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103 Cards in this Set

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The Classical Synthesis
--all the chaos from Sunnism, Shiism, and Kharijites comes to form the classical synthesis of islam.
--debates abt law, theo, phil, etc. are all part of it
--wherever history took/takes islam, it will remain in coversation w/ its classical synthesis
--when a non-arab area gradually changes into one that speaks arabic and incorporates arab culture
--this happened in spain but not in india
Tariq bin Ziyad
--famous umayyad general who led the Visogoths into Spain in 711
Jabal Tariq
'Abd al-Rahman I
--founder of the Umayyad Emirate of Cordova
--made his way into N. Africa and Spain and rallied support of the Muslim community b/c he was an Umayyad from Quaraysh
Umayyads of Spain
--established by 'Abd al Rahman
--when the caliphate was est., it meant there were 3 caliphs
--Spain became highly regarded under the Umayyads
--mostly Maliki
--Ismaili shi'it dynasty that starts in north africa and built Cairo
--known for showing a degree of religious tolerance
--ruled Egypt
Caliphate of Cordova
--umayyad caliphate of Spain
--period of remarkable success in trade and culture
Period of Petty Kings
--political fragmentation
--they try and continue the arab-hispanic culture of spain, but they are fractured
--don't persecute Christians or Jews
--maliki Berber dynasty in Spain and N. Africa
--took over after the period of petty kings
--they represent an attempt to preserve Muslim rule in Spain
--Zahirite Dynasty in Spain
--defeated the Almoravids
--in power from 1147-1269
--the are representative of the fragmentation that begins to befall Spain
Ibn Hazm
--Zahirite scholar who wrote on law, theology, mysticism, and love
Ibn Rushd
--Maliki jurist
--famous philosopher
--imp. work of comparative islam called "The Jurist's Primer"
--Jewish scholar
--refers to muslims once they were expelled from or supressed within Spain
--they were forced to convert to Catholicism but they were secretly suspected of practicing Islam
--produced aljamiado which was literature that circulated threwout the muslim community in Spain
--literature produced by the moriscos in Spain
--means by which the Muslim Community tried to hold onto its religion while disguising themselves as Christians
Mongol conquest of Baghdad
--end of abbasids in Baghdad
--leader/ruler of muslim community with a degree of religious and political authority. (not enough power to collect taxes on his own)
--ultimately there were 3 caliphs ruling (abassid, umayyad, fatimid)
--many times a relationship was built between the caliph and his army which was mutually beneficial
--power and authority of caliph declines after the Crusades
--power but no authority
--non arab so they can never become caliph
Mamluk Sultanate
--Slave aristocracy
--ruled Egypt and Syria and had social status above freeborn egyptians
Delhi Sultanate
Ibn al-'Arabi
--Sufi mystic
--wahdat-al-wujud doctrine
--Unity of Being
--made famous by Ibn al-'Arabi
--major idea in Sufi metaphysics and popular in India
--the only truth within the universe is God and we are all united with God in that we share Being with God
--antinomian Sufi order in India
--goal was to transcend the law. thought that people who followed the law "had not yet realized reality/nirvana"
--no need for law once nirvana is reached
Mughal Empire
--famous Muslim dynasty that ruled India
--1526-1828 (2 periods)
--Turkish tribesman that descended from Tamerlane
--highly centralized administration
--Akbari I and Aurangzeb
Akbari I
--Mughal ruler famous for tolerance of other religions
--promoted "din ilahi", the idea that all religious truth is the same. (universal religion of God)
--reigned during the classical period which coincided with the height of Islamic fluorescence in India
--1658-1707. Hanafi
--Mughal emperor famous for his attempts at reform and restoration of orthodoxy
--imposes a more explicitly Islamic order defined in Shariah terms. (banned wine and prostitution)
--commissioned the Fatawa Hindiyah (collections of Fatwah's)
Fatawa Hindiyah
--collection of Fatwah's (legal opinions) written in Arabic
--attempt of Hanafi scholars to revisit every aspect of Indian life and develop fatwah's for every part of life
--goal was to rid Islam of Indian influence
--commissioned by Aurangzeb
Ahmad Sirhindi
--16th century Muslim reformer in India
--wanted non muslims to recognize the supremacy of Islam
--thought that everything was from God, not everything IS God. thought Hindu influences rejected this idea
--claimed to be a Mujaddid, a semi-messiah figure that God sends every century to revive Islam
Shah Wali Allah
--Inidan muslim reformer and prolific writer in India
--translated the Quran into Persian
--promotes Ijtihad, a return to the sources of Islam in order to rid Indian Islam of all the impurities which had accumulated over the years
British East India Company
--means by which the British est. their rule in India
Mali Empire
--sub-saharan african dynasty
--profound cultural influences on West Africa
Mansu Musa
--ruler of the Mali empire
Songhai Empire
--sub-saharan african muslim empire
--around 1460-1591
--religious and intellectual capital of sub-saharan African Islam
--located in Mali
'Askiya Muhammad
--sub-saharan african muslim ruler
--known for reform
--by his time, africa was in its 3rd/"clean up" stage
--due to his efforts, Mali experienced a cultural revival
Jihad Movement in Africa
--happened during the 3rd/clean up stage in the 18th-19th centuries
--designed to rid their culture of syncretism which had led to social and moral decline and defend against european invaders
--This period was significant in that it marks a shift in Muslim communities that practiced Islam mixed with “pagan” rituals and practices to societies that completely adopted Islamic values and established Shariah
Ahmad Baba
--West African writer and scholar
--Timbuktu's greatest scholar
Sokoto Caliphate
--founded by Uthman Don Fodio
--powerful empire in sub-saharan Africa
Uthman Don Fodio
--founder of the Sokoto Caliphate in 1809
--religious teacher, writer, and reformer
--his son becomes a caliph
Enlightenment rationalism
--one of the 4 things the muslim world has to try and adjust to b/c of Islam's encounter with modernity
--it rejected the idea of intellible essences b/c it claims that everything is relative to the observer, who determines reality
--chalk is only chalk because we label it as such
--reconciling your own culture with the culture of Islam. the mixing of islamic and non islamic elements
--lots of it in Africa and India. not so much in spain
intelligible essences
--hampered by enlightenment rationalism which said that reality is determined by the observer.
Wahhabi Movement
--founded by M. ibn Wahhab in the 18thC
--it is an example of modern revivalism. Militant reformist movement.
--said Muslim society is steeped in ignorance and shirk
--big proponent of Ijtihad. Its purpose was a return to a purified Islam by filtering out unislamic beliefs and practices.
--thought social organization and political order was a mess and was caused in part by the fossilization of religion. thought this was Bid'ah and therefore needed to go
--joined by the Salafi Movement in the 20thC
Muh. ibn Wahhab
--18thC reformer
--strict Hanbalite traditionalist
--anti rationalist and anti Sufi
--founder of Wahhabi Movement
--wanted to cure Muslim society of its ignorance of its own religion and of its corrupt rulers
--thought a lot of religious practices compromised the unity of God (absolute monotheism)
--unsanctioned innovation
--anything that cannot be traced back to the practices of the prophet is considered bid'ah
--Wahhabi's thought anything that was Bid'ah was bad
ibn Taymiyah
--Hanbalite Traditionalist
--anti rationalist
--major inspirer of such movements as the modern Wahhabi and Salafi movements
Salafi(yyah) Movement
--Salafis view the first three generations of Muslims as examples of how Islam should be practiced.
--starts in Egypt by M. Abduh and Rashid Rida
--transfers from Egypt to Arabia and mixes with Wahhabism
--much more refined than the Wahhabi Movement.
--want to reform beliefs and practices of Islamic society and therefore it is a socio/political movement
--has a powerful psychological influence
--two main concerns: 1. 'aqidah (one's creed) 2. Bid'ah (believe one's 'aqidah should be based on this)
Islamic modernism
--emerged during the late 19thC as a response to Western imperialism.
--sought to formulate Islamically acceptable solutions for new situations rather than react against the Western challenge.
--response to the western cultural challenge which attempted to reconcile Islamic faith w/ modern Western values
--agreed with revivalists that Islam.s internal problems needed to be purified but also assimilated new ideas from the West
--blamed Islam's decline on a blind and unquestioned clinging to the past (taqlid).
--promoted reinterpretation of Western ideas.
--M. Abduh, Rashid Rida, Afghani
Jamal al-Din al-Afghani
--thought that the problem in Islam was the misunderstanding of Islam
--thought that the West should not be rejected, it should be appropriated
--Islamic modernist
--recognized that Islam and Chrisitianity are diff. b/c when Islamic culture declines/rises, so does the religion. thought that Islamic civilization rises w/ religion b/c people are successfully understanding the religion and appropriating other cultures well.
Muhammad 'Abduh
--co-founded the Salafi Movement
--believed that religion and reason were complementary. Regarded religion and science as the twin sources of Islam.
--sought to provide an Islamic rationale for the selective integration of Islam with modern ideas and institutions.
--critical of the lack of educational opportunities for women
--died in 1905
Rashid Rida
--co-founded Salafi Movement
--a great synthesizer of modern Islam
--one of the most influential scholars and jurists of his generation
--called for the reinterpretation of Islam. thought the development of a modern Islamic legal system was a priority given the challenges of the modern world.
--In his later years, he became more conservative, more wary of modernism, and more critical of the West. Thought Muslim reformers should single-mindedly return to the sources of Islam.
--dies in 1935
Ottoman Empire
--Hanafi Turkish dynasty and one of the longest on Muslim history
--representative of Islam when it encounters the modern West and the entire world at large. introduction to modernity for Islam
--the last holders of the Muslim caliphate, which ends in 1924
--classical synthesis is adopted by those they conquer
--capital at Istanbul
--masters of 1 military might 2 administrative acumen 3 ability to integrate religious establishment into the state
Kemel Atuturk
--ends the Muslim caliphate in 1924
--leader of Ottoman Empire who wanted to modernize his society
--changes the alphabet from arabic to latin script and changes laws to emulate European laws
Ikhwan al-Muslimun (Muslim Brotherhood)
--1928 by Hasan al-Banna
--rejected the West and emphasized the comprehensiveness of Islam.
--revivalist movement with the goal of promoting shariah and making religion successful and able to survive in a modern context
--thought society needed to be systematically reformed threw the same means by which it was corrupted (aka the West)
--thought Western influence had marginalized Islamic law and Shariah
--believed that in order to ensure that Islamic law becomes the law of the land, one has to seize power over the state b/c the state has the ability to determine the law
--group is more in tune with western politics and other things than on "going back" to a premodern time in Islamic history
Hasan al-Banna
--founder of the Muslim Brotherhood in 1928
--combined religion with social activism
--school teacher (non jurist)
Sayyid Qutb
--has a modern education
--severe critic of the West. Thought the West was a historic enemy of Islam
--the most influential person in the Muslim Brotherhood
--Brotherhood reached the height of its influence w/ the rise of Qutb
--his writings (which were accessible to the avg. person) and the Brotherhood spread all over the Muslim world
--executed by the Egyptian government, making his legacy even greater
--Qutb's radicalized worldview became a source for militant extremeists who call for global jihad
Jama'at-i Islami
--founded in India in 1941 by Mawdudi and est. in Pakistan
--renewal of Muslim society must be rooted in Islamic principles and values
--its ideology is very similar to the M. Brotherhood
--fueled by the principles of Jahiliyah (muslim society has degenerated to a point approaching pre-islamic Arabia) and Hakimiyah (rulership belongs only to God)
Abu al-A'la al-Mawdudi
--founder of Jama'at-i Islami in 1941
--combined religion with social activism
--proponent of Hakimiyah, idea that no one but God has the right to dictate how humans live their lives
Ayatollah Khomeini
--leader of the Iranian revolution (1979)
--founder of Islamic Republic of Iran
National Origins Act
--lifts quotas on Muslim immigration to US
--Muslims become a critical mass in America
--leads to creation of ICNA and ISNA
Muslim Students' Association
--nation-wide assoc. on college campuses
--est. by immigrants to America in the 1960s
--a study circle
--religious outreach/missionary work
Islamic Circle of North America
--major group started in 1978 by immigrants to the US
--primarily indo-pakistani
Islamic Society of North America
--stripped ICNA of its influence
--founded in 1981
--consists of arabs and indo-pakistani who had an upper hand in defining an Islamic life in America b/c they were from the muslim world
--perhaps the premier org. of muslims in America today
Fiqh Council of North America
--designed to develop Islamic laws in such a way that it would enable muslims to live effectively in the US
--related to the ISNA
Black Religion
--the natural religion of blacks that appeals to God to intervene into the crucible of American race relations
--The God is an empty construct that could be anyone (jesus, allah etc)
Post-Colonial Religion
--the muslim worlds version of Black Religion
--God is appealed to primarily to straighten out the mess that was prevalent
--they read scripture threw the lens of post-colonial religion
Communal conversion
--when the community at large normalizes conversion
cultural/ethnic/racial apostasy
--when your conversion is not normalized
deen (din)
religion or way of life
--black afro saxon protestant
--imp. b/c it is a vehicle by which communal conversion is able to establish itself among blacks
--you take on the characteristics of the dominant culture as your own
Moorish Science Temple
--established by Noble Dre Ali in 1913
--American religious org. w/ belief that blacks had descended from Moors and thus were originally Isamic
Noble Drew Ali
--est. Moorish Science Temple in 1913
--recognized himself as a prophet of sorts
--Circle Seven Koran was his version of the Qur'an
Circle Seven Koran
--Noble Drew Ali's own version of the Qur'an
--example of extreme syncretism
Nation of Islam
--black movement founded by W.D. Fard in 1930
--goal of resurrecting the spiritual, mental, social, and economic condition of blacks in America
--diverged significantly from mainstream Islam: 1.) claimed Allah was human aka W.D. Fard and that Elijah was the last messenger of God. 2.) promoted black supremacy and black seperatism 3.) did not follow the five pillars
Muhammad Speaks
--african american produced newspaper of Islam
--began by Malcolm X
Final Call
--founded in 1979 by Louis Farakhan
--serves as the official newspaper of the Nation of Islam
W.D. Fard (Muh.)
--founded the Nation of Islam
--believed to be God reincarnate
Elijah Muhammad
--becomes leader of N of I in 1934
--preached self-transformation, self-reliance, black liberation, and black nationalism, black pride and black identity.
--dies in 1975 and his son W.D. Muhammad takes over
W.D. Muhammad
--son of Elijah and took over N of I after his death
--responsible for a major shift in black Islam when he redirects the N of I into Sunni Islam
--epitomizes the transition and transformation of Elijah M.'s Nation of Islam movement.
Louis Farrakhan
--took over as leader of N of I in 1978
--epitomizes the transition and transformation of Elijah M.'s Nation of Islam movement.
--criticized W.D. Muh when he dropped the black separatist and black nationalist doctrines
--founded the Final Call magazine
World Community of Islam in the West
--this is what W.D. Muh renames the Nation of Islam
Eid al-Fitr
celebration after Rhamadan
--early islam in the black community
--both a religious movement and an attempt to redefine was "blackness" was
--attempt to take the authority to define blackness away from the dominant culture
Savior's/Saviors' Day
--holiday of Nation of Islam that celebrates the birthday of W.D. Fard
--Farakhan changed is to Saviors' b/c he wanted to celebrate everyone who was righteous
Eid al-Adha
4 day celebration after pilgrimage
permitted, lawful activities
both the head covering traditionally worn by Muslim women and modest Muslim styles of dress in general
Jamal al-Amin (H. Rap Brown)
--leader of the Dar al-Islam Movement in black american islam today
--now in prison
Dar al-Islam Movement
--black american islamic movement led by Jamal al-Amin
Shaykh Dawud Faysal
--founded the state street mosque in 1928 and the Islamic Mission Society in 1934
Dar al-Islam/Dar al-Harb
--some people use this as justification of Jihad against the West
--dar al-hard: "abode of war"; non-Islamic territory
--dal ar-Islam: "abode of peace"; Islamic territory (where Islamic law is in force)
--malcolm x dies
--national origins act is passed
--islamic revolution in Iran
--the great takeover of the sacred Mosque at Mecca by militants who called for the overthrow of the monarchy
Ahmadiyah Movement
--early 1930s in America
--recruited blacks and whites making it non racial
--its problem was that it descended from a heterodox movement in India
5 percenters
--break off from N of I
--85% followers, 10% bloodsuckers who tell cattle what to do 5% who have arrived at true wisdom
Takfir wa al-Hijrah
--radical Islamist group which emerged in Egypt in the 1960s as an offshoot of Muslim Brotherhood.
--thought society was no longer a muslim society
--thought government was corrupt and advocated violent revolution
Gama'ah Islamiyah
--major critics of today's al-Quida
--spent 25 years in egyptian prison b/c they killed anwar sadat in hopes of replacing the Egyptian gov. w/ an Islamic state
--almost like an empty vase that new cultures can pour their own influences into. this is unlike law/theo which are much less changeable
--plays a fundamental role in sub-saharan Africa
Black Sunnis
--blacks involved in the nation of Islam were originally seperatists but when Elijah dies, W.D. Muh questioned some the the Nation's teachings.
--the Nation was brought into conformity with the teachings of Sunni Islam. the separatist doctrines were dropped and blacks became Sunnis
Malcolm X
--product of the social conditions that Elijah denounced
--his life exemplified the personal and religious transformation for which the Nation of Islam was noted
--militant proponent and leader of the N of I