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7 Cards in this Set

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What are the competing processes that determine genome size?
Tolerance of junk DNA (transposons, pseudogenes). High tolerance = growth of genome. Gene duplications. Large deletions cause smaller genomes. Dros have low tolerance and large deletions.
RNAi pathway
ds RNA recognized by Dicer and cleaved into short pieces, pieces are recognized by RISC which cleaves them into individual base pieces
RNA-importer protein
In nematodes, vertebrates, insects except Dros. Facilitates uptake of ds RNA
RNA-mediated RNA-polymerase
In nematodes and vertebrates, missing in insects so RNAi less effective. Can spread RNAi effect through some animals
RNAi in genome defense
Knock down RNAi with RNAi = transposons go crazy and some viruses are lethal
Piwi proteins and piRNAs
RISC-like proteins, mediate suppression of transposon expression and activity in germline, piRNA sometimes controlled by P insert near X telomere
microRNAs
Short transcripts that fold into perfect or imperfect hairpin structures that are recognized by dicer. 2 pathways: perfect match = RNAi pathway, small mismatch = inhibit translation by binding to mRNA 3' UTR