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89 Cards in this Set

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  • Back

What is the most commonly used fire extinguishing agent?

Below what temperature does what exist in a solid form?
32 ℉
Water is it’s heaviest close to it’s ________ ______, and lightest close to its _______ ______.
Freezing point; boiling point
Ordinary fresh water is generally considered to weigh?
62.5 lb/ft3 or 8.33 lb/gal
A measure of the heat-absorbing capacity of a substance.
Specific Heat
Between 32℉ an 212℉ water exists in what state?
Above what temperature does water covert to Gas?
212 ℉
The primary way water extinguishes is by _______.
Specific gravity determines whether water will do what on the surface on another liquid, or visa versa?
The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one pound of water 1℉.
Specific heat
The specific Heat of a substance is a ratio between what two things?
The heat needed to raise the temperature of a specified quantity of a material and the heat needed to raise the temperature of an identical amount of water the same number of degrees.
The temperature at which a liquid absorbs enough heat to change to vapor.
Boiling Point
At 212℉ water expands how many times its original volume?
1,700 times
Water absorbs ____ times as much heat as does an equal amount of carbon dioxide.
The specific gravity of water.
The quantity of heat absorbed by a substance when it changes from liquid to a vapor.
Latent heat of Vaporization
Vaporization does not completely occur when water reaches 212℉, each pound of water requires an additional ______ of heat to completely convert into steam.
970 BTU
The speed with which water absorbs heat increases in proportion to what?
The water surface area exposed to the heat.
The tendency of a liquid to possess internal resistance to flow.
The density of a liquid in relation to water.
Specific gravity
A force per unit of area.
Weight of one cubic foot of water?
62.5 pounds
The speed at which this fluid travels through a hose.
Fluid pressure at a point in a fluid at rest is the same intensity in all directions.
Second Principle of Pressure
The pressure of a liquid in an open vessel is proportional to its depth.
Fifth Principle of Pressure
A simple measure of of weight and is usually expressed in pounds or kilograms.
1 inch3 by 1 ft tall exerts a pressure of what at it’s base?
0.434 lbs
Fluid pressure is perpendicular to any surface on which it acts.
First Principle of Pressure
Pressure applied to a confined fluid from without is transmitted equally in all directions.
Third Principle of Pressure
The pressure of a liquid in an open vessel is proportional to the density of the liquid.
Forth Principle of Pressure
Mercury is __.__ times denser than water.
At sea level the atmosphere exerts what pressure?
14.7 PSI
At sea level a column of mercury is how tall?
29.9 inches tall
Pounds per square inch absolute
Absolute Zero pressure.
Absolute Vacuum
The pressure of a liquid on the bottom of a vessel is independent of the shape of the vessel.
Sixth Principle of Pressure
A pressure of 1psi makes a column of mercury about _.__ inches tall.
Pounds per square inch gauge
Any pressure less than actual pressure.
The fire service refers to the height of a water supply above the discharge orifice as what?
Stored potential energy available to force water through pipe, fittings, fire hose, and adapters.
Static pressure
That pressure found in a water distribution system during normal consumption demands.
Normal operating pressure
The forward velocity flow pressure can be measured by using what?
Pitot tube and Gauge
The center line of the pump or the bottom of a static water supply source above or below ground level.
Atmospheric pressure _____ as height above sea level increases.
Means at rest or without motion.
Part of the total available pressure not used to overcome friction loss or gravity while forcing water through pipe, fittings, fire hose and adapters.
Residual Pressure
Forward velocity pressure at a discharge opening while water is flowing.
Flow Pressure
The position of an object above or below sea level.
Above sea level, atmospheric pressure decreases approximately _._psi for every ____ft.
0.5psi ; 1000ft
Both pressure loss and pressure gain are referred to as What?
Elevation pressure
The friction loss in old hose may be as much as ___ greater than in new hose.
For the same discharge, friction loss varies inversely as the fifth power of the diameter of the hose.
Third Principle of Friction Loss
For a given flow velocity, friction loss is approximately the same, regardless of the pressure on the water.
Fourth Principle of Friction Loss
When the diameter of the hose doubles, the area of thee hose opening increases approximately ____ times.
The total pressure lost while forcing water through pipe, fittings, fire hose, and adapters.
Friction loss
If all other conditions are the same, friction loss varies directly with the length of the hose or pipe.
First Principle of Friction Loss
When hoses are the same size, friction loss varies approximately with the square of the increases in the velocity of the flow.
Second Principle of Friction Loss
With water being virtually incompressible, it requires _____psi to reduce it’s volume by 1%.
30,000 psi
When the velocity or speed of a stream increases beyond it’s practical limits and the friction becomes so great it causes agitation or turbulence.
Critical Velocity
What three characteristics of hose layouts cause friction loss?
- Hose length
-Hose diameter
-sharp bends (kinks) in the hose
Suddenly stopping water moving through a hose or pipe results in and energy surge being transmitted in the opposite direction. This surge is referred to as what?
Water Hammer
Three methods of moving water in a system.
-direct pumping system
-Gravity system
-combination system
When a fire hydrant receives water from two r more directions is said to have a what?
Circulating Feed
Looped Line
Large pipes, with relatively widespread spacing, that convey large quantities of water to various points of the system for local distribution to the smaller mains.
Primary feeders
Realistically, a hose larger than _inches in diameter cannot be used for handlines.
3 inches
What are the four fundamental components of a Water system?
-Source of water supply.
-Means of moving water.
-Water processing or treatment facility.
-Water distribution system, including storage.
Afire hydrant that receives water from only one direction.
Dead-end Hydrant
A distribution system that provides circulating feed from several mains.
Grid System
Grid arrangement of smaller mains serving individual fire hydrants and blocks of consumers.
In residential areas there should be cross connecting mains at intervals of not more than what?
600 ft
What size mains should be used on principle streets and long mains not cross-connected at frequent intervals.
12 inch diameter
Valves for water systems are broadly divided into what two types?
What are the most common valves used on most public water distribution systems?
Non-indicating valves
In residential areas, the recommended size for fire hydrant supply mains is at least what?
6 inches in diameter
In the business and industrial districts, the minimum recommended size is an __ inch main with cross-connecting mains every ___ft.
8 inch; 600 ft
Water mains as large as __inches diameter can be found in major cities.
48 inches diameter
What are two common indicator valves?
Post Indicator Valve (PIV)
Outside Screw and Yoke (OS&Y)
What type of valves will you normally find in a water distribution system, normally installed in valve boxes or manholes?
Non-indicating valves
The average of the total amount of water used in a water distribution system over the period of one year.
Average Daily consumption (ADC)
The maximum amount of water used in any 1-hour interval over the course of a day.
Peak Hourly Consumption (PHC)
The peak hourly rate normally varies from _-_ times the normal hourly rate.
2-4 times
If there is any question about the reliability of a private water supply system or of its ability to provide an adequate amount of water for large-scale fire fighting operation, the department should do what?
Make arrangements to augment the private water supply.
Almost universally, private water supply systems maintain separate piping for what?
Fire protection
Domestic/industrial processes
The maximum total amount of water that was used during any 24-hour interval within a 3-year period.
Maximum daily consumption (MDC)
The maximum daily consumption is normally about _-__ times the average daily consumption.
1 - 1½ times
Private water systems exist for one of what three reasons?
-To provide water strictly for fire protection purposes.
-to provide water for sanitary and fire protection purposes.
-To provide water for fire protection and manufacturing processes
Where are private water supply systems normally found?
Large commercial, industrial, or institutional properties.
Ma be found in some residential developments.
Water pipe that is underground is generally made of what?
Cast Iron
Ductile iron
Asbestos cement