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55 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
  • 3rd side (hint)

Grand Challenges in Environmental Studies

1. Biodiversity loss

2. Human caused climate change

3. Urbanization

3 Points


1. Is a moral claim

2. The property of biological systems to remain diverse and productive indefinitely

1. Point

2. Definition

Integrative Problem Solving (Thinking)

The process of integrating intuition, reason, and imagination in a human mind with a view to developing a holistic continuum of strategy, tactics, actions, review, and evaluation for addressing a problem in any field.


Socioecological Systems

Consists of 'a bio-geo-physical' unit and its associatedsocial actors and institutions


Social Institutions and Rules vs. Personal Agency

Social Institutions and Rules (Banning all bottled water) vs. Personal Agency (Refusing to buy bottled water)

Example using Water Bottles


Age of Humans


Sustainable Development

Economic development that is conducted without depletion of natural resources


Classical Environmentalism (see text)

a broad philosophy, ideology, and social movement regarding concerns for environmental protection and improvement of the health of the environment, particularly as the measure for this health seeks to incorporate the concerns of non-human elements


Classical Environmentalism (examples)

"Back to Nature movement"


Channel Island Fox - a systems perspective

1. Foxes were almost extinct

2. Because of DDT, urbanization, and global movement

3. Management response, bred foxes, remove eagles and pigs

What is the story of the Foxes?

Environmental History

Puts human history in the context of environmental change


Ecological Revolution

Lies at the intersect of ecology and evolutionary biology


Landscape Evolution

A physically based change over time that looks at the changing terrain


Native Americans in Vermont - Paleoindians

1. 10,000 years ago

2. Glaciated landscape

3. Hunter/Gatherers; marine

4. Small population; 25/sq. mile (pop. ~2500

4 Points

Native Americans in Vermont - Archaic

1. 10,000 - 40,000 years ago

2. rising forest ecosystems, non-glacial

3. Hunter/gatherer, riverine & freshwater

4. moved seasonally within watersheds

4 Points

Environmental Effects of Native Americans

1. Extinction of Pleistocene fauna?

2. Effect on the Landscape relatively minimal

2 Points


The attribution of a soul to plants, inanimate objects, and natural phenomena


Pleistocene Fauna Extinction

Approximately 11,000 years ago a variety of animals went extinct across North America. These were mostly mammals larger than approximately 44 kg (about 100 pounds). Some of theanimals that went extinct are well known


Coevolution: Biological and Cultural

As reciprocal exchange between entities

In biology: reciprocal genetic exchange, often symbiotic, mutualistic, competition

In culture: landscapes shape human culture, humans are an evolutionary force in nature


Motives of European Colonists

1. European lands exhausted; continent overpopulation

2. Religious freedom; oppression

3. Abundant wilderness/resources

4. Affluent Old World demand for goods

4 Points

European vs. Native American Resource Extraction

Europeans - ecological transformation

Native American - co-evolved with landscape


John Locke

1. God gave nature to mankind to hold in common

2. Idle land is wasteful; subdued land has value

2 Points

Federal Legislation that Supports Expansion

1. Lewis and Clark Expedition 1803

2. Railroad Grants 1820s

3. Homestead Act 1862

3 Points

H.D. Thoreau

1. Preservation

2. One of the first Early American Environmentalists

2 Points

John James Audubon

1. One of the first Early American Environmentalists

2. Painter of American Bird Diversity

3. Audubon Society

3 Points

George Perkins Marsh

1. Vermont & U.S. Statesman

2. Diplomat

3. writes Man and Nature - Stop using Resources too fast

3. Points

John Muir

1. A man with many passions (geologist, naturalist, preservation)

2. stated the Sierra Club

2 Points

Gifford Pinchot

1. Scientist

2. Forester

3. Efficient/using natural resources efficiently

4. Conservation

4 Points

Theodore Roosevelt

1. Conservation

1 Point

W.B. du Bois

1. American historian, sociologist

2. Co-founder of NAACp

3. Environmental Racism

3 Points

Social Justice Issues and Park Access

Not all people have access to parks, this makes it a social justice issue because everyone should have access to these parks.


Conservation vs. Preservation Movement

1. Conservation - wilderness protection, intrinsic rights of nature, against extraction

2. Preservation - multiple use, utilitarian view, anthropocentrism

2 Definitions

Utilitarianism vs. Intrinsic Rights

1. Utilitarianism - designed to be useful or practical rather than attractive

2. Intrinsic rights - value of an animal refers to the value it possesses in its own right

2 Definitions

Anthropocentrism vs. Ecocentrism

1. Anthropocentrism - regarding humankind as the central or most important element of existence, especially as opposed to God or animals

2. Ecocentrism - a point of view that recognizes the ecosphere, rather than the biosphere, as central in importance, and attempts to redress the imbalance created by anthropocentrism

2 Definitions

Yellowstone National Park

1. Established March 1, 1872

2. In Wyoming

3. Old Faithful

3 Points

Yosemite National Park

1. Established October 1, 1890

2. In California

3. Giant, ancient, sequoia trees

3 Points

Hudson River School Painters

Was a mid-19th century American art movement embodied by a group of landscape painters whose aesthetic vision was influenced by romanticism


Aldo Leopold

1. One of the founders of ecology

2. First environmental ethics, forest, pioneer ecologist

3. Developed a land ethic based on science

3 Points

Rachel Carson, Silent Spring

1. Raised awareness on chemical pesticides and unrestricted consumption

1 Point

Myth of Abundance

The belief that earth has more than sufficient natural resources to satisfy humanity's needs, and that no matter how much of these resources humanity uses, the planet will continuously replenish the supply


Myth of Scientific Supremacy

The belief that science can eventually find a solution to any problem


Watershed Events in Environment

1. Carry historical impact & meaning

2. Changes social views on a large scale

3. Raises questions about Human-nature realtionship

3 Points

Example: Silent Spring, Hurricane Katrina

Rising Environmental Awareness in 1960s

1. 1963: Clean Air Act

2. 1964: Wilderness Act

2 Points

Environmental Legislation in 1970s

1. 1970: First Earth Day, National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)

2. 1972: Clean Water Act

3. 1973: Endangered Species Act (ESA)

3 Points

International Efforts in 1990s

1989: Montreal Protocol - limit international ozone depletion

1 Point

Global Legislation in 2000s

1. Earth Charter

2. Kyoto Treaty

2 Points

Sustainable Development in 2010s

1. Paris Agreement

1 Point

Montreal Protocol

Limit international depletion

1 Point

Tragedy of the Commons (see text)

An economic theory of a situation within a shared-resource system where individual users acting independently according to their own self-interest behave contrary to the common good of all users by depleting that resource through their collective action


Tragedy of the Commons (examples)

1. The use of oil

2. Plastic

2 Examples

Earth Charter

Global principles written with multicultural effort


Kyoto Treaty

Commits State Parties to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, based on the premise that (a) global warming exists and (b) human-made CO2 emissions have caused it.


Paris Climate Accord

Global Temperature < 2C, pre-IR levels

1 Point

Native Americans in Vermont - Woodland

1. 4000 - 1300 years ago

2. hardwood forest landscape

3. hunter/gather/agricultural

4. pottery, bow, arrow

5. influenced by Midwest culture

6. beans, corn, squash

6 Points

Native Americans in Vermont - Abenaki

1. 1300 years ago to present

2. village life

3. hunter/gatherer/agricultural

4. canoe, snowshoes

5. maple syrup, tobacco

6. population, 25% carrying capacity of landscape

6 Points