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22 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What are the three states of matter?
Solid - rigid, has a fixed shape and volume
Liquid - has definite volume, but takes on shape of container
Gas - no fixed shape or volume, takes on shape and volume of container
What are physical properties?
boiling/melting point
What are chemical properties?
referes to the ability to form new substances.
What is a physical change?
involves a change in one or more physical properties, but no change in the fundamental components that make up the substance
What is a chemical change?
involves a change in the fundamental components of the substance.
at is another name for a chemical change?
What is an element
A fundamental substance that cannot be broken down into another substance by chemical means.
What is a compound?
A substance composed of a given combination of elements that can be broken down into those elements by chemical methods.
What is a mixture?
a substance with variable composition.
What is a pure substance?
Substance with the same composition.
Can mixtures be seperated into pure substances?
True or False

All mixtures are homogeneous?
False. They can be Homogeneous (same throughout) or heterogeneous (regions with different properties).
name 2 methods of seperating mixtures.
Distillation - seperates water from salt water by boiling (changing states), collecting and cooling the steam (changing states).

Filtration - seperates a liquid from a solid.
What is energy?
the capacity to do work.
What is heat?
a flow of energy due to a temperature difference.
What is exothermic?
when a process results in the evaluation of heat.

exo = out of (match burning)
What is endothermic?
When a process absorbs heat. (ice melting)
What is a calorie?
the amount of energy (heat) required to raise the temperature of one gram of water by one degree celsius.
What is a joule?
the unit of energy in the SI system.
How do you convert between calories and joules?
1 calorie = 4.184 joules. Use conversion factor 1 cal/4.184 j

If 7.4 grams at 29 deg and plan to raise to 46 deg, then 46-29 = 17 deg change. So, 7.4 x 4.184j x 17 =526 j
What is specific heat capacity?
the amount of energy required to change the temp of 1 gram of substance by 1 degree celsius.
What is the formula for specific heat capacity?
energy (heat) required = Q
Specific heat capacity = S
Mass in grams of sample = M
Change in temp in celcius = change T
so: Q = S x M x Change T