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24 Cards in this Set

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Klinesmith

Aim: Hypothesized that testosterone acts as a mediator – a connecting and enabling link – between guns and aggression.


Method:


Result:

Meany

Aim: Test whether the level oxytocin in the body affectsmotherly behaviour in rats.


Method: Rat mothers whopossessed high level of mothering instincts were given oxytocin blockers andrat mothers with low level mothering instincts were given an increase ofoxytocin. Then the rats were killed and their brains dissected to observethe number of oxytocin receptors.


Results: When blocking oxytocin from high-level mothers theirmotherly behavior decreased, while when adding oxytocin to low-level motherstheir motherly behavior increased. After killing the subjects the researchersdiscovered that the high-level rat mothers had more oxytocin receptors than thelow-level ones.

Turkheimer

Aim: Investigate the role of the environment, and in particular whether heritability of intelligence is equally high in all socio-economic classes.


Method: In a sample from the 1970’s 320 twin pairs were found, many from poor families, who had taken IQ tests at age 7. Turkheimer performed correlational analysis on the twins data to examine whether identical twins had more similar IQs than fraternal twins.


Result: Heritability of IQ among the twins who had grown up in affluent families was, as expected, very high (about 0.6). The big surprise is among the poorest families. For the children who grew up poor, the IQ’s of identical twins vary just as much as the IQ’s of fraternal twins, meaning that heritability of IQ is close to 0.



Buss (Eagly and Woods)

Aim: The study was made to investigate whether there's universal differences between male and female mating preferences.


Method: A questionnaire was constructed. It was then translated into the different native languages. The questionnaire contained one section where respondents were asked to rate 18 characteristics on how important or desirable it would be in choosing a mate. Rating was done on a four-point scale from 0 to 3. In another section respondents were asked to rank 13 characteristics on its desirability in a mate.


Result: However, overall the responses were very similar in different cultures. Another finding was that there were sex differences in nearly all countries. Males preferred mates who are physically attractive more than females. Females on the other hand preferred mates who show ambition-industriousness and other signs of earning potential more than males did. As mentioned above the differences between the sexes differed between countries, they were larger in countries that practice polygamy.


Conclusion: There are indeed universal sex-differences in mate selection, and that this gives support for evolutionary theory of human mate selection.

Clark and Hatfield

Aim: To test whether men are more open to casual sex than are women.


Method: 48 Males and 48 female undergraduate students (ages 18-22) at Florida State University were approached by an average attractive person of the opposite sex asking one of the three following questions:


1. “Would you go out with me tonight?


2. “Would you come over to my apartment tonight?”


3. “Would you go to bed with me tonight?”


The dependent variable was whether the participants answered “yes” or “no”.


Result: Men accepted the Apartment-request and the Bed-request much more often than women did. In many cases when men did not accept, they gave excuses such as “I’m married” while women never gave excuses, instead they said “you’ve got to be kidding, leave me alone.”In conclusion, it seems that men are more eager for sex with strangers than are women.

Loftus and Palmer

Aim: Investigating how leading questions canmanipulate an eyewitness memory that is being recalled.


Method: Individual group design. American students weredivided into 5 separate conditions. Everyone saw the same video of a car crashand were then handed a questionnaire. There were 5 different types depending onwhich condition the participant was put in were the dependent variable was theleading verb in the questionnaire which was either hit, smashed, collided, bumped or contacted.


Result: The participants who received a questionnairewhere the verb was stronger (ex smashed) estimated that the speed of the carcrash was higher than the participants who received a questionnaire with amilder verb (ex contacted). Concluding that leading questions can manipulate amemory being recalled.

Bartlett

Aim: Investigating how memory of a story is affectedby previous knowledge.


Method: Repeated measures (serial reproduction) 6-7times over a span of days, weeks, months and years. British participants had tore-wright a Native American story containing unfamiliar concepts andterminology.


Result: Participants recalled key themes of the storybut changed the unfamiliar concepts (like hunting seals/paddling canoes) tomore familiar ones (like hunting deer/rowing boats) that fit with their owncultural expectations.

Aron and Dutton

Aim: Investigating the effect of physical arousal on sexual attraction.


Method: Males between 18 and 35 years old, who were visiting one of two bridges, unaccompanied by female companions were contacted separately by an attractive female. She explained to them that she was doing a project for her psychology class and gave them a questionnaire full of filler questions. At the end of the encounters she gave the men her phone number and name and instructed them to call. The bridges where the men were approached on were different; one was low and firm, while another was a 150 meter long suspension bridge, which was prone to tilting, swaying and wobbling.


Result: In the group which crossed the more stressful bridge, 18 out of 23 agreed to accept the interviewers phone number. In the other group, 16 out of 22 accepted. Furthermore, in the high-bridge-group 9 out of 18 called the interviewer, while 2 out of 16 called in the other group. This indicates that the large amount of physical arousal and stress experienced on the higher bridge influenced the amount of sexual attraction positively.

Lazarus

Aim: Investigating how appraisal affects physical arousal leading to emotions.


Method: Participants were shown a 17 minute long movie where a young boy went through a form of circumcision which was both experienced as painful and stressful. The participants were divided into four different groups, each presented with a different soundtrack to the film, in order to trigger certain emotions. Three of the conditions were shown with either traumatic, informative or in denial, the final group had no sound at all. Both the heart rate and skin conductance were measured, to observe the stress level of the participants.


Result: not very clear. The participants’ reactions varied and they even paralleled at one point during the film. The one that gave the clearest relationship was the one between trauma soundtrack and skin conductance.

Brown and Kulik

Aim: Proving that FBM and everyday memories aredifferent in the sense that FBMs are recalled more vividly and more detailed.


Method: Participants were asked to answer questions about how vividly theyremember, how they felt and who told them about big public events(assassination of JFK and MLK).


Result: The vividness of the FBM was very high and theparticipants stated that they remembered in detail about hearing about thepublic event. The conclusion is that FBMs are more long lasting and rememberedin more detail.

Talarico and Rubin

Aim: Investigating the vividness and accuracy of FBMcreated during 9/11.


Method: Asking students about 9/11 memory the day afterit occurred and also a recent day memory. These questions were repeated 1 weeklater, 6 weeks later and 32 weeks later.


Result: Thevividness of the 9/11 memory was much stronger than the recent day memory,though the accuracy of the FBM was decreasing correlatively with the everydaymemory in time.

Asch

Aim: Investigating the extent to which social pressure from a majority group could affect a person to conform.


Method: Participants were asked to evaluate which one of the three comparison lines was equal in lengths to the standard line. In each trail different cards were shown but the task remained the same. In the main condition the participant had to state their answer out loud in the presence of other participants, but the other participants were confederates and they answered in the way that was pre-arranged by the researcher.


Result: 37% of the participants went along with the wrong answer given by the majority, 76% conformed on at least one trail, and only 24% of the participants remained independent.

Bandura

Aim: Investigating if children would take on the behavior of "role models" such as adults, from watching the adults miss-treat a "doll" on a video.


Method: Independent group design and the children were chosen based on their parents' and teachers' descriptions of them. The children were divided into three groups.


- In the first condition the children got to watch a video of an adult beating the doll.


- In the second condition the video showed the adult that beat the doll got rewarded by another adult for beating the doll.


- In the third condition the adult that had beaten the doll was punished by another adult.


After watching these videos the children were let into the room with the doll, one by one, and got to play with the doll.


Result: The children from the first condition and the second condition tend to take on the same behaviour as the adult against the doll, as well as doing this to the same extent as one another. The children from the third condition however treated the doll with more respect than those from the previous two conditions. This shows that children do take on the behaviour of adults, but this learning ability can be altered.

Milgram

Aim:


Method:


Result:

Tajfel

Aim: Investigating the behaviour of ingroup members and outgroup member against each other.


Method: Researchers then brought in the first part of boys ask to estimate the number of dots flashed on a screen. The boys were told that there are two types of people in the world, both over-estimators and under-estimators. After the researchers pretended to mark their scores the boys were placed into different groups randomly (boys thought they were grouped by their markings). The experimenters asked the boys to continue helping by participating in the next experiment. The researchers convinced the boys to stay in their same group for more efficiency and then gave them matrices to fill out. These matrices represented the amount of money they wanted to give to the other boys.


One condition was where both the top and bottom row represented only the boy’s ingroup members. Second condition was where the top and bottom represented members of the boy’s out-group. Last condition one row represented the in-group and the other the out-group.


Result: When distributing the boys gave a significantly larger amount to the in-group than the out-group. In the in/out-group condition the pennies were distributed more equally.

Sherif

Aim: Investigating if it is possible to instill prejudice between two very similar groups by using real life scenarios to develop group norms and values and then putting the two groups in competition with each other.


Method: Creating hostility: The boys were divided into to teams unaware of each other. The teams did various bonding tasks and developed distinctive ideas and rules regarding behavior. There were competitions between the two teams that quickly escalated into violence.


Reducing hostility: The researchers then replaced the competitive goals with goals that could only be achieved by members of the two groups co-operating together.


Result: An in-group preference shown by the boys in each group increased substantially when explicit competition between them was introduced. The introduction of common objectives over a period of days reduced friction equally substantially.

Johns

Aim: There is an existing common stereotype that women are inferior to men in mathematics. Women will perform worse due to the anxiety if they are aware of the stereotype and the threat. (OKLAR)


Method: 144 participants were divided into mixed-gender groups. There were 3 different conditions.


- Problem-solving condition


- Math-test condition


- Teaching-intervention condition


In the third condition, researcher reminded that if women are feeling anxious during the experiment, that could lead to worse results due to the negative stereotypes in our society.


Result: There was a clear difference.


1st condition: Women scored better than men.


2nd condition: Men scored better than women. 3rd condition: Almost equal results.


The gender difference was almost completely removed from the 3rd condition, indicating that awareness of stereotypes reduces its effect.

Duncan (oklar)

Aim: How will the race of two people in negative interaction affect participants’ interpretation of the interaction and attributions for the behavior of those people?


Method:


Result:

Freedman

Aim: Investigating the FITD technique and the effect of the similarity of the smaller and larger requests.


Method: 75 housewives were divided into two experimental groups and one control group. the first group was the the similar task group, they were were asked by a confederate to show support for safe driving by displaying an small sign in their home or car window. The different task group were approached the same way but asked to sign a petition for safe driving. two weeks later all three groups were asked if they would put a large sign concerning safe driving in their front yard for ten days.


Result: 76% of the similar task group agreed to put up the sign. 47.8% of the different task group and in the control group 16.7% complied.

Regan

Aim: Investigate the effect of a favor and liking on compliance. Secondary aim was to investigate the effect of the favor on liking.


Method: 27 students divided into groups of 11 participants (experimental group) and 16 (control group). P's were told that the study was on art appreciation. P's were introduced to another participant (confederate) and then assigned to go and look at art works. During the following 5 min break the confederate would leave and return with two cokes (experimental group) or return with none (control). The confederate then asked the participant to do him a favor and buy raffle tickets from him. Then the P's would answer in amount. Afterwards the P's answered a survey on how much they liked the confederate.


Result: The P's who recieved the coke were more likely to buy more tickets than those in the control group. The P's in the experimental group tended to like the confederate more, however the amount of tickets was not affected by liking. In the control group the amount of tickets was affected by liking because they had not been given a favor to repay.

Crutchfield

Aim: Investigate whether there is a difference in personalities between conformers and non -conformers.


Method: Participants were divided into groups of five. They were seated in individual booths and were not allowed to speak to each other. Multiple choice questions were put on a screen in front of the men and the participants answered the questions by pressing on one of 5 switches. In each booth a panel of lights showed what answers the other men picked, even though these were actually controlled by the researchers. Each participant had to take a personality and IQ test.


Result: 32% of the participants conformed at least once (confirming Asch's results). Personality and IQ test showed that conformers lack confidence and are less likely to apply thinking and logics to the questions. Conformers are less liked and have less friendships than non-conformers.

Chandra

Aim: Examine conformity in Fiji and if there are differences between ethnic groups in Fiji.


Method: Similar to Asch, though there were 8 confederates; 4 (2m/f) indians, 4 (2m/f) Fijians.


Result: Much higher conformity than in Asch study, pro-major error was 46.2% compared to 33.2%. Differences between Indians and Fijians 58.3% vs 35.5%. Difference between genders; male 40.1% and women 52.6%.

Bouchard

Aim: Investigating the effect of genetic inheritance, shared environment, and unique environment on large number of psychological traits.


Method: Through advertisements researchers identified several hundred monozygotic twins that had either been raised together (MZT twins) or apart (MZA twins) through adoption. Subjects completed a large number of test. Results were then compared between the two different groups of twins.


Result: The psychological traits, the twins raised apart (MZA) were as similar to each other as the twins raised together (MZT). The highest heritability for a psychological trait is the heritability for IQ.

HM

Aim: Studying the role of the hippocampus in memory.


Method: HM was told to perform different sensorimotortasks, e.g. mirror-reading, playing games, and solving puzzles.


Result: HM did not recall doing any of the tasks,however after training he could perform the tasks without problems even thoughhe did not remember that he had done them.


Conclusion: Thehippocampus is crucial for transformation of new information from the STM tothe LTM, although not for procedural memories (e.g. riding a bike).