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57 Cards in this Set

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a late stage tumor has several cells in what cell cycle phase?

G0 (quiescence)

tumor resistance to drugs

heterogeneity of tumor


low growth fraction


spontaneous mutations


activity of P-glycoprotein


increase in Topoisomerase I and II

the optimal dosing and timing is

shortest possible dosing interval

ABVD combo is used for

Hodgkin's

ABVD combo drugs

Doxorubicin (Adriamycin), Blemycin, Vinblastine, Dacarbazine

CHOP combo use

Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma

CHOP combo drugs

Cyclophosphamide, Doxorubicin (Hydroxydaunorubicin), Vincristine (Oncovin), Prednisone

Treat leukopenia (neutropenia)

Pegfilgrastim, sargramostim

Treat thrombocytopenia

oprelvekin

Treat anemia

Darbepoetin alfa

Treat diarrhea

loperamide

Treat N/V

anti-emetics: ondansetron, dexamethasone, lorazepam

Cancer drugs are...

teratogens (esp. 1st trimester)

Vincristine s/e

Neurotoxicity

Cyclophosphamide S/E

Neutropenia

Mitosis phase drugs

Placitaxel, Vincristine

S phase drugs

Methotrexate, Fluorouracil, Fluxuridine, Thioguanine, Mercaptopurine, Cytarabine, Hydroxyurea

G0 phase drugs

Nitrosoureas = Carmustine, Lomustine

DNA Alkylating agents mechanism

covalently bind and cross link DNA

Nitrogen mustards

Cyclophosphamide, Ifosfamide, Chlorambucil, Mechlorethamine, Melphalan

Alkylating-like drugs that bind carbon to platinum

Cisplatin, Carboplatin, Oxaliplatin

Cisplatin S/E

ototoxicity

Non-classic alkylating agent

dacarbazine, temozolomide

Folate antagonists

Methotrexate, pemetrexed

Methotrexate MOA

inhibits dihydrofolate reductase

Inhibitors of thymidylate synthetase (inhibit dUMP to dTMP)

5-fluorouracil, capecitabine, floxuridine

Pyrimidine Antagonists

Cytarabine, gemcitabine


look like cytosine, thymine, uracil

Purine Antagonists

look like adenosine, guanine




Mercaptopurine, thioguanine, fludarabine, cladribine

Mercaptopurine S/E

tumor lysis syndrome

Ribonucleotide reductase inhibitor

Hydroxyurea




ATP, CTP, GTP, TTP cannot be converted to dNTP

Mitotic inhibitors

Taxanes = paclitaxel, docetaxel, cabazitaxel


Vinca alkaloid = vincristine, vinblastine, vinorelbine


Halichrondin B Marine Sponge = eribulin


Epothilone B = ixabepilone

Anti-Topoisomerase I

irinotecan, topotecan

Anti-Topoisomerase II

etoposide

DNA intercalating drugs & DNA strand breakage

Anthracycline ABs


Glycopeptide AB

Anthracycline antibiotics

Doxorubicin (Adriamycin, Hydroxydaunorubicin), Daunoribicin, idarubicin, epirubicin

Glycopeptide antibiotic

Bleomycin

Doxorubicin S/E

Cardiotoxicity

Monoclonal antibodies

Rituximab, ibritumomab, tiuexetan, tositumomab, ofatumumab, brentuximab

Immune checkpoint inhibitors

Ipilimumab, Nivolumab

Ipilimumab

CTLA-4 antibody: blocks T-cell inhibition


melanoma drug

Nivolumab

programmed death cell receptor antibody (PD-1) blocks T-cell inhibition

EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (signal transduction inhibitors)

Cetuximab, Panitumumab, Trastuzumab, Gefitinib, Erlotinib, Lapatinib, Crizotinib, Vandetanib

Trastuzumab

binds Her-2 receptor; breast cancer drug

BCR-ABL Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (CML)

Imatinib, Nilotinib, Dasatinib

RAS/Map Kinase pathway inhibitors

Sorafenib, Sunitinib, Vemurafenib

Vermurafenib

for melanoma w/ B-RAF mutation

mTOR inhibitors

Temsirolimus, Everlolimus (renal cancer)


stop protein translation

Proteasome inhibitors

Bortezomib, carfilzomib (cause apoptosis of cancer cell)

Angiogenesis (VEGF) inhibitors

Bevacizumab (Avastin), Thalidomide, Lenalidomide, Pazopanib

Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors

activate tumor suppressor genes

DNA methyltransferase inhibition

Hypomethylation of DNA = potential to reactivate tumor suppressor genes

DNA methyltransferase inhibitor drug

azacitidine

Immune therapy

interferon alfa-2a, interferon alfa-2b, aldesleukin

Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMS)

partial antagonists = tamoxifen, raloxifene, toremifene




full antagonists = fluvestrant

Aromatase inhibitors

anastrozole, letrozole, exemestane




block androgen to estrogen conversion (post-menopausal women)

Androgen receptor antagonists

Bicalutamide, Flutamide




for prostate cancer

Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonists

leuprolide, goserelin, triptorelin