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74 Cards in this Set

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Germancustoms union managed economics. Started to unify Germany.

Iron-Rye Coalition

(Germany):The political decisions about the economy of Prussia (and after 1871 allGermany) were largely controlled by a coalition of "rye and iron",that is the Junker landowners of the east and the heavy industry of the west.

Schlieffen Plan

: Startof WW1. Attack of France through Belgium to quickly take over then have a onefront war with Russia. Caused England to join the war. Stopped in France ingridlock. Left other front open.

Entente Cordiale

Agreements that imporved French and British relations.

Triple Entente

England, France, Russia

Treaty of Versailles

Ended state of fighting between Germans and allies. Disarmed and took power from Germany.

League of Nations

Formedafter WWI by Woodrow Wilson. Similar to UN. Failed because Germany, Russia, andUS were not part of it.


Ideathat states should be able to determine if they want to be their own nation.Similar people come together. Poland, Austria, Czech, Hungary, etc. Germans used this as a right to invade other areas before WW2


Russiaand America isolated themselves from the world.

Adolph Hitler

Fought in WW1. Was not successful immediately. Took power democratically during economic decline. People liked him then he turned into a douche.

Neville Chamberlain

PrimeMinister of Enland at beginning of WW2. Good domestic policies. Bad at foreignaffairs.


(Austria) theNazi propaganda term for the annexing of Austria into Nazi Germany in March1938

Munich Conference

asettlement permitting Nazi Germany's annexation of portions ofCzechoslovakia along the country's borders mainly inhabited by Germanspeakers, for which a new territorial designation "Sudetenland" wascoined.

Wars of German Unification

Prussiastarted to form Germany. Prussia had economic power to force it. Removedopposition with France, Denmark, Austria, and Hungary very quickly with newtechnology. Only lost 1000 men.


a war that is commenced in anattempt to repel or defeat a perceived imminent offensive or invasion, or togain a strategic advantage in an impending (allegedly unavoidable) war shortly before that attackmaterializes. Preventive War: is a war initiatedto prevent another party from acquiring a capability for attacking.

Cult of the Offensive

refersto a strategic military dilemma, where leaders believe that offensiveadvantages are so great that a defending force would have no hope of repellingthe attack; consequently, all states choose to attack.

Social Darwinism

humans,like animals and plants, compete in a struggle for existence in which naturalselection results in "survival of the fittest."


Germany required to pay war reparations since it was "their fault"

Collective Security

Ideaof a safer world through an agreement between world powers to protect each other

Manchurianand Ethiopian Invasions

Japan’sinvasions after WW1 to try to prevent a depression as well as because they feltthey did not receive a fair share of land for fighting in WW1


form of radical authoritarian nationalism


Idea especially in England that they should not go to war again no matter what


area closest to Belgium and France that Germany was not allowed to occupy with troops


border area of Czech that Germany took during the Munich Conference

Nazi-Soviet Pact

Agreement to not fight and to split Poland


referes to conceptions andpolicies of a form of settler colonialism connected with agrarianism thatexisted in Germany from the 1890s to the 1940s. One variant of this policy wassupported by the Nazi Party and Nazi Germany.

Battle of Stalingrad

NaziArmy bombs the Soviet city of Stalingrad,launching one of the bloodiest battles inhistory. The Battle ofStalingrad (July 17, 1942-Feb. 2, 1943), was the successfulSoviet defense of the city of Stalingrad (nowVolgograd) in the U.S.S.R. during World War

Battle of the Bulge

InDecember 1944, Adolph Hitler attempted to split the Allied armies in northwestEurope by means of a surprise blitzkrieg thrust through the Ardennes toAntwerp. Caught off-guard, American units fought desperate battles to stem theGerman advance at St.-Vith, Elsenborn Ridge, Houffalize and Bastogne. As theGermans drove deeper into the Ardennes in an attempt to secure vitalbridgeheads, the Allied line took on the appearance of a large bulge, givingrise to the battle’s name. Lieutenant General George S. Patton’s successfulmaneuvering of the Third Army to Bastogne proved vital to the Allied defense,leading to the neutralization of the German counteroffensive despite heavycasualties.

Hiroshima and Nagasaki

US with theconsent of the United Kingdom as laid down in the Quebec Agreement, droppednuclear weapons on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in August1945, during the final stage of World War II

Kennan's long telegram

Kennan’s long telegram: Kennan described dealing with Soviet Communism as “undoubtedly greatest task our diplomacy has ever faced and probably greatest it will ever have to face”. In the first two sections, he posited concepts that became the foundation of American Cold War policy: The USSR perceived itself at perpetual war with capitalism. The USSR viewed left-wing, but non-communist, groups in other countries as an even worse enemy of itself than the capitalist ones. The USSR would use controllable Marxists in the capitalist world as allies. Soviet aggression was fundamentally not aligned with the views of the Russian people or with economic reality, but rooted in historic Russian nationalism and neurosis. The Soviet government's structure inhibited objective or accurate pictures of internal and external reality.

Battle of Britain

Asignificant turning point of World War II, the Battle of Britain ended when Germany’sLuftwaffe failed to gain air superiority over the Royal Air Force despitemonths of targeting Britain’s airbases, military posts and, ultimately, its civilian population

Normandy Invasion

The WesternAllies of World War II launched the largest amphibiousinvasion in history when they assaulted Normandy, located on thenorthern coast of France, on 6 June 1944. The invaders were able to establisha beachhead as part of Operation Overlord after asuccessful "D-Day," the first day of the invasion

Marshall Plan

an American initiative to aid Western Europe, in which the United States gave $13 billion (approximately $130 billion in current dollar value as of March 2016) in economic support to help rebuild Western European economies after the end of World War to try to slow the expansion of communism.

Yalta Conference

heldfrom February 4 to 11, 1945, was the World War II meeting of the heads ofgovernment of the United States, the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union,represented by President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Prime Minister WinstonChurchill and Premier Joseph Stalin, respectively, for the purpose ofdiscussing Europe's post-war reorganization. The conference convened in theLivadia Palace near Yalta in Crimea. The meeting was intended mainly to discussthe re-establishment of the nations of war-torn Europe. Within a few years,with the Cold War dividing the continent, Yalta became a subject of intensecontroversy. To a degree, it has remained controversial


2major World powers, i.e. US and Russia during the cold war. post cold war it was unipolar

Division of Germany

Afterits defeat in World War II, Germany was divided into four zones under thecontrol of the United States, Britain, France and the former Soviet Union.


Acomponent of the Cold War, this policy was a response to a series of moves bythe Soviet Union to enlarge communist influence in Eastern Europe, China,Korea, Africa, and Vietnam. Containment represented a middle-ground positionbetween detente and rollback, but it let the opponent choose the place and timeof any confrontation.

NSC 68

providedthe blueprint for the militarization of the Cold War from 1950 to the collapseof the Soviet Union at the beginning of the 1990s." NSC-68 and itssubsequent amplifications advocated a large expansion in the military budget ofthe United States, the development of a hydrogen bomb, and increased militaryaid to allies of the United States. It made the containment of global Communistexpansion a high priority. NSC-68 rejected the alternative policies of friendlydétente and rollback against the Soviet Union.

Cuban Missle Crisis

13-day(October 16–28, 1962) confrontation between the United States and the SovietUnion concerning Soviet ballistic missiles deployment in Cuba. Along with beingtelevised worldwide, it was the closest the Cold War came to escalating into afull-scale nuclear war

Bay of Pigs Invasion

failedmilitary invasion of Cuba undertaken by the CIA-sponsored paramilitary groupBrigade 2506 on 17 April 1961. A counter-revolutionary military, trained andfunded by the United States government's Central Intelligence Agency (CIA),Brigade 2506 fronted the armed wing of the Democratic Revolutionary Front (DRF)and intended to overthrow the increasingly communist government of FidelCastro. Launched from Guatemala, the invading force was defeated within threedays by the Cuban Revolutionary Armed Forces, under the direct command of PrimeMinister Fidel Castro

Truman Doctrine

pledgedto contain Soviet threats to Greece and Turkey. American military force wasusually not involved; instead Congress appropriated free gifts of financial aidto support the economies and the military of Greece and Turkey. More generally,the Truman doctrine implied American support for other nations threatened by Sovietcommunism.

Berlin Blockade

TheBerlin Blockade was an attempt in 1948 by the Soviet Union to limit the abilityof France, Great Britain and the United States to travel to their sectors ofBerlin, which lay within Russian-occupied East Germany.

Korean War

TheKorean War was started when North Korea invaded South Korea. The UnitedNations, with United States as the principal force, came to aid of South Korea.China, along with assistance from Soviet Union, came to aid of North Korea

Hungarian (1956) and Czech (1968) Invasions

Invadedby Soviet Union in similar fashion to Nazi Germany

Domino Theory

speculatedthat if one country in a region came under the influence of communism, then thesurrounding countries would follow

Berlin Wall

barrierthat divided Berlin from 1961 to 1989.[1] Constructed by the German DemocraticRepublic (GDR, East Germany), starting on 13 August 1961, the Wall completelycut off (by land) West Berlin from surrounding East Germany and from EastBerlin until government officials opened it in November 1989.[2] Its demolitionofficially began on 13 June 1990 and was completed in 1992.[3] The barrierincluded guard towers placed along large concrete walls,[4] which circumscribeda wide area (later known as the "death strip") that containedanti-vehicle trenches, "fakir beds" and other defenses. The EasternBloc claimed that the Wall was erected to protect its population from fascistelements conspiring to prevent the "will of the people" in building asocialist state in East Germany. In practice, the Wall served to prevent themassive emigration and defection that had marked East Germany and the communistEastern Bloc during the post-World War II period

Balance of Terror

describesthe tenuous peace that existed between the two countries as a result of bothgovernments being terrified at the prospect of a world-destroying nuclear war

Helsinki Accords

thefinal act of the Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe held inFinlandia Hall of Helsinki, Finland, during July and August 1, 1975.Thirty-five states, including the USA, Canada, and all European states exceptAlbania, signed the declaration in an attempt to improve relations between theCommunist bloc and the West. The Helsinki Accords, however, were not binding asthey did not have treaty status

Iron Curtain

formedthe imaginary boundary dividing Europe into two separate areas from the end ofWorld War II in 1945 until the end of the Cold War in 1991. The term symbolizedefforts by the Soviet Union to block itself and its satellite states from opencontact with the West and non-Soviet-controlled areas

Tet Offensive

thelargest military campaigns of the Vietnam War, launched on January 30, 1968, byforces of the Viet Cong and North Vietnamese People's Army of Vietnam againstthe forces of the South Vietnamese Army of the Republic of Vietnam, the UnitedStates, and their allies. It was a campaign of surprise attacks againstmilitary and civilian commands and control centers throughout South Vietnam

Gulf of Tonkin Resolution

Itis of historical significance because it gave U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnsonauthorization, without a formal declaration of war by Congress, for the use ofconventional military force in Southeast Asia. Specifically, the resolutionauthorized the President to do whatever necessary in order to assist "anymember or protocol state of the Southeast Asia Collective Defense Treaty".This included involving armed forces

Non-Aligned Movement

groupof states which are not formally aligned with or against any major power bloc

Proxy Wars

Conflict betweentwo nations where neither country directly engages the other.[1] While this canencompass a breadth of armed confrontation, its core definition hinges on twoseparate powers utilizing external strife to somehow attack the interests orterritorial holdings of the other. This frequently involves both countriesfighting their opponent's allies, or assisting their allies in fighting theiropponent. (AKA rich countries go to poor countries to fight so they don’t gettheir nice stuff messed up

Warsaw Pact

Treatyof Friendship, Co-operation, and Mutual Assistance, sometimes, informallyWarPac, aka in format to NATO) was a collective defense treaty among the SovietUnion and seven other Soviet satellite states in Central and Eastern Europe inexistence during the Cold War

Massive Retaliaiton and Flexible Response

adefense strategy implemented by John F. Kennedy in 1961 to address the Kennedyadministration's skepticism of Dwight Eisenhower's New Look and its policy ofMassive Retaliation. Flexible response calls for mutual deterrence at strategic,tactical, and conventional levels, giving the United States the capability torespond to aggression across the spectrum of warfare, not limited only tonuclear arms

Mutual Assured Destruction (MAD)

doctrineof military strategy and national security policy in which a full-scale use ofnuclear weapons by two or more opposing sides would cause the completeannihilation of both the attacker and the defender


the easing of hostility or strained relations, especially between countries

Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty

treatybetween the United States and the Soviet Union on the limitation of theanti-ballistic missile (ABM) systems used in defending areas against ballisticmissile-delivered nuclear weapons. Under the terms of the treaty, each partywas limited to two ABM complexes, each of which was to be limited to 100anti-ballistic missiles

Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan

Revolutionin Iran lead to soviet invasion, but the attack ended in failure in a similarfashion to the US attempt in the Vietnam War

Problems of Detente

Neitherside trusted the other fully and the potential for nuclear war remained constant.Each side continued to aim thousands of nuclear warheads atop intercontinentalballistic missiles (ICBMs) at each other's cities, maintain submarines withlong-range nuclear weapon capability (Submarine-launched ballistic missiles orSLBMs) in the world's oceans, keep hundreds of nuclear-armed aircraft onconstant alert, and guard contentious borders in Korea and Europe with largeground forces. Espionage efforts remained a high priority as defectors,reconnaissance satellites, and signal intercepts measured intentions andattempted to gain strategic advantage

Gorbachev, Mikhail

Hewas the eighth and last leader of the Soviet Union. He tried to uphold theSoviet Union, but it was clear to him that it could not hold with the economicproblems the cold war had brought in. It forced him into working with the USwhich ultimately lead to the end of the Soviet Union

Carter Doctrine

policyproclaimed by President of the United States Jimmy Carter in his State of theUnion Address on January 23, 1980, which stated that the United States woulduse military force if necessary to defend its national interests in the PersianGulf. Direct response to Persian Gulf, but was applied later to other nations

Fall of the Berlin Wall

(1989) Hungaryeffectively disabled its physical border defenses with Austria on 19 August1989 and, in September, more than 13,000 East German tourists escaped throughHungary to Austria.[83] This set up a chain of events. The Hungarians preventedmany more East Germans from crossing the border and returned them to Budapest.These East Germans flooded the West German embassy and refused to return toEast Germany. However, he had not been involved in the discussions about thenew regulations and had not been fully updated.[87] Shortly before a pressconference on 9 November, he was handed a note announcing the changes, butgiven no further instructions on how to handle the information. Theseregulations had only been completed a few hours earlier and were to take effectthe following day, so as to allow time to inform the border guards. But thisstarting time delay was not communicated to Schabowski. He said the border wasopen right then and a flood of people crossed the border and could not bestopped since they had such large numbers

Glasnost and Perestroika

wasa political movement for reformation within the Communist Party of the SovietUnion during the 1980s, widely associated with Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachevand his glasnost (meaning "openness") policy reform

Somalia,Bosnia, and Kosovo

Ethniccleansing was happening in each. US and England intervened in Bosnia. Ethniccleansing in Kosovo lead to unauthorized bombing in Belgrade which in Serbia.(Direct attack on Serbia unlike the Bosnia attacks.) Famine in Somali lead toUS troops supplying food. Somalians troops attacked (black hawk down) and theUS left.

First Gulf War

(1991) warwaged by coalition forces from 34 nations led by the United States against Iraqin response to Iraq's invasion and annexation of Kuwait. Best example ofcollective security by the UN

African Embassy Bombings

(1998) Attacksthat occurred on 7 August 1998, in which over 200 people were killed in nearlysimultaneous truck bomb explosions in two East African cities. One of theearlier terrorist attacks that foreshadowed much more to come

First World Trade Center Bombing

(1993) thefirst terrorist attack on the World Trade Center, carried out on February 26,1993, when a truck bomb was detonated below the North Tower of the World TradeCenter in New York City. One of the first major terrorist attacks on Americansoil

USS Cole

(2000) terroristattack against the United States Navy guided-missile destroyer USS Cole(DDG-67) on 12 October 2000, while it was harbored and being refueled in theYemeni port of Aden. 17 American sailors were killed, and 39 were injured.Attack claim by Al Qaeda

Ethnic Cleansing

Beliefthat other ethnicities should be removed for an area. Was prominent in EastEurope (close to middle east) and in Africa. England’s Tony Blair started themovement that genocide should never be allowed no matter what

‘Endof History’ (F. Fukuyama)

arguesthat the advent of Western liberal democracy may signal the endpoint ofhumanity's sociocultural evolution and the final form of human government

‘Clash of Civilizations’ (S. Huntington)

hypothesis that people's cultural and religious identities will be the primary source of conflict in the post-Cold War world. Which means all conflict from now on should happen where to different civilization meet.


constructing or structuring a national identity using the power of the state.[1] It is thus narrower than what Paul James calls "nation formation", the broad process through which nations come into being.[2] Nation-building aims at the unification of the people within the state so that it remains politically stable and viable in the long run

Global War on Terror

refers to the international military campaign that started after the September 11 attacks on the United States. Includes the formation of Guantanamo Bay, the Bush Doctrine, and Homeland Security. All focused on creating safety from terrorist organizations.