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22 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
A patient presents to the ER with a 2 day history of a severe headache and fever of 101 degrees. You run labs and the results are as follows:
Gram +
Lancet Shaped Cocci
Inhibition of growth around the optochin disc on the blood agar smear
What is the Dx?
What drugs will you give?
Dx: Strep Pneumoniae - bacterial meningitis

Tx: PCN or Amoxicillin (drugs of choice)
What are the virulence factors associated with S. Pneumoniae?
Polysaccharide Capsule
Pneumococcal Surface Proteins
IgA1 protease
Which bacteria is: Gram +, catalase negative, optochin sensitive, lancet shapped cocci that are usually found in pairs?
Strep Pneumoniae
Which bacteria is: Gram - , microaerophilic, associated with poultry, curved rod shaped, and associated with abdominal pain, foul smelling diarrhea, & malaise?
Campylobacter jejuni
What is the usual route of transmission of Campylobacter jejuni?
What is the usual route of transmission of S. Pneumoniae?
Found in the nasopharyngeal cells of 5-10% of adults & 20-40% of children. Infection occurs when the bacteria is transferred to another location on/in the body via close person-person contact, or migration through the sinuses usually
A patient presents with foul smelling diarrhea, severe abdominal pain, and fever for 3 days. The lab results show curved, rod shaped, Gram negative bacteria. The bacteria are microaerophilic and did not form spores.
What is the Dx?
What drugs are prescribed?
Dx: Campylobacter jejuni

Rx: Cipro
A patient presents complaining of bloody diarrhea, fever, and abdominal cramps for 2 days. The labs show non-motile Gram negative bacteria that are non-lactose forming, & do not produce H2S.
What is the Dx?
How do you treat?
Dx: Shigella

Tx: Fluid & Electrolytes - this may be all that's needed unless case is severe. Bactrim + Ampicillin if case is severe or to shorten the disease process by a few days
How is Shigella transmitted?
4 F's (fecal-oral route)
How do you distinguish Shigella from Salmonella?
No Gas
Do not produce H2S
Which diseases are caused by Salmonella?
A 12 year old girl with Sickle Cell presents to the ER with fever & diarrhea. She ate chicken at friend's house three days ago. Labs show a Gram negative, rod-shaped enterobacteria that is colorless on MacConkey's agar.
What is the Dx and Tx?
What should you be concerned about?
Dx: Salmonella
Tx: Supportive Care, BRAT diet, Abx (because she is immunocompromised) - Amoxicillin
*Cipro contraindicated in children; Bactrim SJS concern
Be concerned about Septicemia due to immunocompromised state
What are the 3 major antigens associated with Salmonella?
1) Somatic (O) or cell wall antigens
2) Surface Antigen (Capsular Vi)
3) Flagellar (H) antigens
How is Salmonella protected from phagocytosis?
Acid tolerance response gene (protects from acidic pH)

SSIPs - Salmonella Secreted Invasion Protiens
What is the drug of choice for pregnant women infected with T. gondii?
What is the drug of choice for HIV pts infected with T. gondii?
What are the pediatric complications of T. gondii infection?
Hearing loss
Mental Retardation
What is the DOC for community acquired pmx?
What is the MOA of E-mycin?
Inhibits 50S ribosome
What is the MOA of Gentamycin?
Inhibits 30S ribosome
What is the MOA of Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole?
Inhibits bacterial synthesis of dihydrofolic acid by competing with PABA
Blocks the production of tetrahydrofolic acid from dihydrofolic acid
Which drug is associated with red-man syndrome, and what do you do is your pt develops this?

Slow the infusion to correct red-man syndrome