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61 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Compared to homogeneous work groups heterogeneous work groups are
More creative and better at decision -making.
Equity theory
Predicts that motivation is a function of the comparisons workers make between their own input/outcome ration and those of workers doing similar jobs. Motivation is a result of our social comparisons.
In general what is the relationship between age and global job satisfaction?
positive relationship.
The relationship between age and job satisfaction depends on the facet of satisfaction that is being examined. However, for global job satisfaction there is a strong positive correlation between age and job satisfaction.
What is the most commonly used measure of job proficiency?
Supervisor ratings are the most commonly used to measure job proficiency. Therefore, they are most often used as the criterion measure for other measures of performance.
What is the most effective method for reducing appraisal errors
(e.g., leniency bias)?
Strategies to reduce rater biases include training raters, statistically adjustment for systematic differences between raters and the use of certain types of rating scales such as force-choice, forced choice distribution, ranking, and paired comparisons.

Forced choice scale force the evaluator to rate an employee low or high on specific dimensions of job behavior and help eliminate biases such as leniency or strictness.
What are Organizational Development Interventions targeting?
Function. Organizational developmednt is a broad approach to organizational change that is socially oriented and that views the organization as an open system. As described by French and Bell (1984), OD is a "long range effort to improve an organizations problem-solvig and renewal processes, particularly through a more effectuve and collaborative diagnosis and management of organizational culture. Primary target are the people and their relationships.
Selection techniques
Biographical information and work samples have been found to be 2 of the most consistently valid predictors of future job performance.
In the work setting research on Maslow's Need Hierarchy theory has found what?
Line managers perceive greater fulfillment of needs that staff managers (esteem and self-actualization needs).

Race seems to be related to fulfillment of needs with minority managers experiencing less fulfillment than non-minority managers

Managers who work for small companies are less deficient in meeting their needs than managers at large companies, especially at lower levels of management.
What are assessment centers used for?
Hire and promote managers. Assessment centers originated during WWII to select agents.

Now they are used to select managers.

At the center workers participate in a variety of exercises in assessment centers, many of which stimulate the actual tasks a manager would perform on the job.
Some have argued that the high validities of assessment centers are due to
Criterion contamination. Millard and Pinsky (1980) aregue that "nearly all studies on the validity of the assessment center are contaminated by the fact that persons making promotional decisions in their organizations had access to the assessment rating made on the assesses." In other words, these studies have been affected by criterion contamination.
What make a OD intervention most effective?
An external scientist that communicates directly with both managers and subordinates.

Internal agents are unlikely to have the expertise, objectivity, or freedom needed to implement a major change program.
How would you tell a manager to increase the productivity of their employees?
Assign to relatively difficult goals and give feedback on the achievement of those goals produces the greatest productivity.
Music improves performance on what types of tasks?
Routine tasks.
Taylor Russel Tables are used for what?
They are used to estimate the percent of new hires who will be successful as employees given various combinations of validity coefficients, selection ratios and base rates.

FYI: when the selection ratio is low, base rate moderate, a predictor with a low validity coefficient can improve predictive accuracy.
Define: Adverse impact and the 80% (4/5th) rule.
Adverse impact occurs when use of a procedure (selection) results in a substantially dofferent selection placement, or promotion rate for members of a subgroup. The 80% rule is used to determine if a procedure is having an adverse impact.
How do you calculate the 80% rule?
Multiply the hiring/promotion rate for the majority group by 80% to determine the MINIMUM hiring rate for the minority group.
What is included in a needs assessment?
1. An organization analysis to identify organizational goals and to determine if it is training that is needed to achieve goals
2. a task analysis to identify organizational goals and determine if it is training that is needed to achieve those goals.
3. a person analysis to determine which employees require training and what knowledge skills and abilities they need to acquire.
4. a demographic analysis to identify the training needs of different groups of workers.
Define: Vestibule training
physical replication or simulation of the work environment and is useful when on-the-job training would be too costly or dangerous.
Situational Leadership - Hersey and Blanchard - "To maximize employee performance, a leaders style should match the employees experience level."
Employee maturity if a function of skills and responsibility. What are the 4 leadership styles they propose?
Telling style - Low ability, low willingness

Selling style - Low ability, high willingness

Participating - high ability, low willingness

Delegating Style - high ability, high willingness
Describe Mc Gregors (1960) Theory X versus Theory Y approaches to management.
Theory X managers believe that employees dislike work and avoid it whenever possible and therefore must be directed and controlled.

Theory Y managers believe work to be " as natural as play." They assume that employees are capable of self-control and direction.

McGregor argued that the level of motivation manifested by workers is directly related to the managers beliefs and proposed that the Theory Y perspective is more likely to lead to an effective organization.
What is the ultimate criterion?
the construct (conceptual critera) that cannot be measured directly. Therefore it has to be measured indirectly.

Example: "effective employee" measured by "total sales"
Criterion contamination
occurs when a criterion measure is contaminated by extraneous variable.
What did Herbert Simon work on?
Artificial intelligence and decision making.
Tiedeman's and OHara's model of career development emphasizes what?
Personal vocational identity which is the balance of integration differentiation in the field.
Df: Utility
feasibility of a measure with regard to cost.
Df: Needs assessment
conducted to identify training needs.
Df: Perfomance appraisal
assessment of an employee's performance.
Df: Job evaluation
conducted for the purpose of establishing the worth of a job so that an appropriate wage can be defined for that job.
What are the 2 behavioral dimensions that leaders can be described on according to the Ohio State University Leadership studies?
1. Consideration
2. Initiatine structure
These studies focused on the behaviors of organizational leaders
Df: Job enrichment
redesigning a job to make it significantly different in terms of the variety of tasks, automonmy and responsibility it provides.
Scientific management theory (I/O)
Workers are motivated by external rewards especially monatary rewards.
Activation Theory
purports that energy expenditure and performance are positively realted to stimulus variability. Enriched jobs provide variability and should increase motivatoin and performance.
Multiple cutoff selection procedure
establishes a minimum cutoff for each predictor. If an examinee falls below the cutoff on any of the measures then they are elimiated and will not be selected.

This technique is "noncompensatory" thus a high score on one measure does not make up for scores on another measure
What are some ways to decrease group think?
1. Have individuals come up with solutions alone before coming to the group

2. Dividing tasks into subtasks and having groups work on the tasks that they are most suited for.

3.Encouraging members of a team to express dissent and be more openly critical about the solutions expressed by other members. In addition, one member should be chosen to play devils advocate.
Helzberg's 2-factor theory: What are the 2 types of job components?
Hygiene and motivator factors

Hygiene factor: (e.g. money)

Motivator factors: (e.g. greater responsibility, autonomy, challenge, etc.)
Satisfaction and motivation are increased when an employee is provided with motivating factors.
Df: Overtraining
Escessive training and the resulting physical and psychological sx.

Premature fatigue during exercise, increased risk of infectio, reduced performance, emotional instability, decreased motivation.

A sports psychology term
How would an incentive/reward theorist increase worker motivation?
They would make the job more interesting, attractive and satisfying. Incentive/reward theory is broader than reinforcement theory and emphasizes the features of the job and work environment that maximize worker interest and satisfaction.
What happens in the norming stage of Tuckmans (1965) model of gropu formation?
worker agreement, congruence, participation in social activities. Seen as a period of play
What are the gender differences on goal setting?
Goal setting increases performance for both males and females whether the goals are assigned or whether the individual is involved in the process of goal setting.
What are Drivers 4 key concepts in career decision making?
4 career concepts
Steady state,
transitory career contcepts)
These are described in 3 dimensions: freq of job change, direction of change and type of change in job content.
What does the Incentive/reward theory emphasize?
Features of the job and work environment that maximize worker interest and satisfaction. This implies that to ensure worker motivation jobs should be interesting, attractive and satisfying (or important factors in the motivation.
Describe Tuckman's norming stage in group development.
The norming stage is characterized by worker agreement, congruence, and participation in social activities. It can become a period of play as the task becomes temporarily abandoned by workers.
4 stages of group development
The 5th stage adjourning was more recently added to the model.
Who developed the theory of Social Learning Theory of Career Decision Making?
Df: Instrumentality
Belief that one's performance will be rewarded.
What is a mixed standard scale?
includes a number of items that describe either good, avg, or poor performance. Then the rater is asked to rate someone on each item as
+, 0, - to indicate how the individual performs in comparison to the item on the test.

The advantage of this type of scale is that is it is supposed to decrease rater bias including halo effects, and leniency.
Describe Lawler's model of facet satisfaction.
Job statisfaction is a product of comparisons of one's inputs/outcome rations to the input/outcome rations of others. If one's ratio is greater then others one wll tend to feel guilty. If one's ratio is less then the worker will feel dissatisfied. Assumes that job satisfaction is influenced by comparisons of one's inputs and outcomes to the inputs and outcomes of others.
What is a self-directed work team (SDWT)?
It is a highly trained team that is responsible for creating a product. They are trained on a variety of tasks. In this way they are able to be interchangable with other team members.
What is aspect of the job that is related to the mental and physical health of the worker according to the 1987 Kuhnert's Psych Today article.
Job security. The more permanent the employees perceived their job to be the better sense of physical and mental well being they reported.
What are some advantages of peer appraisals?
1. They typically are not biased.
2. Considered good for the purpose of providing employees with feedback.
3. Useful for predicting future sucess (ex. raises and promotions).

Note that there is not a consensus in the literature about the uses of peer appraisals. This is primarily due to that fact that there are a number of different types of appraisals.
Utility equaition
$U = TxNxdxSD-NxC.

What does each part of the equation stand for?
$U = utility measured in a dollar value.
T = number of years duration of the training programs effects on performance.

N = number of people trained

d = effect size of the training program

SD = standard deviation of job performance in dollars

C= per person cost of training.
What determines the degree to which a new selection technique will increase decision making accuracy (incremetal validity)?
Base rate: The proportion of correct decisions without the new technique Selection ratio: ratio of applicants to job openings.
For instance
1. A moderate base rate suggests that therefore that a new predictor is room for improvement and that a new predictor is likely to increase decision making accuracy. The situation is optimal when there are a lot of applicants to choose from.
2. A low base rate indicates that something else besides the selection is the problem (company’s standards of success are too high or employees need training in order to the job satisfactorily.
What is known about biodata as a selection technique?
Biodata is good for predicting some aspects of organizational behavior but additional research is needed to determine what types of things it is good at predicting. Accuracy of biodata depends on the criterion. It is a very good predictor of training success
Df: Halo error-
an overall evaluation of an individual is influenced by one or two very positive characterisitics. Ex. Interviewer overall eval of a job applicatnt has been influences by 1 or 2 positive (or neg) characterisitics.
According to Holland’s theory of vocational choice what does a high degree of differentiation mean ?
increases the predictability of the person environment interaction.

Goodness of fit is important for and individual that is highly differentiated
What has the highest predicitve validity for the relationship between test scores and future occupational choice?
SES moderates that predictive validity of interest inventories. Members of the middle class usually have the greatest latitude when it comes to choosing an occupation and therefore are most likely to choose jobs that coincide with their occupation.
Groupthink results in:
Progressive move towards uniformity limits task effectiveness.

Characterized by a decrease in willingess to coonsider divergent points of view resulting in in appropriate decisions and actions. Decisions are not necessarily extreme.
What is the influence of Rater's expectations on their ratings when rating ratees of equal skills and performance?
Raters tend to assign lower ratings to ratees who perfore worse or better than they expected than ratees whose performance matches their expectations.
What is related to job satisfaction?
job satisfaction is a stable trait and is effected little by job changes.

Job satisfaction is directly related to the tendency toward positive or negative affect.
An assessment center is likely to include?
An in-basket test, a situational test for the selection promotion or placement of managerial employes
Needs analysis
done to determine training needs. It encompasses several other analyses such as task analysis and person analysis.
What has research shown regarding the time of day complex tasks involving short-term memory?
Complex mental task involving short-term memory may be performed better at night shifts.