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55 Cards in this Set

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black and blue mark, AKA ecchymosis - blood from broken capillaries leaks into the dermis; skin filters out the red color
Inflammation - damaged tissues + cells release chemicals, vessels dilate/increased permeability of vessel walls, redness (rubor), swelling (tumor), warmth (calor), pain (dolor) blood clot forms - platelets, fibrinogen.
Organization - clots replaced by Granulation tissue; budding capillaries/macrophages/fibroblasts. Macrophages digest blood clot, collagen fibers deposited. Granulation tissue will form scar tissue: permanent fibrous CT (visible or invisible depending on severity of wound), surface epithelium regenerates.
separation of epidermal/dermal layers by a fluid-filled pocket
Arrector pili
smooth muscle attached to the follicle; holds hair erect; contraction of the arrector pili causes goose bumps
Decubitus ulcer AKA bedsore
tissue death secondary to constant pressure which causes a decreased blood flow/decreased nutrients to the area
Sudoriferous/Sweat Glands
present in all skin regions except the nipples and external genitalia; increased numbers present in the palms and soles
Layers of the Hair (Composition)
inner medulla - middle of the hair shaft.
outer cortex - contains hair pigments made by melanocytes
outermost cuticle - highly keratinized cells arranged like shingles on a roof
outermost, protective, avascular layer
Sabaceous/Oil glands
its duct empties into a hair follicle, composed of specialized epithelial cells that secrete sebum (lipids plus cell fragment).
Third Degree Burn
all skin layers plus derivatives are burned. Skin is white or black; no blisters; loss of function NOT painful; increased fluid loss Tx: skin graft (ultimately)
nail plate/body
hard, keratinized, translucent epithelial tissue; overlies the naid bed.
white half-moon; region of most active growth due to capillaries in dermis don't show through due to the thick matrix
on fingers and toes growth = 0.5-1.0 mm per week
Eccrine sweat gland
ducts empty into skin pore; much more numerous excretory function: sweat secretions consist of 99% water plus salts plust waster products (urea and uric acid) activity with heat or excercise.
Apocrine sweat gland
ducts empty into hair follicles, secretions have scents/odors (sweat plus lipoprotein) activity with emotional stress/sexual stimulation (pheromone)
beneath the epidermis; much thicker; vascular
Stratum Corneum (Horny Layer)
25-30 layers of dead, flat, anuclear, keratinized epithelial cells like shingles on a roof!
First Degree Burn
only surface epidermis burned, redness (sunburn); no blisters; no scaring. Painful; heals in a few days. Tx: cold/aloe (NEVER anything greasy)
areolar + adipose CT
binds skin to underlying organs....thickens when one gains weight.
in deep dermis - bulb lowest portion of the root composed of hair papilla - opening at the bottom of the bulb; blood vessels project into this opening to feed the matrix - rapidly growing undifferentiated epithelial cells that will get kerantinized in the shaft.
Functions of sebum
lubrication; water-proofing; bacteriocidal (on hair and skin)
inflammatory abnormality of skin cells that migrate from the Stratum Basale tot he Stratum Corneum in only 4 days instead of the normal 25 to 45 days. As a result, the cells do not mature and they become flaky
deep to the skin, AKA Hypodermis or Superficial fascia
synthesize the pigment 'melanin', absorbs UV light, found at the base of the epidermis and transfers melanin onto the free surface of the keratinocyte
synthesizes the protein 'keratin' for water-proofing, arises in deep epidermis, takes 25 to 45 days to mature, then dies and appears scale-like at outer surface of skin
blocked sebaceous gland duct inflammation of the gland plus a bacterial infection at the skin's pore - pimples
Reticular layer (bottom/inferior)
dense irregular CT with thick collagen fibers that run parallel to the skin, forms tension lines, AKA lines of cleavage, incisions made parallel to tension lines heal quicker, site of penetration of tattoos
Stratum Basale (Basal Layer)
AKA Stratum Germinativum - a single row of cuboidal/columnar cells undergoing mitosis
Stratum Lucidum (Clear Layer)
3-5 layers of dead, flat, transparent epithelium; ONLY found in the palms and soles
Meissner's corpuscle
nerve receptor for light touch
Epidermal Growth Factor
hormone released by lots of cells mainly the fibroblast, sitmulates the growth of epidermal cells; normally takes 25-45 days for cells to migrate from the Stratum Basale to the top layer of the Stratum Corneum
Stratum Spinosum (Prickly Layer)
8-10 layers of round/cuboidal-like cells with a central nucleus; cells are living; keratin is being synthesized
dermal papillae
tiny, finger-like projections (undulations) that join to the ridges of the epidermis....fingerprint formation
Merkel cell
associated with sensory nerves, specifically touch
Stratum Granulosum (Granular Layer)
3-5 layers of flat, granular cells; keratin is hardening; nuclei/cells are dying
Effects of Aging on Skin
Decreasing these amounts will result in this effect:
fibroblasts/collagen - lose tone
elastic fibers/elasticity - wrinkles
fat/adipose CT - colder extremities
melanocyte activity - gray hair
increased amt of irregular pigments - liver spots
atrophy or oid glands - dry skin
atrophy of hair follicles - balding/thinnning
Pacinian corpuscle
nerve receptor for deep pressure; is also with in the Subcutaneous layer
Hypodermis/Subcutaneous Layer
beneath the dermis, areolar + adipose CT - provides insulation, rich with major blood vessels and nerves, Pacinian corpuscle - nerve receptor for deep pressure, attahces skin to underlying bone/muscles.
Epidermis only, epithelial cells rapidly divide/proliferate and bridge gap, regenerate
O2 carrying pigment in blood vessels; reflected through the avascular epidermis
pigment derived from the amino acid tyrosine, all races have an equal # of melanocytes, variations in color are due to the differences in the amount of melanin produced, protects skin from UV light.
yellow pigment - increased concentrations of carotene found in the palms and soles. Asians skin color due to variations of melanin, NOT carotene
Skin's Thermoregulation Role
rate of persipiration is under a negative feedback system controlled by the brain, increased body heat increases rate of perspiration sweat evaporates heat is lost body temp. returns to normal the reverse is true also
nail bed
Stratum Corneum of the epidermis
Second Degree Burn
all of the epidermis and some of the dermis burned. Redness: blisters; may scar loss of function. Painful; takes 7-10 days to heal. TX: requries medical attention (silvadene)
Covers the entire body except palms, soles, lips, nipples, external reproductive organs. Function: sensitive touch receptros plus a mimor amount of protection (eylashes/nasal hair)
Calssification of burns by 'Rule of Nines'
head/neck = 9%
each arm = 9%
anterior trunk - 18%
posterior trunk - 18%
each leg = 9%
25% or greater of a 2nd degree burn OR 10% or greater of a 3rd degree burn IS A MEDICAL EMERGENCY!
above, sebum oxidizes, dries and darkens
Langerhan cell
macrophage, stimulates the immune system
Papillary layer
top/superior, aerolar CT with elastic fibers
Stretch Marks AKA Striae
when the dermis gets overstrtched (due to obesity or pregnancy) collagen and elastic fibers get torn. Stretch marks are signs of repairing scar tissue of the torn fibersl.
sebaceous duct blocked by sebum
protrudes from the skin. The shpae of the shaft opening determines whether one's hair is straight, wavy, or curly shaped.
cuticle AKA eponychium
narrow band of epidermis extending from the proximal/lateral margin of the nail plate
tubular 'bag'/sheath enclosing the dermal portion of a hair