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50 Cards in this Set

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importance of herpetofauna to human lives/medicine:

Hemotoxin snake venom (targets blood)

stops red blood cells, is toxic to blood (Blood pressure medicine)

-medicine that helps with blood clots

importance of herpetofauna to human lives/medicine:

Neurotoxin snake venom (targets nervous system)

medicine for people chronic seizures and epilepsy

Copper head snake venom

can freeze tumors

Cultural in herpetofauna

Used in cultural rituals, and in mythology

Provisioning in herpetofauna

Provides us with food

Regulating in herpetofauna

amplihbians help with energy cycles

Supporting in herpetofauna

help with soil airation

garter snake eating insect

How amphibians contribute to healthy ecosystem

They contribute to food web, move energy around, eat a lot of things

-They are the food source for some humans, provide food for other species that humans rely on, they serve as both predator and prey.

role of biodiversity to humans

different foods we eat,

-different medicines from plants and animals,

-animals and plants can act as bio-idicators (warning that its something wrong)


aestheic beauty, recreation


provide us with resources

i.e food water


controls important cycles and services

i.e climate, water flow, energy


basic ecosystem processes

i.e soil formation, pollination

Negative feedback

System reverses a directional change

-ex Algae growth in a pond, going up and down

-ex the seasons making temperatures go up and down

Positive Feedback

Positive feedback: Reinforces directional change

- ex: As temperature rises ice melting increases

2 fundemental issues

Quality and Access

major sources of loss of freshwater

-Glacial melt is going predominantly to the ocean (seawater; no longer freshwater)

-Removing freshwater at often faster rates than are replenished

challenges regarding desalinization

Pros: there is lots of salt water, a lot of access to it

Cons: very expensive to desalinate water, very slow process, get a lot of salt after its done, not energy efficient and requires freshwater to do it

factors that influence how water flows

-Follows the slope: All water (even groundwater) has slope




how the flow of water can influence human health

Well water need a lot of pressure in order to draw water

-permeable soil you’ll always have well water

Health: Contaminants like lead in soil, or lead pipes can leach out and end up with it in water and arsenic

ocal, regional, national and international complexities of water concerns and solutions

Droughts:regional, national, or local

-borders for states are rivers,

-damning up rivers for hydroelectric power and water not making its ways to countries that need the water


made from solidified mantle

ex: basalt, granite


made from sediments such as sand or silt are chemically cemented into rock

ex: sandstone


made from heat and pressure

-ex: marble

Rock Cycle








natural and unnatural minerals of human health concern

-working in mine inhaling coal dust

-lead paint lead pipes,

-lead getting in water

-“Assessment of human exposure to hazards in the environment is often the weakest link in most human health risk assessments.”

effects on the body of having too much, or too little of micronutrients/metals

Body can become deficient, get poisoned, and result in death

4 Components of Nitrogen Cycle

Nitrogen Fixation




Nitrogen Fixation

goes from nitrogen gas to amonia, from baterica and lightening N2-->NH3


In soil and water: transformation to allow it to cycle through the biosphere

-• Ammonia (NH3) dissolves in water to form ammonium (NH4)

-• Bacteria then convert the ammonium (NH4) to nitrite (NO2) and nitrate (NO3)


When decomposers break down waste/dead plants and animals, ammonia (NH3) is released back into the soil (ammonification).


Nitrogen back to the atmosphere, gets transformed

Carbon cycle interaction with rock cycle

Carbon that is released from shells of animals, and used in sedimentary rock

ways humans have a major impact the carbon cycle

The excessive emission of carbon into the atmosphere from burning of fossil fuels and deforestation

ways humans impact nitrogen cycle

before fertilizer: Farmers would harvest the crop and leave left over plant stuff to break down so nitrogen will go back in soil

i.e.-spreading manure:

-crop rotation

ways humans impact nitrogen cycle (now)

Today they have chemical fetilizers that put nitrogen in soil

-Burning fossil fuels creates nitrioxide, creating acid rain

ways that the nitrogen cycle impacts (and is affected by) the water cycle,

Nitrogen washing off into our waterways and affecting water cycles, nitrogen washing off and killing fish

how we can measure current and historical climate changes

Using ice cores from the arctic, you can drill out the ice core from millions years ago and extract the bubbles in the ice. You can see a lot of CO2 in the bubbles, which indicates the temp at the time

greenhouse gases


CO2 (Carbon)

CH4 (methane)

N2O (nitrogen Oxide)

CO2 is much higher than it has ever been in history due to the increase of burning of fossil fuels and deforestation, since the industrial revolution there has been an influx of CO2 in the atmosphere


ways that humans impact greenhouse gas emissions.

Burning fossil fuels, deforestation, agricultural

major evidence we have for climate change

melted ice caps, melted glaciers, rise of sea levels, bubbles in the ice cores, major shifts in weather

9 major consequences of climate change

1. Global temperature rise

2. Warming oceans

3. Shrinking ice sheets

4. Declining arctic sea ice

5. Loss of permafrost (methane burps?)

9 major consequences of climate change continued

6. Glacial retreat

7. Sea levels rise

8. Extreme events

9. Ocean acidification

impact climate change can have on non-human species and how these changes can impact human health

Because the planet is warming, summer cycles are becoming warmer,

mosqitos emerging earlier---rise in malaria

trees are moving northward areas that were forrested becoming more like deserts

relationship between fossil fuels and the carbon cycle

Fossil fuels impact the carbon cycle because the influx of fossil fuels causing an influx in carbon in the atmosphere, altering the carbon cycle

ethical concerns of climate change

areas hit hardest by climate change tend to be developing impoverished countries


coal oil gas and nuclear


Solar, wind, Biofuel

Food Web

Teracary(humans, lions)

secondary consumers(eat primary consumers)

Primary consumers(animals that eat plants)

Primary producers(plants)

Decomposers (worms)