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185 Cards in this Set

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_______ Are the basic building blocks of structure.

The process of new cells being created from existing cells (cellular reproduction) takes place in what specialized zone?

What is the name of the process that cells undergo which causes a change in their structure and permits them to assume a variety of specific functions?

Cells with similar structure and function are arranged into _______ such as ______ or _______.

tissues; bark; wood

Tissues are them organized into ________ of which plants have 5. Name all 5.
Organs; 1. leaves 2. stems 3. roots 4. flowers 5. fruit
What are the two types of meristems and what do they product?
1. Primary; produce the cells that result in elongation of shoots and roots; AKA apical meristems 2. Secondary; product cells that result in increases in diameter; AKA lateral meristems
Primary growth is described as...
growth of shoots and roots from the apical meristems – Primary meristems/apical meristems
What allows a tree to grow large? Extra. _______ lack this type of growth.

Secondary growth. The presence of secondary meristems, growing within the stems, branches, and roots and producing wood.

In shoots, primary or ________ meristems are found inside ________.
Apical; buds
What protects the the meristematic region of buds? In roots?
Overlapping scales or modified leaves of buds. Root Cap.
Trees have _______ secondary (lateral) meristems. What are they called?

Two. 1. Cambium 2. Cork Cambium

__________ is a thin sheath of dividing cells that produces the cells that will become the vascular system of the tree.

What are the two main tissues that make up the cambium and where are they found within the cambium?
1. Xylem – inside 2. Phloem – outside

Cork cambium produces ________ also called __________.

Bark; periderm
Unlike animal cells, plant cells have _____ _______.
Cell walls
What is the structural component of the primary cell wall?

What is the other main component of plant cells which provides the strength and rigidity that allows tree to grow tall?


apical meristem; residual meristem; ground meristem, procambium; procambium; ground meristem, xylem, phloem; Pith

Bark; Outside ––> In; Cuticle; epidermis; cork cells; cork cambium; phelloderm; cortex; phloem; cambium; xylem
The xylem, or _______ of a tree, has 4 primary functions. List them.
Wood; 1. conduction of water and dissolved minerals (elements); 2. support of the weight of the tree; 3. storage of carbohydrate reserves; 4. defense against the spread of disease and decay
Xylem is a complex tissue, composed of both _____ and _____ cells.
Dead; living
The living tissue of the tree is known as ____________.
Xylem is also known as the ________ of the tree

Which is not one of the 4 primary functions of xylem:

A - Defense against the spread of disease and decay

B - Movement of carbohydrate reserves for use

C - Support of the weight of the tree

D - Storage of carbohydrate reserves

E - Conduction of water and dissolved minerals

B - Movement of carbohydrate reserves for use
The non-living portion of the tree, which in mature trees represents a large portion of the volume is known as?
Gymnosperms xylem is composed of what three (3) things?
Tracheids, fibers, and parenchyma cells

What is the function of the tracheids and what do the cells look like?

Conduction of water and provide mechanical support; elongated, dead cells with pointy ends and thickened walls
What is the function of fibers?
Fibers provide mechanical strength

These cells are living cells that are interspersed among the other xylem cells. They are located in the outer layers of xylem and store carbohydrates and help defend against decay and have a structural function cross the grain

Parenchyma cells
They xylem of hardwood trees are made of the same three cells as gymnosperms except they also have what?
What is the purpose of vessels found in the xylem of hardwood trees? What are they made of?
Vessles are the conducting elements in hardwoods. Vessels are made of stacks of dead, hollow cells that form long tubes of water-conducting elements.
Which is efficeint in water-conduction: tracheids or vessels?
Vessels, silly.
Parenchyma cells are more abundant in ___________ trees and arranged close to the vessel elements.
The _________ and __________ properties of different types of trees are related to the arrangement of the cell types within the xylem.
Physical; Biological
Ring porous trees form ________ vessels early in the growing season and __________ vessels later in the season.
wide; narrower

Give three (3) examples of ring porous trees.

Elm (Ulmus); Oak (Quercus); Ash (Fraxinus)
Diffus porous trees product vessels of ___________ size throughout the growning season.


Give three (3) examples of diffuse porous trees.

Maple (Acer); Planetree (Platanus); Poplar (Populus)

True or False: Growth rings are visible in the phloem layer in a cross section of a tree.
FALSE. Growth rings are visible in the xylem layer in a cross section of a tree.
Growht rings are a result of what?
The seasonal production of xylem by the cambium
Conifers do not have vessels and are said to have ___________ wood.
The growth rings of tropical trees, if present, may not be annual due to their __________ growing conditions.
What trees donot form rings of xylem at all?
True or False: All of the conducting elements in the xylem transport water.

FALSE. Not all of the conducting elements of xylem transport water.

In _________, two to twelve rings may actually conduct water in the xylem.
True or False: In trees such as elm, only the outermost one or two rings conduct water in the xylem.
What is sapwood? What type of living cell is heavily present in sapwood?
Sapwood is the xylem that conducts water. Parenchyma cells
What is heartwood? What types of cells are found in heartwood?
Nonconducting tissue. Non-living cells
True or False: Sapwood can sometimes be darker in color that heartwood.
FALSE. Heartwood is sometimes darker in color than sapwood.
Phloem moves __________ produced in the leaves throughout the plant for ________ or ___________.
Carbohydrates; storage; consumption
True or False: Phloem transport requires energy.

Phloem is composed primarily of living cells. Which of these is not a component of phloem?

A - Sieve Cells

B - Companion Cells

C - Sieve Tube Elements

D - Parenchyma Cells

E- None of the above

D - Parenchyma Cells

Phloem in conifers is made up of what type of cells?

Sieve cells
Phloem in hardwoods is made up of what types of cells?
Sieve tube elements and companion cells

True or False: Old, nonfunctioning xylem constitutes the wood of a tree and contributes to diamer increase in a tree.

Old phloem becomes crushed and living cell contents are __________ into the tree and cell walls ____________ into the bark layers.
Reabsorbed; incorporated
Xylem and phloem make up the __________ or __________ transport system of trees.
axial; longitudinal
_________ make up the radial transport system of tress.
True or False: Rays are made up of parenchyma cells that grow radially across the grain in small layers that extend across the growth increments of xylem and into the phloem.


What are the functions of rays? List all that are correct.

A - assist in restricting decay

B - assist in axial transport

C - transport carbohydrates

D - store carbohydrates as starch

A, C, D
What is the outer covering of a tree's branches, stems, and in some cases roots?

Which is not a primary function of bark?

A - offer defense against injucy

B - reduce water loss

C - storage of carbohydrates

D - composed of protective tissues that moderate the temperature inside the stem

C - storage of carbohydrates
What helps the bark reduce water loss?
The cell walls are impregnated with wax and oil that minimize water loss.
True or False: Outer bark is composed of nonfunctional phloem and corky tissues.
What permits gas exchange in the bark?
Lenticels, small openings in the bark.
__________ are small stems that provide support structure for leaves, flowers, and fruit.
_________ support twigs. __________ Supports the entire crown.
Branches. Trunk.

Buds can occur on which of the following: List all that are correct.

A - base of each leaf

B - just under the bark

C - along the twig

D - outside of the branch collar

E - tip of each twig

A, B, C, E
Buds located at the end of the shoot are called the ___________ or ___________ buds.
Apical; terminal
Buds that occur along the stem are called __________ or ___________ buds.
lateral; axillary
True or False: Normally, the lateral bud is the most active on each branch or twig.
FALSE. Normally the terminal bud is the most active on each branch of twig.
True or False: Axillary or lateral, buds are often dormant.
Axillary buds may be inhibited by the __________ ___________ of the terminal bud.
Apical dominance
What is apical dominance? When would a axillary or lateral bud become active?
When the termional bud inhibits the growth and development of laterals on the same shoot. A axillary bud would become active as shoot lengthens and/or age, or when pruning removes terminal buds. The would lead to new shoot development.

What is produced along stems or roots where primary meristems are not normally found?

Adventitious buds.
True or False: The loss of normal buds and the growth regulators they produce stimulates the growth of adventitious buds.
When dormant buds elongate and produce shoots, these shoots are termed _________.
A __________ is a slightly enlarged portion of the twig where leaves and buds arise.
The _________ is the area between the nodes.
What two things are useful in measuring the annual twig elongation in many species and where are they most visible?
The leaf scars and terminal bud scales scars. They are most visible on new twigs.
What permints the exchange of gases on the outer surface of the twig?
True or False: Each branch of the tree is autonomous, producing and storing enough carbohydrates to sustain itself and exporting some to the trunk and roots.
True or False: Branches generally import carbohydrates from other parts of the tree.
FALSE. Branches generally do not import carbohydrates from other parts of the tree.
Branches are strngly attached to the wood and bark ________ the branch but weakly attached to the wood and bark _________ the branch.
Below; above

The annual production of layers of tissue at the juction of the branch to the stem is seen as a shoulder or bulge around the branch base called the:

A - Branch bark ridge

B - Included Bark

C - Branch Collar

D - Branch Node

C - Branch Collar
How is the branch bark ridge formed?
In the crotch, the branch and trunk expand against each other which causes the bark to be pushed up forming the branch bark ridge.
If the bark in the crotch is surrounded by wood, it is called __________.
included bark

What are the food producers of the tree?

A - Stems

B - Leaves

C - Roots

D - Seeds

C - Leaves
Cells that contain green pigment are called?
What is chlorophyll?
A green pigment that is the primary leaf pigment that absorbs sunlight.
The conversion of solar energy to chemical energy is a process known as ____________.
What are the two primary roles of leaves?
Photosynthesis and transpiration
____________ is the loss of water through the foliage in the form of water vapor?
Transpiration helps ______ the leaf and draw _____ up through the __________.
Cool; water; xylem
Leaf blades provide a large surface area for the absorption of ________ and _____ ______.
Sunlight and carbon dioxide
True or False: The outer surface of a leaf is covered by a waxy layer called the cortex.
FALSE. The outer surface of a leaf is covered by a waxy layer called the cuticle.

What are the small openings in the leaf surface that help control the loss of water vapor and the exchange of gases?

A - stoma

B - lenticel

C - stomata

D - stroma

C - stomata

__________ is absorbed into the leaf, while ______ and _________ are released.
Carbon dioxide; oxygen; water vapor
How do trees regulate carbon dioxide input and water vapor output?
Through guard cells wchih regulate the opening and closing of the stomata in response to environmental stimuli.
Give three (3) examples of environmental stimuli that affect guard cell regulation of stomata?
Light, temperature, humidity

Trees that shed their leaves periodically, typically every year, are called _____________.

Trees that hold their leaves for more than one year are called_________

Which of the following contribute to the loss of leaves for decidous trees?

A - Day length

B - rainfall

C - temperature

D - all of the above

D - all of the above

On deciduous trees, the __________ _____ forms at the base of the leaf stalk or _________ as a result of cell changes and growth regulators due to enironmental changes.

abscission zone; petiole
What are the two functions of the abscission zone?
1. to enable leaf drop; 2. to protect the region of the stem from which the leaf has fallen against desication and pathogen entry
Short, summy days combined with cold nights enhance the accumulation of __________ and trigger a decrease in ____________ production.
Sugars; chlorophyll
This pigment is found in leaves and leads to red/purple leaves.

This pigment is found in leaves and leads to yellow/orange/red leaves.


Which is not a primary function of roots?

A - gas exchange

B - anchorage

C - storage

D - absoprtion

E - conduction

A - Gas exchange
Large roots are similar to the ________ and __________ in structure.
trunk; branches
The main functions of large roots are _________, _________ and __________.
anchorage, storage, and conduction
What are the small, fibrous, primary tissues that grow at the end of and along the main, wood roots?
absorbing roots
The absorbing roots have _________ cells that may be modified into ________ _________.
epidermal; root hairs

What part of the absorbing roots aid in the uptake of water and minerals?

A - sinker

B - tap

C - root hairs

D - root crown

C - root hairs
Like shoot tips, root tips contain a _____________ zone where the cells divide and elongate.
meristematic zone

Roots grow where what is availabe?

A - Carbon dioxide

B - moisutre

C - oxygen

D - Both A and B

E - Both B and C

F - A, B and C

E - Both B and C - moisture and oxygen

True or False: Most absorbing roots are found in the upper 36 inches of soil.

FALSE. The upper 12 inches of soil.
What other type of root is usually near the soil surface?
horizontal lateral roots

________ _________ grow vertically downward off the laterals roots. These roots provide ___________ and increasing the depth of soil exploited by the root system.

Sinker roots; anchorage

Young trees have a downward growing _____ ______ which is usually chocked out or diverted from downward growth due to unfavorable growing conditions.

tap root
True or False: Few mature trees have tap roots.
What is the root crown?
it is the area where the roots join the main stem.
From the root crown, the roots spread out and _______ rather quickly in diameter in the "zone of _____ _____" to long, spreading, branching roots __ to __ inchese in diameter.
decrease; rapid taper, 1 - 2"

Roots of trees grown in the open often extend how many times the radius of the crown?

A - 10 to 20 times

B - 5 to 10 times

C - 4 to 8 times

D - 2 to 3 times

D - 2 to 3 times
The extent and direction of root growth is more a function of _________ than __________.
environment; genetics
Many roots live in a symbiotic relationship with certain fungi. The result of the association is termed?
mycorrhizae (fungus roots)
In this form of symbiosis, who benefits?
Both organisms, the tree and the fungus

The fungi derive ___________ from the roots of the tree and, in turn, the fungi aid the roots in the ________ of water and essential mineral elements.

nourishment; absoprtion

What two raw materials are necessary for photosynthesis?

A - oxygen and water

B - light and carbon dioxide

C - water and carbon dioxide

D - water and light

C - water and carbon dioxide
Where does photosynthesis take place?
The tree absorbs ___ _____ from the atmosphere through the ______ in the leaves. Light energy is collected in the ____________. _________ energy is converted to ________ energy (also called _____________).
carbon dioxide; stomata; chloroplasts; light; chemical; carbohydrates.
Carbohydrates are stored as _______.
What is the byproduct of photosynthesis and how is it released?
Oxygen, it is released through the stomata.
Carbohydrates of photosynthesis are sometimes referred to as?

Photosynthates are building blocks for which of the following:

A - proteins

B - starch

C - fat

D - growth regulators

E - amino acids

F - all of the above

F - all of the above
Much of the photosynthat is stored by the tree in the form of ________ for later energy requirements.
The process by which the carbohydrates generated by photosynthesis, and stored as starch, and used by the tree is known as?
Respiration; it is the constant process of converting food into energy
True or False: Trees are capable of anaerobic (absence of free oxygen) respiration.
FALSE. Trees are incapable of respiration in the absence of free oxygen.
Give two (2) examples of potential anaerobic conditions.
1 - flooded conditions, 2 - severe soil compaction
What is transpiration?
The loss of water from leaf surfaces in the form of water vapor.
What is the purpose of transpiration?
1 - to cool the leaves, 2 - create a "transpirational pull" that moves water up through the xylem.
What part of the leaf helps prevent uncontrolled water loss?
the cuticle
Gas exchange takes place through ________, which are located primarily on the ___________ of the leaves.
stomata; underside
What regulates the opening and closing of the stomatal pore and where are they located?
Guard cells, two guard cells line the stomatal pore
True or False: In trees, stomates usually open in the dark and close in the light.
FALSE. The usually open in the light and close in the dark.
What three things affect the rate of transpiration?
Temperature, humidity, and available water

Transpirational water loss is also affected by anatomical features such as:

A - cuticle thinkness

B - tap root depth

C - the presence of hairs on the leaf surface

D - presence of bark

E - location of stomata

A, C, E
Arborists sometimes use ___________ sprays to close stomatal pores articficially or to add an impervious coating on the leaf surface, to healp reduce water loss during transpiration or drought.
________ maintains cell turgidity and is necessary to transport essential elements with the xylem.
Water enters young roots or mycorrhizal roots, in part, by a process called?
True or False: Osmosis is the movement of water through a membrane from a region of high potential to a region of low water potential.
If the water potential is lower in the soil than the roots cells, water will move where? When would this situation exist?
Out of the roots and into the soil. An example is when salt concentrations are high in the soil (deicing salts, excessive fertilizer application)
What two terms are commonly used when discussing ploem transport?
Source and sink
Leaves are the ________ of photosynthate. Photosynthate moves through the phloem in a direction from ______ to _______.
source; source; sink
_______ are plant parts that use more energy than they produce.
True or False: Almost all plant parts, including young leaves, are sinks at some time.
The growth and development of a tree is the result of the interaction between its _______ potential and the surrounding ____________ conditions.
genetic; environmental
True or False: Develpmental responses to light, gravity , and temperature can be essential to the survival of the tree.
The coordination of processes in trees is controlled in part by plant growth substances, also called?
plant growth regulators or plant hormones
Give examples of a couple of the major hormone groups?
auxins, gibberellins, cytokinins, ethylene, abscissic acid
Give examples of what functions these plant growth substances control in trees?
Cell division, cell elongation, flowering, fruit ripening, leaf drop, dormancy and root development
Auxin has been linked to several develpmental phenomena. Auxin is primarily produced in ______ _____ and is known to be important in ______ development.
Shoot tips; root
Cytokinins are produced in the _______ and are insturmental in _______ initiation and growth.
roots; shoot
Ausin has also been oufn to be involved in tropisms. What is a tropism?
A tropism is the orientation of the direction of growth in response to an exteranl simulus.

An example of a tropism is the upward orientation of stem grwoth or the downward direction of root growth. These phenonmena are response to gravity and are examples of ___tropism.

Name another type of tropism and what causes it?
Phototropism; when light has a strong influence on the direction of plant growth
Growth regulators present in terminal buds inhibit the growht and development of lateral buds on the same shoot. This is better known as?
Apical dominance
If the new lateral shoots outgrow the original terminal shoot year after year, a roud-header or ________ tree will result. Give an example of a type of tree with this type of growth.
Decurrent, Maple
__________ trees tend to have strong apical control, resulting in upright trees with strong central leaders. Give an example of a tree with this type of growth.
Excurrent, conifers
All trees start out with _______ traits as juveniles and most become more ___________ as they mature.
excurrent, decurrent
Trees have a number of features that seve as protection. List examples.
thick bark, thorns, leaf haris, thick cuticle, etc. production of chemcials that resist insect feeding, pathogen infection or decay
Trees have a unique developmental process that allows them to "wall off" decay. It is the process by which trees limit the spread of discoloration and decay. It is known as?
CODIT stands for?
Compartmentalization Of Decay In Trees
How does CODIT work?
The tree forms 4 barrier "walls." Wall 1 - resists vertical spread by plugging xylem vessels. Wall 2 - resists inward spread by the more compact latewood cells and by depositing chemcials in these cells. Wall 3 - inhibits lateral spread by activating ray cells to resist decay. Wall 4 - in the next layer of wood to form after injucy (new wood tissue) and protects against the outward spread of decay.
Wall 1 - 3 are known as the __________ zone.
Wall 4 is known as the ________ zone.
Tropical trees may have a wide-spreading array of __________ roots which are roots at the _______ base that help support the tree and distribute mechanical __________.
buttress; trunk; stress
Some species of tropical trees produce roots from stems or branches above the ground. These roots are called?
aerial roots
Aerial roots are thought to have several functions. List them.
support (serve as props), gas exchange, propagation
New plants produced from aerial roots are called ________ of the parent tree.
Palms are __________ and have more in common biologically with ________ than with hardwood trees.
monocots; grasses
True or False: Palms have a cambium layer and growth rings of xylem.
FALSE. Palms do not have a cambium layer or growth rings.
What do palms have instead of a cambium layer or growth rings?
They have vascualr bundles of phloem and xylem sheather in exceptionally strong fibrous tissues, embedded ina matrix of parenchyma cells and interspersed within the stem.

Palms typically have only ____ apical meristem per stem. This primary bud is usually protected by the overlapping leaf bases of the emerging _______.

One; fronds

The reproductive structures (flowers and fruit) emerge in or below the crown from the ?

leaf axials, leave scars or nodes