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24 Cards in this Set

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What do epithelial layers produce to protect the body

acidic pH


protective enzymes and binding proteins


antimicrobial peptides

What is phagocytosis

engulfment and internalization of materials such as microbes for their clearance and destruction

How do immune cells know what to phagocytose

they have receptors on their cells surface (PRR) that recognize molecules on the pathogens (PAMPAS)

What do PRR and PAMPS stand for

PRR: Pathogen Recognition Receptors


PAMPS: Pathogen Assocaited Molecular Patterns

What is Opsonization and what do we call the molecules that carry this process out

Opsonins: molecules bind to pathogens to make them more "applealing" to phagocytes

What happens once phagocytes bind to the microbes

signal pathways are activated causing actin polymerization which results in membrane extensions thatwrap around the microbe and pull into the cell

What happens once the microbe is inside the cell

its wrapped in a membrane called a phagosome

What makes up a phagolysosome and what does it do

phagosomes combined with lysosomes: kill microbes by various means (Low pH, various enzymes)

What else do phagocytes do

clean the body of dead cells that are no longer needed

What are DAMPs and what do they prevent

Damage Assocaited Molecular Patterns: prevent healthy cells from being eaten because only damaged cells express DAMPs

What are the four PAMP ligands that PRRs recognize

TLRs


CLRs


RLRs


NLRs

What does TLR stand for and what does it recognize

Toll Like Receptor: recognize many types of pathogen molecules

What are TLRs

Dimers with extracellular leucine rich (LRR) domains that bind PAMPs and DAMPs

What are CLRs and what do they do

C-type lectin receptors: heterogeneous population of surface PRRs


recognize cell wall receptors


trigger a variety of pathways

What are RLRs and what do they do

RIG-I-like receptors: RNA helicases


function as cytosolic PRRs


recognize viral double-stranded RNAs

What are NLRs and what do they do

NOD-like receptors: Large family of cytosolic PRRs


activated by intracellular PAMPs


can also sense changes in intracellular environment

What are some of the gene expressions that the PRR signaling pathway activates

antimicrobial peptides


type 1 interferons


cytokines


chemokines


enzymes: iNOS and COX2

What is an inflammatory response

cascade of events that happens when the skin and other epithelial layers are damaged

What are the long and short term responses

Acute: while and injury is healing


Chronic: can contribute to arthritis, IBD, heart disease, and type 2 diabetes

What are the four marks of inflammation

redness, swelling, pain, and heat

What are these the result of

vasodialiation which leads to increased blood flow, fluids, influx of immune cells and cytokines

What are NK cells and what are their two functions when activated

lymphocytes: kill the altered self cell, produce cytokines that induce adaptive responses against the altered self cell

What are their receptors induced by

infections


malignant transformations


other stresses

What is antigen presentation

innate cells deliver pathogens to the lymphoid tissues where T and B cells can recognize it and become activated