900s the two musical traditions came in contact with each other (jazz was born)
-only southern states because that’s where slavery was
The five basic guidelines for defining jazz on page 268; swing rhythm
-jazz is very difficult to define
-performed in many styles and its influence can be heard in other types of music
Origins of Jazz
The five basic guidelines for defining jazz
Improvisation, Rhythm, Dissonance, Jazz Interpretation, Interaction
the act of simultaneously composing and performing
-essential element in most, but not all jazz
-usually big bands have written music
-small groups have improvised solos but within a framework (written cords)
defined in terms of swing rhythm and syncopation
-Swing Rhythm: a loosening of the rigid adherence to the beat of the music,
which is accomplished by slightly delaying the notes played between beats,
creating a momentary tension that is resolved on the next beat
-Syncopation: rhythmically placing or accenting notes away from the beat and in
unexpected places. (almost always in jazz performances)
“pushing the envelope” “edginess”
-incorporating non-harmonious, dissonant tonalities into their music
-subtle or very pronounced
-creates tension (performers use tension and its resolution to give the listeners a
sense that the music has forward motion)
the unique way that jazz musicians produce sound
-saxophonists: slur or blend notes
-trumpeters: put a plunger mute on their horn to create a wah-wah effect
-pianist: “crush” two notes together to create a bent note effect
Jazz Interpretation:
carefully listen to each other to stay together and to keep the music focused
-because the musicians are usually improvising communication is important
-conversation must be interactive, with each participant responding in turn to
something another said
The importance of the improvised solo in contemporary jazz;
lay out
-highest form of individual expression in a jazz performance is the improvised solo
-when one musician is playing a solo, the other members either “lay out” (stop playing) or
continue playing in a role supportive to the soloist
-must be able to conceptualize melodies in their head before actually playing it
-creating a unique musical personality is a must for a jazz musician
-must have an understanding of the three essential elements of music (melody, harmony, rhythm)
-must know the jazz repertoire, songs, and compositions that are most often played (standards)
MIDI: Musical Instrument Digital Interface
-MIDI protocol was agreed upon by musical instrument manufactures in 1983
-it cleared the way for the creation of keyboards, digital samplers, drum machines, and other
digital instruments that could “talk” to each other and interconnect with computers
-when a MIDI controller is played it sends out a digital signal containing such information as
what note was played, how hard it was struck, etc
-this information can be recorded on a computers sequencing software, where it can be edited
and played back on any other MIDI instrumen
can improvise within a certain framework of rules; can also play solos
-Piano (or Guitar): plays the chords that accompany the melody of the song
-plays in a syncopated and interactive manner called “comping” (short for
-“feeds” the soloist rhythmic or melodic ideas with comping by how he/she
structures the chords and the rhythm
-pianist solo: comp with the left hand and solo with the right hand
-Rhythm Section
may be the most important member of the rhythm section
-provide a foundation for the chords and to keep a steady beat
-“walking bass”: in swing rhythm bass players usually play a note on every beat
that outlines the chord in some way
-walking bass line is improvised
-bassists are free to also spontaneously interact with rhythmic or harmonic ideas
consists of a bass drum, high-hat cymbal, snare drum, one or more “rack”
tom-toms, floor tom, and at least one ride cymbal and one crash cymbal
-drummers keep the beat (“keep time”) by playing the swing rhythm on either
the high-hat or the ride cymbal with their right hand (also called “ride rhythm”)
-left hand and both fee are used to provide improvised, syncopated accents on the
various drums and cymbals
-“dropping bombs”: when drummer lays a spontaneous, syncopated accent on the
bass drum to add energy to the performance
The most commonly used jazz instruments
Saxophone, Trumpet
Four different types (bigger the saxophone the lower its pitch)
-Soprano, highest pitch
-Alto, slightly lower (women’s singing voice)
-Tenor, (men’s singing voice)
-Baritone, very low
-tenor and alto are most commonly used, baritone most commonly used in big band
has larger bell and wider tubing
-produces warmer and mellower tone than the trumpet
-used most often on ballads or more intimate
a more compact version of the instrument, went out of style in 1920s
use a slide and the player’s embouchure (the adjustment of the lips, tongue,
and mouth muscles on the mouthpiece) to vary the pitch
-difficult to play jazz on, but offers a lot of flexibility in pitch
used to color the sound, giving instruments a greater variety of tonal shadings
-Cups, Straights, Plungers, and Harmons
common in jazz, most often found in big bands
-Flutes, clarinets, bass clarinets, soprano saxophones are used as doubling instruments
-ex) normally play sax and then play certain part on clarinet or flute
Flutes and Clarinets
conventional acoustic instruments are less commonly used
Melody, harmony, rhythm; terms on pages 273, 274
-Violin, Harmonica, Banjo, Tuba:
conventional acoustic instruments are less commonly used
Melody, harmony, rhythm; terms on pages 273, 274
Violin, Harmonica, Banjo, Tuba:
a succession of notes that are played or sung in a specific order and rhythm
-sometimes referred to as tunes
a short melodic phrase or melody; (line, lick, phrase, or motif)
Riff (melody)
the combining of melodies with silence, or rests; may be fast or slow
Phrasing (melody)
the improvise decoration or “jazzing up” of a melody
Embellishment/Ornamentation (melody)
terms used to describe an improvised solo or an individual performer’s style
of improvising; hot-a lot of drama by playing lots of notes; cool-laid back and relaxed
Hot/Cool (melody)
a melody that is very singable or melodic
lyrical (melody)
set of chords (or the implication of chords) that accompany the melody
three or more notes played simultaneously
Chords (harmony)
-played sequentially in a specific order called “chord progression”
-melodies are usually written with a specific chord progression in mind
notational representations of chords, or shorthand used to quickly
communicate the harmonic content of a chord
Chord Symbols
a notated roadmap of a tune using only the melody and chord symbols
Lead Sheat
a book made up of tunes in lead sheet form
Fake Book
relationship of notes and sound with time
-gives music forward motion
-measured in beats
-some notes last for one beat, and others may last for several beats, or fractions of beats
-beats are organized into a unit called a measure or bar
the fundamental beat driving the music that creates the tempo
the speed of the music
repeated groupings into which beats are organized (usually 4 beats)
beat one of each measure
beats tow and four of each measure
placing notes or accents off the beat or in unexpected places
How the jazz performance form works, and the terms associated with it (head, chorus, etc)
-consists of the form (chord progression or verse) of the tune, played over and over
-can be twelve, twenty-four, or thirty-two bars in length
-each statement of the form is called a “chorus’
-the first chorus, the melody is played, this is called the “head”
-then the form/chorus is played again
-however, this time one of the performers creates an improvised solo using notes selected
for the chords of the chord progression as it advances
-soloists can improvise as many choruses as he/she chooses
-then other soloists can improvise in the same fashion
-then they play the head one last time
-this format of head-solos-head is called the “Jazz Performance Form”
a jazz or pop tune that is widely known by jazz musicians and often played
Jazz standard
a jazz performance
a melodic phrase played or sung by one performer that is answered by the
rest of the group
call and response
a technique of exchanging four bar solos, often between a soloist and a drummer
Trading fours
in a solo, the technique of playing rhythmically twice as fast as the est. tempo
double time
the difference in musical backgrounds between Creoles and African Americans
in New Orleans
Creoles of Color
half white, half black
Creole musicians were of European (mainly French) and African descent, and had a
strong background in European music tradition, meaning they not only could read music,
but were also familiar with the classical repertoire
-Black musicians were skilled improvisers that generally didn’t read music
-they were particularly fluent at improvising and creating music that was hot and
exciting, in contrast to the “proper” music that Creoles played
New Orleans this crap
Legislative Code 111 (passed in 1894, by the state of Louisiana)
-one of the “Jim Crow” laws passed in Southern states to discriminate against blacks
-Creole musicians were not allowed to play at high-class events and were forced to
compete and eventually play with black musicians
-Black and Creole musicians began playing together and exchanging ideas
-a new hybrid music emerged that contained elements from both cultures
collective improvisation
New Orleans style
-jazz was born in the cribs, dancehall, and sporting housed of New Orleans (1900s)
-in this earliest form, it was known as the “New Orleans style”
-the standard ensemble consisted of a front line of one or two cornets, a trombone, and one or
two clarinets, and a rhythm section of drums, bass, violin, and either a piano, guitar, or banjo
-cornet would play the melody in the middle range, the clarinet improvised around that melody
in a higher range, and the trombone would “grunt” along in the low range
-this system of improvising and embellishing the melody became known as “collective
-upbeat, march rhythm
-Syncopation, ragging
New Orleans style
established in 1897
-a 38 sq-ft block district where prostitution was legal and regulated by the city
-a major tourist attraction, popular with sailors at the nearby naval base
-by the early 1920s the center of the jazz world had moved north to Chicago
-many of the first generation of jazz musicians began to leave New Orleans when the city’s legal
red light district, Storyville, closed in 1917
-it was shutdown in 1917, after the US entered WWI
by the early 1930s jazz had moved to New York
-New York was home of hundreds of clubs and dancehalls, radio, networks, the major record
labels and the music publishing industry known as “Tin Pan Alley”
-Savoy Ballroom: throughout the late 1920s and early 1930s, jazz bands began adding more
horns to create enough power and volume to fill the larger venues such as Harlem’s Savoy
Ballroom and Cotton Club
New York
known as “the Aristocrat of Harlem”
Cotton Club
-an expensive nightclub at 142nd and Lenox Avenue, owned by gangster Owney Madden
-log cabin and plantation house stage backdrop
-black music and dance to the “whites only” audiences
Cotton Club
began in 1935-1946
-brought together approaches to meter, chording, the voicing and arranging of melodies,
and ways of building improvised solos
-swing era was a time of musical consolidation
-jazz was known as swing
-most popular music in U.S.; and the center of our culture (dance styles, fashions, slang)
-swing music was complex in rhythms and harmonies
-increasing popularity of Rhythm and Blues/Country Western brought swing to an end
-Characteristics of the swing era (consolidation of musical styles, etc)
Factors leading to dissatisfaction of musicians, especially black musicians
-this was a time where music had to meets certain standardizations
-music was homogenized, and all sounded very similar
-even though jazz (with the new name swing) gained a better reputation; musicians
became bored with swing (playing same arrangements)
-especially for black: travel farther for gigs, play for less money, had fewer possibilities
to record, and had to generally deal with all sorts of inconveniences
-the mechanisms of the swing era were more well-suited for white musicians
-led to frustration and alienation for black musicians
-with catchy riff melodies based on the 12-bar blues that out-swung everybody else
-created spontaneously in a jam session
-interact with each other in a call-response fashion
Head arrangements
The 3 things that facilitated the birth of bebop
*(alienation and frustration of the swing era ultimately led to the creation of bebop)
*first modern jazz style
1. The music industry lured young, highly skilled, predominantly black musician so New York
City from various locales around the country
2. The racial inequities of the music industry ensured that their talents would not be properly
rewarded or recognized
3. The dynamics of the Harlem jam session scene allowed them an outlet and perupose to
express themselves in an artistic fashion.
The dynamics of the Harlem jam session scene
-after hour jam sessions would bring relief from playing swing band all night
-Jam Sessions: (cutting contests) usually featured a rhythm section that provided the foundation
for the attending saxophonists, trumpeters, and trombonists to try to “cut” or outplay each other
with the superior musicality and technique of their solo improvisations
-they were also a place where social networking took place and where relatively
unknown musician could get noticed
-“jazzman’s true academy”
-for the best and brightest young musicians in New York the most dynamic jam session
scene was in Harlem (predominately black neighborhood on the north side of Manhattan)
-Harlem was home to a number of small nightclubs
-these nightclubs encouraged jam sessions, gave rise to an alternative music scene
-jam sessions began to flourish in the late 1930s
-most important and famous clubs (in Harlem) that sponsored jam sessions
-Minton’s began offering free food for musicians to come and play in jam sessions
-musicians came to flex their musical muscles and try out new experiments in rhythm, harmony,
and melody
Clark Monroe’s Uptown House, Minton’s Playhouse
52nd Street (you do not have to know specific club names
-although Harlem is largely credited for their jam sessions; it was soon over shadowed by 52nd St
-“little jazz village”
-clubs located in basements lined both sides of the street
-“Swing Street” or “The Street That Never Slept”
-featured small groups
-it was here that jazz musicians heard bebop for the first time
dynamics of the bebop counter-culture (dress, slang, etc)
The bebop esprit de corps:
feeling of pride and belonging of group
-the esprit de corps:
-fostered a counterculture mentality that rejected the conventions and norms or society and the
music business
-developed a new set of cultural values
-slang language (far-out, cat, man, dig)
-own style of dress
-conservative (coats, ties, and white shirts)
-but add accessories that were subtle digs at society (goatee, beret, window-pane glasses)
-addiction to narcotics
The bebop esprit de corps
Art Tatum, Coleman Hawkins, Lester YOung
The 3 innovators that were influential to bebop; vertical style of improvisation
(pianist): played with virtuosity, created extensive reharmonizations of existing
chord structures
Art Tatum
(tenor): vertical style of improvisation required a moment-by-moment
analysis of the passing harmonies
Coleman Hawkins
(tenor): floating rhythmic approach and emphasis on melody gave his solos a
singing, fluid quality
Lester YOung
method of improvising based on chord tones rather than pure melody
Vertical Style
Why a new repertoire of tunes was created by bebop musicians; the AF of M recording ban of 1942
-beboppers developed new repertoire of tunes because of 2-year recording ban
-The Recording Band of 1942: the American Federation of Musicians went on strike
to protest the increased use of recording instead of live music on the radio, which put
musicians out of work
-demanded that the radio stations and jukebox industry pay small royalty to
composers and publishers for the use of recorded songs
-to avoid this radio stations encouraged musicians to record originals
-this was easy because musicians would just write new beboppish tunes over the chords
of old songs
The reaction to bebop – the “Moldy Figs vs. Moderns,” etc
-swing and older musicians thought the beboppers messed up they good thing they had going
-feud between swing and bebop
-Ulanov coined the term “Moldy Figs vs. Moderns in an 1947 article in Metronome
-bebop had a dramatic and long-lasting impact on jazz
-its techniques, rhythms, harmonies, and melodies remain part of the jazz DNA today
The 6 reasons why the bebop movement was so influential
Art music, individualism, vocabulary, innovation, politicial activism, artistic influence
from this point on jazz would be considered as a platform for creative expression- art
art music
focus was now on the individual solos not the ensemble
new vocab of melodic licks and phrases to jazz
musicians had to now look to innovate not from existing norms and conventions,
but from beyond them
bebop laid the groundwork for future political activism by black jazz
musicians (against racism)
Political Activism
helped unleash a new artistic license in art and literature
-inspired other such as beat writers and abstract expressionists
Artistic influence
allegedly was the first musician (cornetist) to successfully merge Creole/Black music
-played very loudly
-institutionalized in 1907 after alcohol problem and breakdown (remained until death-1931)
Buddy Bolden
-Joe “King” Oliver went to Chicago (from New Orleans) in 1922
-then he sent for his protégé Louis Armstrong
-after making the first jazz recordings together (1923), Armstrong left Oliver’s band
-became leader of the “Hot Five” and recorded 65 sides
Louis Armstrong
Three major contributions he made to jazz????
brought a new vocab of jazz licks and phrasing that were copied and soon replaced the old ones
-his solos were very dramatic and powerful
-made it clear that jazz would become a soloist’s art from, rather than an ensemble-based music
-he loosened up the ragged syncopations of early jazz and codified modern swing rhythm
Chicago was where the first white musicians began to jump on the jazz bandwagon
-led by a group of suburban teens known as the “Austin High Gang”; developed Chicago-style
-Bix Beiderbecke: Cornetist
-the spiritual leader of this emerging surroundings
-played lyrical, understated solos
-jazz’s first Bohemian, but taken by alcohol problem (age 28)
The Austin High Gang, Bix Beiderbecke
composer of big band music
-standardized the way that big band jazz would sound
-rose to fame with a four-year stint at the Cotton Club (1927-1931)
-established himself as the music’s greatest composer
-wrote a variety of styles
-famous for showcasing the unique talents of his musicians
-coined the name of the new emerging pop culture with his 1932 song “It Don’t Mean a Thing If it aint got that sing"
Duke Ellington
-swing began in 1935 when bandleader (Goodman) began his dramatic rise to fame from his
weekly appearance on the network radio show “Let’s Dance”
-among the first to put together all the essential swing ingredients
-a great band with hot arrangements
-good soloists
-attractive vocalist
-at the right place and time
-benefited from being white, not discriminated against or segregated
Benny Goodman
His roots in KC, early jam session incident
-when he was 16 he decided to sit in a jam session
-became so disoriented during his solo that Jones threw his crash cymbal on the floor
-humiliated Parker spent the next several months “woodshedding” (practicing intensely)
Charlie Parker
Significance of the song “Cherokee”
-after coming back he went to a jam session in New York
-while playing “Cherokee” Parker made a breakthrough and stunned the crowd (1939)
-now it is a popular standard
Charlie Parker
Charlie Parker
Why his heroin use was significant to the jazz and hipster community
-because Parker became a musical genius, he became a huge icon in the jazz world
-his drug use was widely known, so his fans began using it too, trying to reach Parker’s
musical greatness and status
charlie Parker
His disastrous trip to California
-first recording “Koko”
-soon after traveled with Gillespie and new band to LA for an extended stay at a club
--had difficulty in finding a reliable source for dope
-so desperate for money to get a fix that he sold his plane ticket
-Gillespie left without him
-remaining in LA, signed a contract with Dial, assigned half his royalties to drug dealer
-at July 29, 1946 recording session he could barely play
-returned to hotel, passed out, and set room on fire
-spent next 6 months at an institution
-come back was amazing, but shortlived
! His lasting legacy (new vocabulary, etc)
club that opened in 1949 in Parker’s honor
-Parker’s final gig
-was extremely drunk and got into a fight with pianist Bud Powell
Dizzy Gillespie
! Why he did not fit the profile of other beboppers
-organized, levelheaded, a practical joker, natural leader, born entertainer
! His interest in Latin music
-played with Cab Calloway Orchestra
-began writing arrangements for Calloway
-became friends with Cuban arranger Mario Bauza
-started combining Latin rhythmic elements with bebop melodies and harmonies
! Why he was known as the schoolmaster
-Dizzy began teaching bebop’s harmonic underpinnings to group members of a small
bebop group on 52nd street
-most musicians wouldn’t have taken the time of day to do this
-Dizzy’s willingness to teach harmony became legendary among musicians
-became known as the “school teacher”
! His Afro-Cuban big band
-lead his own big band in 1946
-with singer Ella Fitzgerald (brought popular status to band)
-but more importantly included Cuban percussionist Chano Pozo
-brought west-African conga playing and primal chants
-featured in “Cubana BeCubana Bop” by George Russell
-this song and “Manteca” by Gillespie and Pozo introduced Afro-Cuban jazz
-many black were embarrassed when confronted with its African costumes and chants
Cuban percussionist in Gillespie’s band
-stay with band was brief, he was murdered at the end of 1948, over a drug deal
Chano Pozo
-first published in 1935
-most respected magazine in jazz journalism
-printed stories about musicians, music trends, record reviews, critic and reader polls
Down Beat Magazine
somewhat between Parker and Gillespie
Thelonious Monk
Thelonious Monk
Characteristics of his playing style
-largely self-taught
-played in an extremely aggressive manner, with great rhythmic feel and offbeat,
percussion accents
-innovator on piano
-unorthodox style
-new dissonances and reharmonization techniques (became cornerstones of bebop)
! His role in the Minton’s house band
-was the key success on Minton’s sessions
-played in the rhythm section with drummer Kenny Clarke
! Characteristics and influence of his compositions
-began writing tunes, that were perfect reflections of his playing style
-his early compositions are jazz standards
-promoted as “high priest of bebop” to sell records; didn’t work
-distinctive harmonies, quirky rhythms, his runs, suspenseful hesitations, hypnotic
musical interludes form abstraction
-often regarded as second only to Ellington as a jazz composer
-to play Monk’s songs you must get into a “Monkish” frame of mind
! The general outline of his career: his 1st LPs for Blue Note; his drug bust and triumphant return
to performing
-first signed by Blue Note, then dropped after ten years
-signed with Riverside
-drug bust in 1951: bag was Powell’s, but Monk took the rap
-lost his cabaret card
-stayed at home for 6 years, continuing to write and record
-triumphant return at the Five Spot Café, with a new quartet (included John Coltrane)
-this along with the release of “Brilliant Corners” gave Monk his due respect
-cover of “Time” magazine
watering hold in Greenwich Village, where Monk made his triumphant return
Cabaret card: permit issued by NY, that enabled them to work in a liquor establishment (ended in 1960)
The Five Spot Cafe
-career extended past bebop
-drummer of choice in bebop era
-became first jazz musician to win a MacArthur Fellowship “genius award” in 1988
Max Roach
his innovation to electric guitar playing
-died early at 25 years
-still had important contribution to bebop
-pioneer in both playing single-note runs (like horn players) and using an simplifier to correctly
balance his sound with the other instruments in the band
Charlie Christian
-protégé of Monk, adopted his harmonic ideas
-played lightning-fast single-note improvised runs on right hand
-minimal accompaniment on left hand
-alcohol and drug use
-beaten to badly by police
-mental condition, psychiatric hospital
-underwent electro-shock therapy
-life portrayed in “Round Midnight”
Bud Powell
bass player
-one of the first bass players to become a soloist
-house bassist on Minton’s
-played with Gillespie and Roach, first bebop group to perform outside Harlem
-also played in first bebop recording
Oscar Pettiford:
-Front Line: cornet, clarinet, and valve or slide trombone
-Rhythm Section: drums, string bass, guitar, violin
-Collective Improvisation
-Upbeat, march rhythm
-Syncopation, ragging
New Orleans Style
New Orleans front line; with saxophone added
-simple ensemble passages; de-emphasized collective improvisation
-more emphasis on improvised solos in one-solo-at-a-time format
-more drive and energy in the rhythm section
Chicago style (white musicians)
-fast, furious, explosive, and technically demanding to play
-it emphasizes the virtuosity of the soloist in a small group setting
-Three Basic Elements were changed:
-Melody:bebop melodies are nearly unsingable, twisting, and turning in unexpect ways
-odd intervals and syncopations
-because heads are so difficult, they are usually played in unison (without
-Harmony: bebop musicians habitually reharmonize 12-bar songs (pre-existing forms) by
substituting new chords for the old ones and adding new passing chords
-more complex and more demanding for soloist to navigate
-Rhythm: bebop is much more syncopated and rhythmically unpredictable
-spontaneous syncopated accents (dropping bombs)
-more percussion and syncopated way of feeding chords to the soloist (comping)
-complex rhythms form Cuba, Latin America, and Africa intertwined with bebop melodies and
-percussion instruments such as bongos, congas, and timbales frequently incorporated into the
jazz rhythm
Afro Cuban