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49 Cards in this Set

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3 ways to define peace

as a state (peacefulness, quietness, stillness)




as an opposite (or war, violence, hatred, conflict)




as an activity/deliberate actions (keeping an open mind, mutual respect)

History of pacifism

modern usage and movements are from around 1900.




Pacifists challenged the outbreak of WWI and were derided because of it.




The view of pacifism was narrow and negative, they were viewed as unpatriotic, betrayers of their kin and country.




Orwell - pacifists are pro nazi

Theory of +ve and -ve peace

Developed by John Galtung - there are two ways to look at peace




-ve peace: described as a lack of ____




+ve peace: newer, described by what IS there


-harmony- justice-equity- systems to


promote equality etc.





The four conceptions of peace

Developed by Michael Banks


-- each conception has its own limitations




1) Peace as Harmony


but conflict is natural and productive




2) Peace as Order (stablility)


but order can exist in unjust systems


and violence can be used to create order




3) Peace as Justice


but justice is relative and doesn't always


lead to peace




4) Peace as Conflict Management


but this is a process

What are the three types of violence

Direct : physical, mental, sexual --is personal has an actor




Structural: indirect, power structures causing harm + oppression


ex. underrepresentation


underemployment




Cultural: Beliefs and attitudes


ex. racism, sexism,


ostracizing, other-ing.


"caricatures" stereotypical jew, muslim, atheist, lesbian





3 ways to look at war

Realism - war is necessary, even if its not pleasant it's ultimately unavoidable in order to preserve the "state", despite the injustice of it




Just war advocates - Some wars are defensible and even the right thing to do, but they must fit certain parameters and be fought the right way




Pacifism - All war is wrong and unnecessary

How has the Just War theory evolved from it's inception to the modern day use?

Initially developed by St Augustine it allowed Christians (previously entirely pacifist) to also be soldiers if:




1) there was a just cause




2) the order was coming from a legitimate authority (representing god)




3) it was fought with the right intention




This was used during the crusades and the spanish conquest of the americas to justify the treatment of "barbaric" non-christians who were committing sins against god.




Modern Just wars are defined as




having/being


1) a Just Cause (as defined by international law)


2) from a legitimate authority (sanctioned by th UN)


3) The right intention


4) Proportional


5)Probability of Success


6) Last resort




and may be fought with


1) proportionality


2) the right intention


3) non-combatant immunity (no civilian attacks)





What lead to the perception that war is a problem?

1) New potential for global distraction


--new aerial, chemical and biological weapons




2) Increasing social, environmental and economic toll of war


---modern wars occur within nations, result in huge numbers of civilian deaths, involve actors other than just nations.




3) Evolution of the world into a "global village"


----wars feel more personal because we are more connected than ever both through technology and through migration




4) Increase of political involvement of the masses


--- public has more access and more influence

Why did the 30 yrs war precipitate a peace movement?

-hugely costly




Hugo Grotius promoted the idea that natural laws can (and should) be created by rational man, not just passed down from God.




Helped create the idea of an international system, that states themselves can create and arbitrate binding laws.





What allowed for the birth of the International System?

After the french rev and napoleonic war, there is a desire for stability.




the creation of the nation-state (Westphalian Peace)




tension between sovereignty and liberal individualism




growing secularism




influence of technology and economic power on state growth




view of history as "progress"



How was the Congress of Vienna intended to create peace

After Napoleonic war:




all major european powers meet to redistribute and balance conquered territories.




the hope was that balance between the powers would maintain peace. and prevent war




It was the first of many meetings called the concert of europe, whose intent was to maintain the territorial and political status quo.


--- assumed that great powers would intervene if any state was threatened by internal violence in order to keep the peace.



Why did peace advocates begin to organize?




Who and where were they?

They were a reaction to the setup for WWI, increasing tension, nationalism and militarism




They existed in US, UK and continential Europe (and later Japan).




Consisted mostly of middle class white men, few groups permitted women or PoC.


---- people who wanted to preserve the status quo and prevent war

Eilhu Burrit

Lower class




condemned slavery and classism.




started a very inclusive and transnational peace organization.

What were the outcomes of the first peace conferences?

Occurred in Europe in 1840s




Encouraged arbitration, an open congress of nations and disarmament.




The message: We're dealing with this wrong.

Hague Peace Conferences

1899, 1907




Initiated by the russian Tsar, first international peace conference attended by government officials.




Often viewed as a waste of time (side show) as nothing binding was achieved,




It did however lay the ground work for the UN, and gave power and voice to the idea that war is uncivilized and should be avoided.

Why did the peace movements fail to prevent WWI?

The states were not yet strongly invested in peace.




The movements were growing but still too young and weak to challenge the historical and powerful forces (nationalism, militarism, xenophobia) that lead to war.

What better describes the 19th, 20th century movements than the word peace?

Anti-war. Peace was a harder sell

What is the relationship between peace movements and war?

Peace movements often see upsurges and revival after wars, when the memory of their horrors are fresh.

Why did the peace of westphalia and the congress of vienna and concert of europe fail to create peace?

Their focus was on the balance of power and territory rather than on peace, assuming that if power was balance no one would want to go to war.

How did peace advocates in the 19th century hope to bring about peace?

Creation of an international system of arbitration

How did the imagined systems of arbitration differ from a conservative vs progressive standard?

Conservatives insisted on maintaining sovereignty of their state and objected to the creation of a permanent overriding international institution. The did however want to increase negotiation and cooperation between nation states




Progressives wanted to create permanent international institutions that would be able to create binding arbitration to prevent states from legally waging war.

What lead to the 1st Geneva convention?

The creation of what is now the Red Cross




(International Committee for the Relief of the Wounded)

What were the outcomes of the 1st geneva convention?

Set international limits to how wars may be fought




Set guidelines on how the sick, wounded, PoWs, non-combatants and civilians should be treated.

How did WWI impact peace activism?

Hugely devastating in terms of costs, was the first war to use aerial, chemical, submarine, tanks and to involve most of the world's population both combatant and at home.




The vast majority of the population believed in the war and that it was just (at least at the beginning) but it was strongly opposed by fringe groups like:




anarchists (the state is arbitrary), socialists (marxists) (the upper class is using us), women groups, pacifists and conscientious objectors, intellectuals and philosophers.

How were conscientious objectors treated? Give examples

Shittily.




Britain: There was a mechanism for them to object.


16,000 COs


1/3 were imprisoned at least once, 1/500 imprisoned for the entire war.


absolute pacifists were imprisoned


relative pacifists could serve as non-combattants


Treated harshly in general and in prison


viewed as traitors, and cowards.




Germany:


No official mechanism for refusal to fight


Most objections were motivated on religious grounds - these were given non combattant roles


Absolute pacifists were sent to mental asylums or prisons






Ersnt Friedrich: radical anarchist socialist german antiwar activist. Published literature and started an anti-war museum 1925




Arrested by nazis in 1933 then forced to leave germany. His museum was then turned into a nazi head quarters then a torture location. message loud and clear.


When was the league of Nations created?

1919 as part of the paris peace conference (also the origin of the treaty of versailles, reparations on germany and redrawing of state lines)

How did woodrow wilson influence the creation of the League of Nations?

Support in 2 speeches for international organization to keep peace through "collective security", and states rights to equality, self government of peoples, disarmament and removal of trade barriers

Despite the widespead approval of participation in the LoN, why did US congress refuse to join?

Sovereignty and Isolationist tendencies.




hesitatnt to even join WWI due to isolationism, more hesitant to get even further involved afterwards.

What were the primary goals of the Leage of Nations?




How well were these achieved?

Preventing war through disarmament and collective security




Settling international disputes through negotiation and arbitration.




Weaknesses:


Collective security was a failure, b/c it was optional and everyone was tired of war so didn't want to make the threat.




Many major powers never joined (or joined and withdrew/were kicked out)




non white nations were "less than"




indecisive and slow







How did the peace movement change in the interwar years?

-increase in antiwar sentiment due to cost of WWI




- new focus on social reform and economic justice




-wider demographics - women, religious minorities (classes? PoC?)




- more progressive peace organizations




- more anti war poetry, music and literature




-- " war is unnatural and wrong"

Who was Jane Addams and how did she fit into the peace activist movement?



Social Reformer, pacifist and feminist, winner of nobel peace rise




Espoused a broader vision of peace




Peace is progressive, war regressive. Peace comes from how we treat each other as individuals.




Peace is more than "absence of war" its an opportunity for social progress.


War is socially regressive (dehumanizing enemy)


Collective peace comes from individual relationships.

What was the purpose of the white poppy campaign?

Commemorate non-combattant casualties.




Symbolize peace and be complimentary to red poppy

What made the LoN's calls for disarmament fail?

The unspecified difference between offensive and defensive weapons.


Fear of attack


France and Germany were especially wary


Nazi Germany ramping up from 1933-1938 who would want to disarm?

Why were pacifists blamed for the outbreak of WWII?





The LoN's attempts at negotiating with Germany, were really just appeasement.




okay, you can have this part of Czechoslovakia.




**takes all of it**




okay, Czechoslovakia is fine, but you can't have Poland. Stop there.




**takes Poland**




okay f*** you its war.




--The thought is that if the LoN had declared war earlier the war could have been won much more quickly.







How did pacifism change during WWII?

Seeing as the Nazis' actions were atrocious:




-- relative pacifists got behind it or were vilified




--Absolute pacifists were even more reviled.




in the US pure pacifists tried to prevent US entry into war but as pacifist became such a loaded word they had to change their tactic




Einstein: (self proclaimed pacifist) : peace is still the ulitmate goal but we must adapt our methods.-- pacifism includes the right to resist butchery and obligation to fight international aggression.

Why did the 19th and 20th Century effort fail to prevent wars?

imperialism




militarism (unwilling to stop competing)




lack of effective international institutions




concept of "just war" maintained



What was the experience of pacifists and conscientious objectors during and post WWII?

continued to oppose war and especially conscription.




focused on relief efforts and informing the public of civilian suffering (bombings & blockades cause starvation)




Post war relief and education efforts continued as the rest of the population celebrated.

How do the horrors of WWII impact the peace movement?

Start of the Atomic Age:


- new questions about what is acceptable


- new arms race (Cold War)




Holocaust:


- creation of legal term "genocide"


- challenges the ideas of racial and religious hierarchy (still present in eugenics and social darwinism, racist immigration policies)





How was the international climate different after WWII?

1) New pressures for peace:


--- cost of 2 huge wars


--- socialists: upper classes will keep using you




2) Changes in Global relations


-US, USSR, China gain power, GB loses


- rate of decolonisation & # of nation states up




3) New focus on peace, stability, HR, SJ


- creation of UN

How did peace theories change after WWII?

^Universalism - (all genders, races, sects, nationalities)




Definition of "just war" becomes much more narrow




More focused on individuals and their societies (rather than nations)




Recognition that peace is a changing process not a utopian, set, destination. Pure & eternal peace may not even be possible.


(previous enlightenment wisdom -- moving towards peace is inevitable)

UN Basics

created in 1945 to promote cooperation




initially 51 nations -- now 193 (all legally recognized states)




Main committees include: Gen Ass (all nations)


Security Council, Intl Court of Justc, Econ&Socl Cncl, Secretatiat




UN Agencies include: WOrld Bank, WHO, UNICEF, UNESCO




creates international law

What are the issues with the security council?

5 permanent members with veto (unfair and unrepresentative of current (non 1945) world)


13 rotating members


veto disrupts the process




options:


1) get rid of veto


2) expand veto to include other countries

What was the Geneva Convention?

4 conventions written to guideline treatment/protection of




1) wounded combatants in field


2) wounded sick, shipwrecked combatants on sea


3)PoWs


4)Civilians in wartime




general principles:


humane treatment, kept safe, no torture, not required to give info, no punishment for legal wartime actions, no child involvement

What is the significance of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights?

UDHR - encourages nations to make/improve their own laws about human rights.




"universal and inalienable" first language that rights are inclusive and unalterable.




These 30 rights are all about individual people not groups or states.

How and in what way did peace studies become a discipline?

With UN the theories and study of peace were legitimized and requiring rigorous study.


--Peace is worth investigation, investing in and studying -- valued and complex subject.




1st university program in late 1940s




1960s: Founding of keyinternational institutes


-Peace Research Institute (PRIO)


-Stockholm International Peace Research Institute


-Peace Science Society


-Journal of Peace Research




The key researchers: Johan Galtung and John Burton begin to debate the field

How did non-violence fill a hole in pacifism?

It allowed for a common ground between absolute pacifism and the unwillingness to submit to oppression (the fight against wrong).

How do non-violence and pacifism conflict with each other.

Some pure pacifists reject gandhian methods because they use pressure to force government action.

What are the religious roots of non-violence?

Ahimsa (mixture of hinduism and buddhism) rejects the harm of any living thing. Christianity, and jesus particularly sowed seeds of nonviolence.

What do believers in non-violence say about ends and means?

Ends are unknowable, and so means must be consistent with the intentions we have set. Every mean is an end in itself and truth, and justice cannot be achieved amorally.