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50 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Which tick transmits cytauxzoon

a. Dermacentor variabilis, amblyomma americanum
101
Which phase is necessary to induce disease

a. Schizont phase not the piroplasm phase
102
What is important for tick vectors in cytauxzoon

a. The tick is necessary for the organism to pass through lifecycle
103
How do the schizonts damage mononuclear phagocytic cells

a. Undergo binary fission (schizogony) and cause vessels to enlarge and occlude venules in liver, spleen, and lung -> venous congestion, thrombotic disease, organ failure
104
What is released when the macrophage ruptures open

a. Merozoites which are taken up by the erythrocytes to form the piroplasms
105
Piroplasms have what appearance

a. Singlet appearance
106
Which treatment of cytauxzoonosis has been associated with better survival

a. Atovaquone and azithromycin (more than imidocarb)
107
What is pneumocystis carinii

a. Saphrophyte of low virulence that has properties to that of yeast cells (reproductive), dna is most similar to fungal class Ascomycetes, behaves like protozoan because responds to antimicrobials
108
Where is the entire life cycle completed

a. Alveolar spaces- organism adheres to pneumocytes
109
What are the two phases of the organism

a. trophozoites and the cyst
110
What are the clinical signs

a. Weight loss, polypnea progressing over time, exercise intolerance (not always coughing), afebrile
111
What causes the clinical signs

a. Inflammatory response of the organism contributes to pulmonary alveolar damage and clinical pathophysiology
112
Which dog breeds appear to be at risk for pneumocystis

a. KCCS, miniature dachshunds, sheltie, yorkie
113
What about miniature dachshunds predisposes them to this disease

a. Absence of B cells in association with defective T cells (decreaed levels of immunoglobulin)
114
How is pneumocystis diagnosed

a. Observation of the organism in lung biopsy or respiratory secretions
115
What is the most effective combination of treatments for pneumocystis

a. TMS over pentamidine (atovaquone is what is used in people but has not been as effective in dogs)
116
What is the cytologic description for coccidiodies immitis

a. Thick-walled, barrel shaped rectangular arthroconidia; mature spherules in tissue with endospores in the middle
117
Where is cocciodies found

a. Southwest US (Ca + Az) Mexico, south America
118
What four tissues are most commonly affected by coccidioides

a. Skin, respiratory, bone, pericardium
119
What is the treatment for coccidioides

a. Ketoconazole or fluconazole
120
How does this organism reproduce

a. No sexual state, haploid
121
What is the cytological appearance of histoplasma

a. Small, about the size of blasto in tissues, oval and have basophilic center surrounded by clear halo, double contoured cell, found in macrophages/monocytes but rarely in PMN and eosinophils
122
Where is histo primarily found

a. Dimorphic, soil-borne fungus worldwide but especially east of the Mississippi river, central America
123
What organs are primarily effected

a. Pulmonary, GI, can also affect ocular liver, and skeleton
124
How is histo diagnosed

a. Urine antigen test is most specific and sensitive test at 93 and 98% but there is cross reactivity against blasto
125
How is histo treated

a. Itraconazole + amphotericin B
126
What is the cytological appearance of blasto

a. Thick, refractile, double-contoured cell wall that reproduces sexually until reaches body temp and then reproduces asexually
127
Where is blasto found

a. Ohio, Missouri, and Mississippi river drainage, Mid atlantic states
128
What tissues are primarily affected

a. Respriatory, bone, lymph nodes, eyes, brain, skin/sq
129
How is blasto diagnosed

a. Urine antigen assay (same as histo)
130
How is Blasto treated

a. Itraconazole
131
What is the most common systemic mycosis affecting cats and primarily exists in a yeast form

a. Cryptococcus (two forms, neoformans that is worldwide and C. gatti that is located in more tropical parts of the world)
132
What does crytococcus look like

a. Round to oval yeast that has variably sized polysaccharide capsule, daughter cells break off and are small
133
What tissues are affected by Cryptococcus

a. Nasal cavity, skin, eyes, CNS, lymph nodes
134
What is the test of choice for feline Cryptococcus

a. Latex agglutination
135
What is the optimal therapy for crytococcus

a. Itraconazole or amphotericin B for dogs’ cats intraconazole or terbinafine
136
Which bacteria that causes respiratory disease in cats requires 2-3 months of therapy for infections (more than rest)

a. CHamydophila infection
137
Which form of leishmaniasis can be identified in tissue samples and provide definitive diagnosis

a. Amastigotes
138
What is the gold standard diagnosis for Leishmania

a. IFA with a titer of 1:64 or higher
139
Which common feline virus is known to cause Eosinophilic infiltrates in the nasal cavity

a. Feline herpes virus
140
What is sporothrix

a. Dimorphic, saphrophytic fungi, Ascomycetes that can affect wide variety of mammals
141
What is the primary means of transmission for sprothrix

a. Cutaneous or subcutaneous inoculation of the organism through a puncture wound but also through inhalation of fungus
142
Where is sprothrix found

a. Humid environments, prefers soil rich in decaying vegetation as well as moss, wood, thorns, hay
143
Are cats or dogs more susceptible to sporothrix

a. Cats
144
What are the virulence factors for sporthrix

a. Melanin to prevent oxidative damage, adhesins on the surface bind to fibronectin
145
When should sporothrix be suspected

a. In any cat or dog with cutaneous lesions suggestive of cryptococosis or deep mycoses and expecially any cat with ulcerative or nodular lesions on the face
146
What are the most common labwork abnormalities in cats with sporothrix

a. Hyperglobulinemia and hypoalbuminemia, can see elevated liver enzymes, neutrophilia and or eosinophilia
147
What does sporothrix look like

a. Pyogranumolatous inflammation with large numbers of round to cigar-shaped yeasts found intracellularly within neutrophils or macrophages and extracellularly, sensitivity of cytology is 79%
148
How is sporothrix diagnosed

a. Fungal culture is the gold standard as serology and PCR is not readily available, culture from infected tissues, isolation exceeds 75% sensitivity
149
How is sporothrix treated

a. Itraconazole, need 4-6 months to treat, prognosis is good with therapy