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25 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

What was established through the Clean Air Act Amendments?

Comprehensive federal law that regulates air emissions for stationary and mobile sources.

- Air quality and emissions limitations

- Ozone protection

- prevention of significant deterioration of Air quality (by using filters, and other equip.)

- Plans for attainment areas (Areas with have worse air quality than the National Ambient Air Quality Standards)

- Emission Standards (Regulations on vehicles, aircraft, clean fuel cars, ect.)

- Noise Pollution Regulations

- Acid Deposition Control (Acid Rain Control)

- Permits of Emissions

~It required large businesses to address pollutants released into the air, measure their quantity, and have a plan to control and minimize them as well as to periodically report.

- Stratospheric Ozone protection

~regulates production and use of chemicals that harm the stratosphere

What are the steps for groundwater treatment?

1. Rapid Mix

2. Flocculation

3. Sedimentaion

4. Recarbonation

5. Filtration

6. Disinfection

7. Storage/Distribution

What are the steps for surface water treatment?

1. Rapid Mix

2. Flocculation

3. Sedimentation

4. Rapid Sand Filter

5. Disinfection

6. Storage/Distribution

What is hard water and how does it occur?

Hard water is when water has a high mineral content. It happens when water tickles down, or filters, though calcium and magnesium deposits containing minerals.

What is used to treat water hardness?

Hardness is treated through softening, removing calcium, magnesium, and certain other metal cations in hard water.

Describe Rapid Mix

In this fast moving tank, a coagulant is added to help the impurities stick together to form large particles known as flocs.

Describe Flocculation Basin

In this process the flow of water is slowed giving the floc time to grow larger.

Describe the Sedimentation Tank

The large/heavy flocs sink to the bottom of the tank (sludge) and are pumped out.

Describe Recarbonation

(Only in Groundwater Treatment)

CO2 is added to reduce the pH to about 8.5

What happens in filtration?

What are the two types of sand filters used?

What are the different medias that can be used in the filters?

Removal of small particles that didn't settle in the sedimentation basin.

Slow sand filter and rapid sand filter (rapid sand filter back washes due to clogging)

Single media: sand

Dual Media: anthracite coal and sand

Multimedia: anthracite coal, sand, and garnet

What are some disinfectants used in drinking water treatment?


Hypochlotrite salts


Chlorine Oxides


UV Radiation

What are the steps in waste water treatment?

Preliminary Treatment

~removes large particles

Primary Treatment (a.k.a sedimentation tank)

~Removes soluble organic compounds

~removes solids by settling

~ removes about 35% BOD and 60% solids

Secondary Treatment

~removes about 85% BOD and solids

Tertiary Treatment

~ Removes N and P, and also other toxic substances

Diagram of Waste water

treatment with trickling filter:



Diagram of waste water

treatment with activated sludge:



After waste is released from the secondary clarifier, sometimes white bubbles appear. What are the white bubbles and how are they suppressed?

The white bubbles are detergents that passed through the treatment process without being removed or degraded. Spray nozzles are used to suppress the foaming.

Explain the role of these sludge management processes:

- Thickening



-Sludge Dewatering

-Sludge Reduction


Procedure of increasing the solid content by removing a portion of the water

- Stabilization (VERY EXPENSIVE)

Anaerobic bacteria convert organics into CO2 and CH4


Chemical/Heat to facilitate water separation

- Sludge Dewatering

Physical process used to reduce the moisture content of sludge so that it's easier to handle

- Sludge Reduction

Chemical process through wet oxidation or incineration to stable solid

What is a watershed divide?

is the line that separates neighboring drainage basins.

is the line that separates neighboring drainage basins.

Is rain acidic or basic? Explain.

Rain is naturally acidic. Due to the presence of CO2 in the atmosphere which combines with rain water to form weak carbonic acid.

What are some major indoor air pollutants?


-Environmental Tobacco Smoke




~Organic Gases

~Respirable Particles





What is the source of Radon? Where could Radon be found indoors?

Some sources include Earth, rock beneath homes, well water, building material. It can also be found in stone/marble furnishing and basements.

Radon is produced through Uranium decay.

What are some sources of tobacco smoke?

Cigarette, pipe, and cigars

What are some sources of Biologicals?

wet or moist walls, ceilings, carpets, and furniture; poorly maintained humidifiers, dehumidifiers, and air conditioning; bedding; household pets.

What are some sources of Organic Gases?

Household products including: paints, paint strippers, and other solvents;
wood preservatives; aerosol sprays; cleansers and disinfectants; moth repellents
and air fresheners; stored fuels and automotive products; hobby supplies; dry‐
cleaned clothing.

What are some sources of formaldehyde?

Pressed wood products (hardwood plywood wall paneling, particleboard,
fiberboard) and furniture made with these pressed wood products. Urea‐
formaldehyde foam insulation (UFFI). Combustion sources and environmental
tobacco smoke. Durable press drapes, other textiles, and glues. flame retardant glazed on furniture.

What are some sources of Lead?

Lead-based paint, contaminated soil, dust, and drinking water. (In the past it was used in gasoline)