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14 Cards in this Set

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Secondary Marine Invertebrates

-evolves from terrestrial animals with marine ancestors


-entirely/partly feed at sea


-access of food was a driving force to move to ocean


-differing degrees of dependence on marine environment


-certain features indicate terrestrial origins (ie lungs breathe air)


-can reveal consequences of living in marine ecosystem

Challenges of 2nd marine invertebrates:

-salinity/osmoregulation


-temperature/ body heat


-diving


-pressure


-density, viscosity & locomotion

Challenges of secondarily marine: salinity/osmoregulation & temp/body heat

S/O: inevitable intake of salt & absence of fresh drinking water= accumulation of salt & outflow is water


Either become:


-osmoregulators (maintain internal balance within narrow range regardless of external)


-osmoconformers (content matches external)


T/BH: 2nd marine organisms are warmer than water, water molecules draw heat out of body= high levels of heat loss (both ecto and endothermic)

Challenges of secondarily marine: diving & pressure

Diving: all 2nd marine vertebrates have lungs and must breathe air= must maintain regular contact with the surface to breathe, related to their specific oxygen storing capacity


Pressure: vertebrates undergoing deep/long dives are subject to:


-compression effects are high pressure


-effects of breathing air at high pressure (eg absorb more oxygen & nitrogen which can be toxic)

Challenges of secondarily marine: density, viscosity & locomotion

Need less skeletal support in seawater as it experienced greater buoyancy and more resistance to movement


Some have to move on land


Viscosity= ability to move through particles

Fish: (define, diversity, types)

-An aquatic vertebrate with gills and limbs in the shape of fins.


-diversity= 28,000 living species with 482 families and 57 orders. 58% marine, 47% freshwater, 1% inbetween.


-all are chordates (phylum chordata)


TYPES:


-Jawless, cartilaginous, type 1


-Jawless, cartilaginous, type 2


-Jawed, cartilaginous


-lobe-finned, Bony fish


-Ray-finned, bony fish


-modern bony fish

Fish lifestyles: common shapes: examples

•Active Swimmers= fusiform (cigar/streamline shaped), fast moving fish -rove predator (cruising, large distance) ie tuna. -ambush predator (accelerate, ilengated) ie barracuda


•Hug bottom= flattened, usually camouflage, spend a lot of time stationary at the bottom or flounder


• Sedentary= globular(circular), sit on bottom/hover around particular place (ie angler, box, stone fish)


•Navigate large obstacles= deep, laterally compresses (squishes side to side), maneouvoure around large obstacles usually reef fish ie angel fish


•Live in burrows/ tight spaces= snake like(long/thin) in crevices in sand, reduces/absent paired fins, often with dorsal and anal fins running along most of body. Ie moray eels, bennies

Challenges of secondarily marine: diving & pressure

Diving: all 2nd marine vertebrates have lungs and must breathe air= must maintain regular contact with the surface to breathe, related to their specific oxygen storing capacity


Pressure: vertebrates undergoing deep/long dives are subject to:


-compression effects are high pressure


-effects of breathing air at high pressure (eg absorb more oxygen & nitrogen which can be toxic)

Challenges of secondarily marine: density, viscosity & locomotion

Need less skeletal support in seawater as it experienced greater buoyancy and more resistance to movement


Some have to move on land


Viscosity= ability to move through particles

Fish: (define, diversity, types)

-An aquatic vertebrate with gills and limbs in the shape of fins.


-diversity= 28,000 living species with 482 families and 57 orders. 58% marine, 47% freshwater, 1% inbetween.


-all are chordates (phylum chordata)


TYPES:


-Jawless, cartilaginous, type 1


-Jawless, cartilaginous, type 2


-Jawed, cartilaginous


-lobe-finned, Bony fish


-Ray-finned, bony fish


-modern bony fish

Fish lifestyles: common shapes: examples

•Active Swimmers= fusiform (cigar/streamline shaped), fast moving fish -rove predator (cruising, large distance) ie tuna. -ambush predator (accelerate, ilengated) ie barracuda


•Hug bottom= flattened, usually camouflage, spend a lot of time stationary at the bottom or flounder


• Sedentary= globular(circular), sit on bottom/hover around particular place (ie angler, box, stone fish)


•Navigate large obstacles= deep, laterally compresses (squishes side to side), maneouvoure around large obstacles usually reef fish ie angel fish


•Live in burrows/ tight spaces= snake like(long/thin) in crevices in sand, reduces/absent paired fins, often with dorsal and anal fins running along most of body. Ie moray eels, bennies

Fish type:


Jawless, cartilaginous, type 1:


Main features, distribution & abundance, ecology.

MF:


-eel like body, paddle caudal fin, ventral fin fold, skeleton entirely cartilaginous, notochord but lack vertebrate, lack hinged jaws, eyes degenerate/ may not be visible, ventro-lateral slime glands produce lots of mucous in small time.


D/A:


-strictly marine with narrow salinity range, world wide, 20°C, mainly >30° latitudes, 0-5000m depth range, edge of continental shelf/upper levels of continental slope, in/on soft sediments/muds


E:


-scavengers, enter via orfice or burrow through skin & consume prey from inside, swarm around large prey items, mainly predate in small benthic invertebrates


-ie Hagfish

Fish type:


Jawless, cartilaginous, type 2:


Main features

-like type 1: entirely cartilaginous, with a notochord, no vertebrae or hinged jaw


-eel like with caudral fin and dorsal fin, large eyes


-parasitic adults & possess oral disc with numerous horny teeth used in attachment


-ie Lampreys

Fish type:


Jawed, cartilaginous:


Define, types & their characteristics

Class Chondrichthyes: Upper and lower jaws articulate


2 subclasses: holocephali and elasmobranchii


•holicephali (ie chimaeras)


-45 species (all marine), venomous sine in dorsal fin, strong heterocircle tail, propulsion by pectoral fin movement and body undulations,