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72 Cards in this Set

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'Uthman was murdered by an unhappy tribesman. This led to civil war.
A Khārijite assinated 'Ali.
A'isha was very, very displeased when 'Ali refused to prosecute the killers of Uthman. She led the Battle of the Camel, and because she was the first time a woman was centrally involved in politics, and it led to the first time that Muslims fought against Muslims, and has not been thought of as a necessarily good thing. She was put under house arrest after her side lost.
A political movement that replaced the Ummayads and suceeded in taking power through cleverly implemented propoganda techniques. While relying on Shia sympathies and believing in the "true imam" (in the Shia sense), the Abbasids brutally repressed any Shia individual that was enthusiastic for leadership from the descendants of Ali (aka anyone who threatened Abbasid rule).
Ahl al-bayt
"People of the house" (family of Muhammad)
Ahmed Ahmed
A Muslim standup comedian who participated in the Axis of Evil Comedy Tour. His work on breaking down racial barriers made him the winner of the first Richard Pryor award for Ethnic Comedy. He put together a documentary film called "Just Like Us" that shows how the Middle East has a sense of humor too.
Sunni political scholar who wrote "Rules of Governance", stressed that there must only be one caliph that is obeyed and acknowledged, derived from the Quraysh tribe, and nominated by qualified electors (or elector). However, beyond this, there is no "right" method for selecting a caliph, showing a compromise that defied the "absolutes" of many Shia sects.
Ideological network most often labeled as a terrorist organization--founded by Osama Bin Laden and Abdullah Azzam in 1988 in Peshawar, Pakistan. Emphasizes lesser jihad, desires to push back the aggressive west and seeks to restore a global Islamic caliphate.
Persian thinker and writer. He wrote about the practices and beliefs of 82 Sufi women. He starts his work out with Rabi'a al-Adawiyya because he sees her as the ideal Sufi woman. One of the major themes of his work is the theology of servitude.
Sunni theological thinking. The Qur'an is the uncreated word of God. God is just and merciful but is free to judge. Grave sinners are still Muslim but will be judged by God. Emphasis on faith. God's acts can't be rationalized. Religious authority is based on the Qur'an
arabic for the number ten; It is the name of the Shi'ite celebration that occurs on the 10th of Muharram as a memorial servie of the death of Husayn b. 'Ali. It is celebration with self punishment in varying degrees
Battle of Kerbala (680)
Battle between 72 supporters of Husayn and 4000 people of the Umayyad Dynasty. Results in the death of Husayn b. Ali (grandson of Muhammad).
Innovations in religious matters.
Buyid Dynasty
945-1055, a dynasty of Twelver Shi'ites that set themselves up as protectors of the Abbasid caliphs and exercised rule by military force in Baghdad for over a century
Caliph 'Umar
634-644. Successor to Abu Bakr. Instituted several cultural and religious practices that were harsh towards women. Advocated things like stoning for adultery.
Colonial feminism
A concept used during times of colonialism that implies Muslim women must be saved from the oppressive religion of Islam. The West is portrayed as a savior figure. Colonial feminism was used by imperial powers to justify invasion and cultural oppression. Example: British Lord Cromer, British consul general in Egypt who wanted to "save women from Islam," but actually hated British suffragettes and feminists.
Constitution of Medina
A document created in the early years of Islam (most likely while Muhammad was in Medina) that suggests that Jews and Christians are part of the same "umma". As a result, they will act together in war and peace, and acknowledge the authority of the prophet.
The Antichrist figure during the apocalypse. Said to be a deceiver of men allowed to have miraclous power from Allah, he will have features like a blind eye, letters on his forehead, and dark, coarse hair. Jesus will come back to Earth to kill him.
Dean Obeidallah
A Muslim standup comedian from New Jersey. He's the co-producer of the documentary "The Muslims are Coming!" which battles Islamophobia by providing information about Islam from Muslims to counter preconceived notions.
"Remembrance of God"- A devotional act done by Sunni Muslims reciting the name of God, texts from the Hadith, or verses from the Qur'an. Can be done in groups or alone. Examples include: "There is no God but Allah," "Allah," "He," God's beautiful names, etc. Done for purification of the heart; often also involves rhythmic movement of the body, and breathing exercises.
Total annihilation of the self and merging into a union with God. A common goal in Sufism.
A grave sinner
Fatimid Empire
909-1171' A dynasty of Islma'ili imams, dominated north African adn the Mediterranean from an empire based in Cairo
Civil war
A thick fabric worn under the dress of women to prevent it from describing the shape of the body.
Box on the back of a camel that acted as an arabian carriage for passengers, particularly women (who -in medieval interpretation- are supposed to be kept out of public view). `A'ishah is said to have participated in the battle of the camel in a howdah.
the special religious knowledge a imam (in the Shia sense) posesses. Many quietist Shiites during the early years of the Islamic empire asserted that imams should have a spiritual, and not political, authority in which they use this knowledge to maintain the ideological purity of Shia Islam.
A prayer leader and leader of the community. Shi'ites- descendant of Muhammad possesing special knowledge and especially designated to lead the community.
Impact of Mongol Invasions on Islam
Despite the devastating impact of Mongol conquests (including the destruction of the caliphate), the Arabs never lost their language, religious identity, or sense of heritage (in fact the Mongols might have made future Islamic poltiical unity possible). However, the Mongols were influenced by Islamic culture (especially political structures and the judicial system) This created a new Islamic-Mongol synthesis of culture in the Near East, in turn expanding Islam. Mongols easily adopted Islam because it didn't require them reign in their military power (as long as it was in the name of God).
both the religion and the religious culture
The second major branch of Shi'a Islam after Twelvers. Unlike twelvers, the Isma'ilis argue that Isma'il, not Musa, was Jafar al-Sadiq's successor. This branch engaged in extensive missionary activity and established the Fatamid empire (based on the claim of descent from Fatima, Muhammad's daughter) in North Africa/the Meditteranian from 909-1171.
Translating to "hellfire", it is the place of damnnaiton for the unfaithful, sinful, and paganistic individuals. The fire that burns here is said to be fueled eternally by the bodies of those sent here.
The paradise or heaven concept in Islam. Those faithful individuals of Islam, Chiristanity, and Judaism are said to have their reward here. It is thought of as a shady place full of rivers of water, milk, and honey.
Slits in the headcovering of Muslim women that allow the piece of fabric to fit the neck.
Highly militaristic Shiite sect believing in the necessity of "doing away" with caliphs that do not uphold high religious and political standards. This sect was in charge of assasinating Ali after he suggested settling a disbute between Mu'awiya's forces through religious arbitration.
khimar (pl.: khumur)
The veil covering the head of Muslim women
The Shi'ite tax of 1/5 of wealth/income of believers to current religious authority or religious leader caretakers
the mantle is a symbol of divine mercy and blessing covering the Prophet and his holy family; it sets apart the 'holy five' from the rest of the faithful.
Kuffar (Kafir)
translated to disbelievers; It is implied that these are disbelievers of Islam but its actual referral is to those who do not believe in God. That means that "Ahl al Kitab" are exempt from this group;
Long Term impact of Crusades on Islam
While the Crusades established kingdoms in Islam that were maintained until the late 13th century, they left very little cultural influence on Islam once these kingdoms were dismantled. However, crusaders assimilated to Muslim practices, and took Islamic language, culture and science with them.
ma dhahara minha
"That which ordinarily appears/is seen," Qur'anic phrase from Sura 24:31 for those parts of a woman's body that don't necessitate covering - i classical fiqh understood to be the hands and face.
word for savior in Muslim tradition; in Shi'ite tradition this refers to the 12th Imam Mohammad al Mahdi and in Sunni tradition this refers explicitly to Jesus' second coming.
A dowry given to the bride by the groom/groom's family. The dowry is for the wife alone and the groom may not use it. This can be seen as positive or negative. When seen negatively, it can be comparable to prostitution- the man is paying the woman for sex and children.
non Arab converts to Islam; an "honorary Arab." Non-Arab Muslims in the early Islamic empire that sought to adopt the culture and customs of the Arab elite class, yet were discriminated against under the Umayyads.
A semicircular niche in the wall of a mosque which indicates the direction of the Ka'ba / qiblah / or the direction one should face when praying.
The individual who beat Ali in becoming the 4th caliph after a period of civil war. After he dies in 680, he chooses his son, Yazid, to suceed him. This causes a 2nd civil war, which is fueled by an opposition to dynastic succession and a distaste in Yazid's lavish lifestyle. A prominent opposition force in this civil war is Husayn (son of Ali), who becomes a Shiite martyr.
Islamic school of theology with Shi'i aspects of theological thinking. Justice and oneness of God. The Qur'an is created and was responding to a particular situation. Emphasis on reason. A grave sinner is neither a Muslim or a non-Muslim. Emphasis on free will. Religious authority can come from extra-Qur'anic material.
Mughal Empire
Indian empire that, under Akbar, advocated for religious tolerance. While Muslim, Akbar abolished jizya, prohibited conversian of Islam for marriage purposes, and abolished the death penalty for apostasy. However, after Akbar, jizya was restored, and Hindus were treated with less tolerance.
"Holy Warriors." Recruited and trained al-Qai'da operatives.
Politically passive Islamic sect that postpones judgment about the fate of grave sinners (leaving it up to God). Backed up by the prevailing attitudes of hadiths.
Mut'ah/ Sigheh
Temporary Marriage: An oral contract which was practiced in the prophets time. Sunni reject the idea, Shi'a allow it to this day. It is an exchange of sex for the man and money for the woman. It's a legal way for a man and a woman to be together, alone, around the strict rules of the Qur'an.
Nizari Islma'lis
1090 to 1256, the "assasins" of medieval legend, ruled in Persia and Syria 80 years after the demise of the Fatamid state. Consisted of a secret society that would kill opposers of Isma'li rule, and characterized by absolute devotion to their leaders. Legends about these individuals spread to Europe through the Crusaders.
Non- sexual Sigheh
A temporary marriage with no sex involved.
Purposes: for a woman to travel with a man who is not in her family, for engadged couples to spend time together before their wedding.
universally/mainstream or normalized correct version of practice of a religion; similar to orthodoxy but refering only to practice
Ottoman Empire
After the Turkish conquering of Constantinople in 1453, expanded to encircle Black and Red Seas, and emcompass three-quarters of the Mediterranean coast. At its peak, led by Sulayman the Magnificent. This empire followed Sunni Islam, and strongly apposed the Shia Safavid empire.
Rabi'a al-Adawiyya
She is also known as Rabi'a of Basra. She is a prominent Sufi thinker that dedicated herself to a life of asceticism. She wanted to serve God without distraction and focused on a union with the Divine. Seen as the ideal Sufi woman by as-Sulami.
Safavid Empire
Persian empire that adhered to Twelver Shi'ism and advocated for the complete destruction of Sunni Islam and the cursing of Abu Bakr, Umar and Uthman. Part of the empire's expasion was religiously motivated, and gave subjects (including Sunni ulama) the choice to convert or die. Their dominance was challenged by the Ottoman empire to the West.
Turkish mercenaries who entered Iran, conquested Baghdad and eventually expanded into an empire that included all of the former Buyid territory (modern day Iraq). Marked the religious dominance of Sunni Islam and political dominance of the Turks, and inspired a Sunni rennaissance.
Shazia Mirza
A Muslim standup comedian who challenges the stereotypical view of Muslim women being submissive and quiet. In response to hate mail she's received she's said, "I have read the holy Koran and the Prophet used humour, it is not forbidden."
Literally meaning "consultation." The people who elected the third and fourth righly guided caliphs.
Sunni Renaissance
Blossomed after the implementation of the Saljuq empire and the revival of the Sunni caliphate. Characterized by the growth of madrasas (islamic colleges and education instututions) and the emergence of important Sunni theologians/scholars which proliferated sufism.
Theology of Servitude
One of the major themes in as-Sulami's work. He belived that women who were spiritual and became slaves of God could separate themselves from ordinary women not on the same spiritual path. If women acheived this, they could be considered equal to male Sufis.
Becoming God or becoming God-like. Getting closer and closer to God.
Tissa Hami
A Muslim standup comedian who uses her standup as a social activist in order to make people think as well as laugh. Part of her act involved initially wearing the hijab and taking it off at some point later on in her act. She does this to showcase that she is the same woman whether or not she wears the hijab.
A sect of Shia Islam that acknowledges the five imams after Musa, ending with twelfth imam, Muhammad al Mahdi. This sect belives that Mahdi went into hiding in the 870's, but is still alive, and will return as the true imam in order to guide the Muslim community. As a result, it does not matter what political authority takes power during Mahdi's absence, as the leaders are only "temporary fillers" rather than true imams.
Ulama in Empires
In Ottoman Empire: formed bureaucratic hierarchy, that paid no taxes and could pass wealth to their descendants (creating, in turn, a hereditary aristocracy). Were resistant to change
In Safavid Empire: were recruited from outside Iran, but did not have same authority
In Mughal Empire: left ulama to fend for themselves, diminished their political authority
Wa'd al-banat
Female infanticide. It was practiced in the pre-Islamic period, but was denounced by Muhammad as immoral.
Founded by central Arabian scholar that advocated for absolute tawhid and created a community that developed an alliance with the Saudi state. Willing to take reactionary and extreme actions in order to advocate for complete purification of Islam, and zealously opposes bid'a (innovation). Skeptical of ijma and highly reliant on hadith. Belief that it is the manifest destiny of wahhabis to wage jihad against idolaters.
Whirling Dervishes
dancers who wear white (a representation of death) and elongated fez's (representing tombstones); while dancing, one hand points upwards and the other points down to earth. A form of dhikr.
The individual who takes power after his father, Mu'awaya (the 4th caliph) dies. He is instantly opposed by Shiite forces (partially due to a distaste in dynastic succession and his love for luxury), and causes the 2nd major civil war in post-Muhammad Islamic history.
Beauty and adornment; natural bodily beauty or acquired adnorment like jewelry