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8 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Who suggested a formula for intelligence?

What is the formula?

What is fluid intelligence also known as?

Give 2 examples of what fluid reasoning is?

How is it best measured?

What is crystallised also known as?

What is it related to?

How is it best tested?

Cattell 1971.

General intelligence (g)= Fluid intelligence (gf)+Crystallised intelligence (gc).

Primary reasoning ability.

1. Abstract

2. Not cultural

Raven's matrices.

Acquired knowledge and skills.

Cultural/historical background of individual.

Wechsler scales.

Give examples of test items for Wechsler.

Give examples of test items for Raven.

What is Raven's test regarded as?

What is it certainly the best measure of?

What does fluid intelligence equal?

What does crystallised intelligence equal?

What does Gray and Thompson 2004 state crystallised intelligence is?

What do they state happens to it throughout life?

Picture arrangement in chronological order, picture completion (ability to perceive visual detail and spot inconsistency-pram with missing wheel) and degree of general info. questionnaires (e.g. what is steam made up of?).

Fill in the missing tile to complete the pattern, it gets progressively harder, contains 48 items (12 test, 36 real).

The best psychometric measure of general intelligence.

Fluid intelligence.

Reasoning and problem solving abilities.

Over-learned skills and static knowledge.

Factual, acquired knowledge related to stored information and depends on cultural differences.

Increases and is a reflection of cumulative learning.

To what extent are the 2 inherited........?

How can we deduct/test whether traits, abilities and talents are inherited?

Who did this test for intelligence?

What pattern did they find?

How did he generate this result?

What type of study was it?

What type of data did it collect?

If the following pattern is observed; highest within-category correlations for MZ twins, lower for DZ twins, lower for distant relatives, lowest for unrelated individuals.

Ridley 1999.

For inheritability of intelligence, 86% for MZ twins, 55% for DZ and 24% for siblings reared apart.

Bouchard's Minnesota study of twins raised apart.


Medical and psychological assessment of twins.

Who did Ridley's work heavily rely on?

Who found similar results to Ridley's for intelligence scores?

What is the classic approach/formula to estimate heritability?

What formula score was found for Ridley?

What formula was found for Loehlin?

Bouchard and McGue 1981 who did a meta-analysis of 111 studies.

Loehlin 1989.

Heritability of a trait/talent (h squared)=Concordance in MZ twins-

Concordance in DZ twins.

0.62 which was high.

0.18 which was low.

What formula may help to tease apart genes from environment?

Why is attributing correlations even in MZ twins simplistic?

What is the 2nd issue with this?

H squared= Concordance in MZ twins raised apart-Concordance in DZ twins raised apart.

Because prenatal environment, where they share a placenta, is coming to be recognised as important, although this biological environment is not genetically controlled.

Some gene-environment interaction takes place which allows twins to grow up well, e.g. most twins reared separately typically go to good homes. If 1 was raised in a deprived environment, levels of intelligence would not be highly correlated, e.g. Genie.

Who investigated neural mechanisms of intelligence?

How many participants?

What question was asked?

What task was used?

What was the task?

What was done during the task?

What was task 2?

What did the memory task add (integrate)?

What result was found?


Gray et al 2003.


Is fluid intelligence mediated by brain regions that support attentional executive control?

N Back task.

Individual had to match the current stimuli to one shown N amount of times before as fast as possible. In this task N=3 and stimuli appeared one after the other every 2.4 seconds.

fMRI scanning.

Raven's advanced progressive matrices.

Lures at N+1 to trick participants.

Positive correlation was found between accuracy on Lure trials and Raven's test scores. Left lateral PFC activity in high-interference task strongly correlates with Raven's gf measure and fluid intelligence.

A good working memory supports fluid intelligence. This is mediated by the left lateral PFC.

Who investigated genetic influences on brain structure and intelligence?

Who were the subjects?

What did they undergo?

How were IQ scores taken?

What else was assessed?

What was found?

When one inherits intelligence, what is being inherited?

Thompson 2001.

40, 10 MZ pairs of twins and 10 DZ pairs.

DNA test for zygosity.

Vocabulary, Similarities, Block design and Digit symbol subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence scale-Revised.

Heritability of volumes in different brain regions.

Overall significant positive correlation between frontal grey matter volume and Wechsler's IQ measure.

A good working memory, a large brain and a good working LateralPFC.

What did Toga and Thompson 2005 find?

Who investigated heritability of overall brain volume?

What did they find?

What did Sullivan et al 2001 find?

What was the exception and why?

What did Baare et al 2001 find?

What did Gray et al 2003 find?

Overall studies of healthy twins suggest overall brain volume is highly genetically influenced.

Bartley et al 1997.

94% heritability of brain volume in MZ and DZ twins.

Heritability of intracranial volume is 0.8 in elderly twins.

Hippocampal volume, because it has high plasticity i.e. London taxi drivers or PTSD.

90% of brain volume was accounted for by genetics, 82% of grey matter volume and 88% of white matter volume.

Dorsal lateral PFC predicted fluid intelligence using Raven's APM scores.