• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

Card Range To Study



Play button


Play button




Click to flip

Use LEFT and RIGHT arrow keys to navigate between flashcards;

Use UP and DOWN arrow keys to flip the card;

H to show hint;

A reads text to speech;

354 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the activities and tasks for a project?
Have a specific objective to be completed within certain specifications.
Have defined start and end dates.
Have funding limits.
Consume human and nonhuman resources.
Are multifunctional - Question 1.1 from pg.2

Project management involves project planning and project monitoring. List the items associated with each.
Project planning: definition of the work requirements, definition of the quality and quantity of work, definition of the resources needed, scheduling the activities, evaluation of the various risks

Project Monitoring and control: tracking progress, comparing actual outcome to predicted outcome, analyzing variances and impacts, making adjustments - Question 1.2 from pg.3

List the objectives associated with successful project management.
Achieve the project objectives:
within time
within cost
at the desired performance/tech level
while utilizing assigned resources effectively and efficiently
accepted by the customer - Question 1.3 from pg.3

Identify the potential benefits of and obstacles to project management.
Benefits: identification of functional responsibilities to ensure that all activities are accounted for, regardless of personnel turnover, minimizing the need for continuous reporting, identification of time limits for scheduling, identification of a methodology for trade–off analysis, measurement of accomplishment against plans, early identification of problems so that corrective action may follow, improved estimating capabilities for future planning, knowing when objectives cannot be met or will be exceeded

Obstacles: project complexity, customer's special requirements and scope changes, organizational restructuring, project risks, changes in technology, forward planning and pricing - Question 1.4 from pg.3-4

What is the "overview" definition of project management?
It is the planning, organizing, directing, and controlling of company resources for a relatively short-term objective that has been established to complete specific goals and objectives. It uses the systems approach to management by having functional personnel (vertical hierarchy) assigned to a specific project (horizontal hierarchy) - Question 1.5 from pg.4

Identify and describe the types of deliverables in a project.
Interim - Question 1.6 from pg.5-6

Which of the following must be held to a minimum during a project?
A. Cost
B. Time
C. Scope changes
D. A&B only
C. Scope changes - Question 1.7 from pg.7

Explain what is meant by project management excellence.
A continuous stream of successfully managed projects - Question 1.8 from pg.7-8

In order for a continuous stream of successful projects to occur, which of the following must exist?
A. Available projects
B. Project manager - line manager interface
C. Strong corporate commitment
D. None of the above
C. Strong corporate commitment to project management - Question 1.9 from pg.8

Who is responsible for coordinating and integrating activities across multiple functional lines?
A. Project Manager
B. Functional Manager
C. Functional Employee
D. Executive
A. Project Manager - Question 1.10 from pg.12

What are the elements of a functional manager's role?
1.) The functional manager has responsibility to define how the task will be done and where the task will be done.
2.) The functional manager has the responsibility to provide sufficient resources to accomplish the objective within the project's constraints
3.) The functional manager has the responsibility for deliverable. - Question 1.11 from pg.14

What are the problems that a line manager must cope with?
Unlimited work requests
Predetermined deadlines
All requests having a high priority
Limited number of resources
Limited availability of resources
Unscheduled changes in the project plan
Unpredicted lack of progress
Unplanned absence of resources
Unplanned breakdown of resources
Unplanned loss of resources
Unplanned turnover of personnel - Question 1.12 from pg.14-15

The functional employee is expected to accomplish a number of activities when assigned to a project. Which of the following are those activities?
A. Complete the work at the earliest possible time
B. Define how the task will be done and where the task will be done
C. Bring problems to the surface quickly
D. A and C only
D. A and C only - Question 1.13 from pg.17

What will reduce or eliminate executive meddling during a project?
meaningful status reports - Question 1.14 from pg.17

Improper administrative planning can create a situation that requires what?
A continuous revision and/or establishment of company and/or project policies, procedures, and directives
A continuous shifting in organizational responsibility and possible unnecessary restructuring
A need for staff to acquire new knowledge and skills - Question 1.15 from pg.20

Which of the following people prefers to work individually, is committed to their profession, seeks perfection, and manages things?
A. Project managers
B. Project sponsors
C. Project Champions
D. Functional managers
C. Project Champions - Question 1.16 from pg.21

Explain what the downside risks of project management are.
work-life balance - Question 1.17 from pg.21

List the reasons why project management in a non-profit-driven organization is generally more difficult.
Projects are few and far between
Differing project managements requirements - cannot be managed the same
Executives lack time but do not delegate
Delays because approval follows vertical chain of command
Only a portion of the organization understands project management and sees the system in action
Heavy dependence on subcontractors and outside agencies for PM expertise - Question 1.18 from pg.22

The ultimate reporting location of the project manager is heavily dependent on what?
Whether organization is project or non-project driven
Whether the project manager is responsible for profit or loss - Question 1.19 from pg.27-28

In Project-driven organizations list the three career paths that lead to executive management.
Project management
Project engineering
Line management - Question 1.20 from pg.29

What statement describes concurrent or simultaneous engineering the best?
A. It requires that marketing, R&D, engineering and productions are all actively involved in the later project phases.
B. This concept will de–accelerate product development
C. It contains no risk of rework
D. It is an attempt to accomplish work in parallel rather than in series
D. It is an attempt to accomplish work in parallel rather than in series - Question 1.21 from pg.30

Explain how the general systems theory of management attempts to solve problems
Attempts to solve problems by looking at the total picture, rather than through an analysis of the individual components. - Question 2.1 from pg.38

What type of company would find project management mandatory?
A. Complex tasks in a dynamic environment
B. Simple tasks in a dynamic environment
C. Simple tasks in a static environment
D. Complex tasks in a static environment
A. Complex tasks in a dynamic environment - Question 2.2 from pg.40

In order, the 5 life–cycle phases for project management maturity are:
A. Embryonic, line management, executive management, growth, maturity
B. Executive management, embryonic, line management, growth, maturity
C. Embryonic, executive management, line management, growth, maturity
D. line management, executive management, Embryonic, growth, maturity
C. Embryonic, executive management, line management, growth, maturity - Question 2.3 from pg.45-48

How can an entity achieve the benefits derived from project management faster?
Training and education - Question 2.4 from pg.48

List four benefits of project management as seen in the present view.
Allows us to accomplish more work in less time with fewer people
Profitability will increase
Will provide better control of scope changes
Makes the organization more efficient and effective through better organizational behavior principles
Allows us to work more closely with our customers
Provides a means for solving problems
All projects will benefit
Increases quality
Reduces power struggles
Allows people to make good company decisions
Delivers solutions
Will increase business - Question 2.5 from pg.49

Which one of the following was a contributing factor in the resistance to change towards project management?
A. Mergers and acquisitions created more multinational companies
B. Intranet status reporting came of age
C. The recessions of 1979–1983 and 1989–1993
D. Senior management's preference for the status quo
D. Senior management's preference for the status quo - Question 2.6 from pg.53

Compare and contrast the difference between closed, open, and extended systems.
Closed - system isolated from the environmental system
Open - system reacts with environment
Extended - significantly dependent on other systems for its survival - Question 2.7 from pg.54-55

Identify the correct order from largest to smallest
A. project, program, system
B. Program, project, system
C. System, program, project
D. System, project, program
C. System, program, project - Question 2.8 from pg.54-55

Identify and describe four categories of projects.
Staff - functional unit
Matrix or aggregate (large # of functional units) - Question 2.9 from pg.56

What is the major difference between a project manager and a product manager?
Project manager develops. Product manager maintains. - Question 2.10 from pg.57

What is the definition of maturity in project management?
Implementation of a standard methodology and accompanying processes such that there exists a high likelihood of repeated successes - Question 2.11 from pg.58

What is the definition of excellence in project management?
Orgs excellent in project management are those that create the environment in which there exists a continuous stream of successfully managed projects and where success is measured by what is in the best interest of both the company and the project (i.e. customer) - Question 2.12 from pg.58

What is the number of years it typically takes to achieve maturity and excellence?
A. Maturity 2+ years, excellence 5+ years
B. Excellence 2+ years, maturity 5+ years
C. Excellence 1 year, maturity 10 years
D. Maturity 1 years, excellence 10 years
A. Maturity 2+ years, excellence 5+ years - Question 2.13 from pg.59

What are the differences between primary and secondary success factors? Illustrate your answer with examples of each.
primary - eyes of the customer (w/in time, cost, quality, and acceptable to customer)
secondary - internal benefits (follow-on work from customer, customer as reference, commercialization of product, minimum scope changes, w/o disturbing work flow or corporate culture, w/o violating safety. . .) - Question 2.14 from pg.60-62

What are some typical key performance indicators (KPI)?
Use of the project management methodology
Establishment of the control processes
Use of interim metrics
Quality of resources assigned for planned for
Client involvement

KPI measures the quality of the process to achieve the end results.
Answers question - methodology correct? management informed? proper resources? - Question 2.15 from pg.62

Perceived failure is which of the following?
A. The difference between what was planned and what was, in fact achieved.
B. The difference between what was achievable and what was actually accomplished.
C. The net sum of actual failure and planning failure.
D. The planned level of accomplishment.
C. The net sum of actual failure and planning failure - Question 2.16 from pg.63

Which of the following is not a theoretical definition of the life–cycle phases of a project?
A. Conceptual
B. Hybrid
C. Planning
D. Implementation
B. Hybrid
(actual phases are conceptual, planning, testing, implementation, closure) - Question 2.17 from pg.68

Explain the difference between operating costs and implementation costs.
operating = recurring
implementation = non-recurring - Question 2.18 from pg.68-69

"During the 1990's which of the following processes were integrated into a single methodology?
A. Project management and total quality management
B. Concurrent engineering and scope change control
C. Risk management
D. All of the above
D. All of the above - Question 2.19 from pg.74-75

Name two benefits that a company can expect if their project methodology is done correctly.
Faster "time to market" through better control of scope
Lower overall project risk
Better decision-making process
Greater customer satisfaction
More time available for value-added efforts - Question 2.20 from pg.76

Which of the following is the change process pattern?
A. Denial, resistance, exploration, support
B. Resistance, exploration, denial, support
C. Resistance, denial, resistance, exploration, support
D. Denial, resistance, exploration, resistance, support
D. Denial, resistance, exploration, resistance, support - Question 2.21 from pg.80

What ability is required for successful project management?
The ability to analyze the total project rather than the individual parts - Question 2.22 from pg.85

Term: general systems theory
A management approach that attempts to integrate and unify scientific information across many fields of knowledge. - Question 2.x from pg.38

Term: re-engineering
Elimination of organizational fat - Question 2.x from pg.52

Term: critical success factors
Identify what is necessary to meet the desired deliverables of the customer - Question 2.x from pg.62

Two types of resistance
Professional and personal - Question 2.x from pg.77

Types of cultures
Cooperative - based on trust and effective communication
Non-cooperative - mistrust prevails
Competitive - project teams compete for resources
Isolated - functional units develop their own PM cultures
Fragmented - part of the team is geographically separated - Question 2.x from pg.80-81

Term: systems approach
A logical and disciplined process of problem-solving - Question 2.x from pg.83

Identify at least 3 key points in the role of systems development in contemporary business
The need for new operating principles
Business reengineering
The need for an innovative systems perspective
The need for involvement from senior business management
Evolution of a process - Question 3.1 from pg.8-9

What hardware and software tools comprised the commercial applications used in the 1960s?
HW: 80-column cards and tape. CPUs with 8-12K of memory and 256K disk capacity (Mainframe Computers)
SW: 1st-2nd generation languages (Assembler and BAL; FORTRAN, BASIC, COBOL) - Question 3.2 from pg.9

A common example of a commercial application in the 1960s involved processing insurance policies. What was one activity related to policy issuance that was automated at most insurance companies?
A. Policy underwriting
B. Producing policy documents
C. Premium billing and collection
D. Producing sales promotion material
C. Premium billing and collection - Question 3.3 from pg.11

Identify at least 3 developments of the 1970s
Mini Computer
3rd generation programming languages (PL/1)
Mass storage devices and remote terminals
Relational databases
Establishment of IS organization
Waterfall Model
Prototypes - Question 3.4 from pg.13-18

Why was the Waterfall Model cumbersome for both IS and users?
Too much time documenting
Required user sign-off
Systems development was slow and laborious
Insufficient time for testing - Question 3.5 from pg.15

One of the events in the 1980s that had significant effect on systems development was the introduction of PCs into the business organization. What was one way in which this affected systems development?
A. The Waterfall Method of systems development was adopted by some users.
B. It required a centralized IS organization to support new hardware and software.
C. Users began to develop their own solutions to business
D. It introduced the Evolutionary Development model
C. Users began to develop their own solutions to business - Question 3.6 from pg.19

Identify the major problems with the Evolutionary Development model
System maintainability
Scope creep
Spaghetti code
Systems that evolved independently were difficult or impossible to integrate - Question 3.7 from pg.20-21

What were some of the problems with the data modeling approach?
Foreign to users
User became disenfranchised by the lengthy, seemingly academic process
Projects were taking longer and longer
Inflexible to changes in technology - Question 3.8 from pg.22-23

What is the mistake made today by most businesses when they are considering new information technology in their planning efforts?
They view it through the lens of their existing processes - Question 3.9 from pg.26

What are some of the components of Architected evolution?
Vision and strategy
Business area architecture
Process modeling
Application planning
- Question 3.10 from pg.28

How has managing application development projects changed?
The role of management is shifting from being a controller to one of being a coach and someone who removes barriers - Question 3.11 from pg.32

What is a problem with using object-oriented development tools?
Learning the concepts is not as easy as learning a new programming language - Question 3.12 from pg.33

State at least 6 of the 15 new principles of application development.
Reengineer business processes
Create a strong partnership between users and developers
Develop and articulate the business vision
Move to an open architecture and apply technology aggressively
Create an architectural vision in order to guide development
Conduct workshops with user groups to prep them for new processes
Lay the groundwork for future change
Achieve business results with a series of small successes
Achieve high quality and high productivity
Recognize the practical limits of people and technology
Raise the skill level of the project team members
Assemble and maintain a sensible, straightforward project plan
Assign a senior member of the staff to lead the project full-time
Don't ponder endlessly - Question 3.13 from pg.35-36

What is one of the newer roles seen on project development teams?
A. Business Technician
B. Application caseworker
C. Technical specialist
D. Technical analyst
B. Application caseworker - Question 3.14 from pg.32

Which of the following best describes what a business process is?
A. The rethinking and radical redesign to achieve dramatic improvements in critical contemporary measures of performance
B. The activity that supports a business function
C. The sequence of activities that brings value to a customer
D. The change in one component that can trigger a change in others
C. The sequence of activities that brings value to a customer - Question 3.15 from pg.40

Identify the 3 types of activities that business processes typically contain.
Value adding work
Non–value adding work
Waste. - Question 3.16 from pg.40

Define the ways that business process redesign impacts: (1) value adding work, (2) non-value adding work, and (3) waste.
Strive to change value added activity so that the amount of non-value added work is minimized and waste is identified and eliminated - Question 3.17 from pg.41

What is the focus and goal of business process redesign?
The goal of business process redesign is major performance improvement - Question 3.18 from pg.41

The purpose of business process redesign is to achieve improvements in which of the following measures of performance?
A. Cost, quality, service, speed
B. Quality, Efficiency, speed, service
C. Speed, service, efficiency, cost
D. Cost, Quality, efficiency, service
A. Cost, quality, service, speed - Question 3.19 from pg.41

Explain how a process redesign project is fundamentally different than a typical automation project.
Not automation of simple reorganization. Not work flow redesign. Not totally focused on efficiency. Does not result in incremental change.
Goes well beyond the scope of traditional automation. - Question 3.20 from pg.41-42

In redesigning the business process, what vital information must the redesign practitioner strive to uncover, and why?
Assumptions, so that they can be challenged. - Question 3.21 from pg.42

What is a goal of business process redesign?
A. Reorganization of human resources
B. A gain of competitive advantage
C. A reduction in cost
D. Adaptation of existing assumptions to current conditions
B. A gain of a competitive advantage - Question 3.22 from pg.42

Describe in correct sequence the 5 steps that make up the business model of business process redesign
1. Redesign starts with a vision, which is a clear description of the desired state
2. From the vision, organizations can define business processes to achieve the desired state.
3. Once processes are defined, people are organized in an appropriate structure.
4. Depending on the structure, evaluation and compensation systems will vary.
5. Finally, attitudes are influenced by what people do and how they are treated. The resulting culture enables execution. - Question 3.23 from pg.43

What components of an organization are affected by business process redesign?
Business process, organizational structures, management systems and culture - Question 3.24 from pg.43

List the key participants in process redesign and describe their primary roles and responsibilities
Senior management as champions and sustaining sponsors
Middle management as change agents and designers,
Staff for information, ideas, insight, and design
Outsiders for information, benchmarks, and the “alternate view”,
New role for IS
IS works with the customer to build business solutions - Question 3.25 from pg.43-44

List some of the advantages and desirable outcomes that one would expect as an end result of a process redesign effort.
Task integration and compression
Reduced hand-offs, errors, and cycle time
No waste, no delay, and reduced costs
Greater customer satisfaction and loyalty
Cross-functional leverage to eliminate extensive and expensive info exchange and to reduce inventories - Question 3.26 from pg.45

Identify some of the ways that IS organizations benefit from using a process redesign approach.
Makes it possible for IS to understand clearly the requirements
Precious IS resources not wasted
Forces IS into a relationship with organizational units
which results in greater satisfaction and sense of purpose - Question 3.27 from pg.46

Identify the 4 major factors causing the organizational revolution.
The technology revolution
Competition and the profit squeeze
The high cost of marketing
The unpredictability of consumer demands - Question 4.1 from pg.92

Describe the importance of the "sociotechnical subsystem" of an organization.
Represents the combination of the social system and the technical system of an organization, both of which must be considered whenever organization changes are being considered. The social system is an organization's personnel, while the technical system is an organization's technology, materials, and machines. - Question 4.2 from pg.92

Accountability can be defined as which of the following?
A. The power granted to individuals to make decisions
B. The state of being totally answerable for the satisfactory completion of a specific project
C. Authority plus responsibility
D. B and C
D. B and C - Question 4.3 from pg.95

What are the advantages and disadvantages of the traditional/classical functional organizational form?
ADVANTAGES: easier budgeting and cost control are possible, better technical control is possible, flexibility in the use of manpower, a broad manpower base to work with, continuity in the functional disciplines; polices, procedures, and line of responsibilities are easily defined and understandable, admits mass production activities within established specifications, good control over personnel, since each employee has one and only one person to report to, communication channels are vertical and well established, quick reaction capability exists but may be dependent upon the priorities of the functional managers.

DISADVANTAGES: No one individual is directly responsible for the total project, does not provide the project–oriented emphasis necessary to accomplish the project tasks, coordination becomes complex, and additional lead time is required for approval of decisions, decisions normally favor the strongest functional groups, no customer focal point, response to customer needs to slow, difficulty in pinpointing responsibility; this is the result of little or no direct project reporting, very little project oriented planning, and no project authority, motivation and innovation are decreased, ideas tend to be functionally oriented with little regard for ongoing projects. - Question 4.4 from pg.96-97

List and define 4 integrating mechanisms that attempt to coordinate the flow of work between functional units without modification to the existing organizational structure.
Rules and procedures - eliminates conflict between functional departments
Planning processes - demands functional representation at all planning, scheduling and budgeting meetings
Hierarchical referral - conflicts referred to upper-level personnel for resolution
Direct contact - functional managers meet face to face to resolve conflicts - Question 4.5 from pg.98-99

Early attempts to restructure organizations toward better project management were designed to keep the project manager, then called “project leader”:
A. As low as possible in the organization
B. At the same level
C. Above the first level of supervision
D. At the middle management
A. As low as possible in the organization - Question 4.6 from pg.99

Give 2 reasons why departmental project management works best in small organizations.
The other department managers know that they may have to supply the project leader on the next activity and there are only 3 functional boundaries or departments involved. - Question 4.7 from pg.100

Explain the 2 possible situations that can exist under the line-staff project organizational form, which is also called the 'project coordinator' organizational form.
1. Project manager serves only as focal point for activity control
2. Project manager is given more authority - Question 4.8 from pg.102-103

Which organizational structure depends on continuous flow of projects for work to be stable and conflicts minimized?
A. line–staff
B. Pure product/project
C. Matrix
D. Traditional
B. Pure product/project - Question 4.9 from pg.103

Summarize the advantages and disadvantages of the pure product organizational form.
ADVANTAGES: Provides complete line authority over the project, participants work directly for the project manager, unprofitable lines are easily identified and eliminated, strong communication channels, staff can maintain expertise w/o sharing personnel, rapid reaction time, personnel loyalty to project, focal point of customer relations, flexibility in determining time, cost, and performance trade-offs, interface management becomes easier as unit size decreased, upper-level management maintains more free time for executive decision-making

DISADVANTAGES: cost in a multiproduct co. would be prohibitive due to duplication of effort, facilities, and personnel; inefficient usage, tendency to retain personnel on a project long after they are needed, technology suffers, control of functional specialists requires top-level coordination, lack of opportunities for technical interchange, lack of career continuity and opportunities for project personnel. - Question 4.10 from pg.105

List the ground rules for development of the matrix organizational form.
Participants must spend full time on the project
Horizontal as well as vertical channels must exist
There must be quick and effective methods for conflict resolution
There must be good communication channels and free access between managers
All managers must have input into the planning process
Both horizontally and vertically oriented managers must be willing to negotiate for resources
The horizontal line must be permitted to operate as a separate entity except for administrative purposes - Question 4.11 from pg.106-107

Describe the major advantages of the pure matrix organizational form.
The project manager maintains maximum control over all resources
Policies and procedures can be set up independently for each project
The project manager has authority to commit company resources
Rapid responses are possible
Each person has a “home” after project completion
Key people can be shared, minimizing cost
A strong technical base can be developed
Conflicts are minimal
There is better balance among time, cost, and performance
Rapid development of specialists and generalists occurs
Authority and responsibility are shared
Stress is distributed among the team (and the functional manager) - Question 4.12 from pg.109

Most people consider a benefit of matrix management to be:
A. Project cost minimization by allowing employees to share their time on multiple projects
B. Allowing employees to be dedicated to one and only one project
C. Giving project managers wage and salary administration responsibility
D. All of the above
A. Project cost minimization by allowing employees to share their time on multiple projects - Question 4.13 from pg.108-109

Describe the major disadvantages of the pure matrix organizational form.
Multidimensional information and work flow
Dual reporting
Continuously changing priorities
Management goals differ from project goals
Potential for continuous conflict and conflict resolution
Difficulty in monitoring and control
Not cost effective because more people (esp. admin) are needed
Each project organization operates independently
More time and effort to define policies and procedures
Functional managers may be biased
Balance on power between functional and project organizations must be watched
Balance of time, cost, and performance must be monitored
Reaction time can become quite slow
Role ambiguity
Conflicts and their resolution may be a continuous process
People feel they do not have control of their own destiny when continuously reporting to multiple managers - Question 4.14 from pg.110

List and explain the 9 matrix pathologies identified by Davis and Lawrence
Power struggles
Collapse during economic crunch
Excessive overhead
Decision strangulation
Navel gazing - Question 4.15 from pg.111

Which of the following organizational forms would be likely to have an individual with the title of Director of Project Management?
A. Classical/traditional
B. Pure product/project
C. Matrix
D. Line–Staff
C. Matrix - Question 4.16 from pg.113-114

Explain matrix layering and list an example of matrix layering
Creation of one matrix within a second matrix
Example: A total company matrix + a matrix for each division or department - Question 4.17 from pg.118-119

The basic factors that influence the selection of a project organizational form include:
A. Size of project
B. Length of the project
C. Available resources
D. All of the above
D. All of the above - Question 4.18 from pg.119

What 2 questions should be asked when organizing a small company for projects?
Where should the project manager be placed within the organization?
Are the majority of the projects internal or external to the organization? - Question 4.19 from pg.125

What is the major benefit when large companies restructure into Strategic Business Units (SBUs)?
It allows the SBU to work more closely with the customer (customer-focused) - Question 4.20 from pg.128

Transitional management necessitates an understanding of the new goals, objectives, roles, expectations, and fears that people consider. In addition to training, executives states that 15 challenges must be accounted for during transition. List 8.
Transfer for power
Policies and procedures
Hierarchical consideration
Priority scheduling
Personnel problems
Project manager acceptance
Contradicting demands
Theory X-Theory Y
Overmanagement costs - Question 4.21 from pg.129-130
What are the 5 basic questions that are usually considered before the staffing function can begin?
1. What are the requirements for an individual to become a successful project manager?
2. Who should be a member of the project team?
3. Who should be a member of the project office?
4. What problems can occur during recruiting activities?
5. What can happen downstream to cause the loss of key team members? - Question 5.1 from pg.142

Identify and describe 2 major kinds of problems related to the project environment.
Personnel performance problems - besides the difficulties associated with changing to a project environment in which one reports to multiple managers and adapts continually to changing situation, there are issues related to personnel who want to show that they are chievers with ideas that can be transferred back to their functional home when the project is complete (it just has to be complete, success or failure is unimportant to the achiever). There are also issues when personnel are reporting to two managers who have a conflict.

Personnel policy problems - personnel policy problems can create havoc in an organization, especially if the 'grass is greener' in a project environment than in the functional environment. - Question 5.2 from pg.142-143

What are the characteristics of a good project manager?
Honesty and integrity
Understanding of personnel problems
Understanding of project technology
Business management competence (management principles and communications)
Alertness and quickness
Energy and toughness
Decision-making ability
Ability to evaluate risk and uncertainty - Question 5.3 from pg.143

Who is the person with the greatest influence during the staffing phase?
A. Project manager
B. Operations manager
C. Function manager
D. Procedures manager
A. Project manager - Question 5.4 from pg.143

What do the major responsibilities of the project manager include?
1. Produce the end–item with the available resources and within the constraints of time, cost, and performance/technology
2. To meet contractual profit objectives
3. To make all required decisions whether they be for alternatives or termination
4. To act as the customer and upper–level and functional management communications focal point
5. To "negotiate" with all functional disciplines for accomplishment of the necessary work packages within the constraints of time, cost, performance/technology
6. To resolve all conflicts - Question 5.5 from pg.145

Explain what skills project managers must demonstrate in order to fulfill their responsibilities successfully
interface, resource, and planning and control management - Question 5.6 from pg.145

What are the job-related questions to consider in selecting a project manager?
Are feasibility and economic analyses necessary?
Is complex technical expertise required? If so, is it within the individual's capabilities?
If the individual is lacking expertise. Will there be sufficient backup strength in the line organization?
Is this the company's or the individual's first exposure to this type of prject and/or client? If so, what are the risks to be considered?
What is the priority for the project, and what are the risks?
With who must the project manager interface, both insude and outside the organization? - Question 5.7 from pg.147

Why would an organization hire a project manager from the outside?
Would be less likely to have strong informal ties to any one line organization and thus could be impartial - Question 5.8 from pg.148

What are the 10 specific skills required of a program manager?
Team building
Conflict resolution
Technical expertise
Management support
Resource allocation - Question 5.9 from pg.149

Which one of the ten program manager skills involves a whole spectrum of management skills required to identify, commit, and integrate various task groups from the traditional functional organization into a single program management system?
A. Organizational skills
B. Planning skills
C. Leadership Skills
D. Team–building Skills
D. Team–building Skills - Question 5.10 from pg.149

What are the 7 criteria commonly used to select the wrong person as project manager?
Hard-Nosed Tactics
Technical expertise
Customer orientation
New exposure
Company exposure - Question 5.11 from pg.154-157

What are the reasons for and against promoting technical specialists to project managers?
Have better relationships with fellow researchers
Can prevent duplication of effort
Can foster teamwork
Have progressed up through the technical ranks
Are knowledgeable in many technical fields
Understand the meaning of profitability and general management philosophy
Are interested in training and teaching
Understand how to work with perfectionists

The greater the technical expertise, higher propensity to overly involve himself in technical details
The greater difficulty in delegating, more likely to over involve himself in technical details
The greater the interest in technical details, more likely to defend the PM's role as technical specialist
The lower the project manager's technical expertise, the more likely they will overstress the non-technical project funtions (e.g. administrative functions). - Question 5.12 from pg.155-156

Which of the following are the primary skills needed to be an effective project manager in the 21st century?
A. Knowledge of the business, risk management, integration skills
B. Technical expertise, risk management, leadership skills
C. Team–building, leadership skills, technical expertise
D. Leadership skills, knowledge of the business, integration skills
A. Knowledge of the business, risk management, integration skills - Question 5.13 from pg.158

What are the 3 steps for staffing the project office?
Evaluate all potential team members
Meeting between the project manager, upper-level management, and the project manager on whose project the requested individuals are currently assigned
Meet with upper-level management for the pupose of assuring that
- Assignments fall within current policies:
- Individuals can work well with both project manager and senior management
- Individuals select have good working releationships with functional managers - Question 5.14 from pg.164-166

What are the situations that can lead to terminating employees from a project?
Nonacceptance of rules, policies, and procedures
Nonacceptance of established formal authority
Professionalism being more important to them than company loyalty
Focusing on technical aspects at the expense of budget and schedule
Incompetence - Question 5.15 from pg.168

Define project office and explain what the responsibilities of the project office include
The project office is an organization developed to support the project manager in carrying out his duties

Acting as the focal point of information for both in–house control and customer reporting
Controlling time, cost, and performance to adhere to contractual requirements
Ensuring that all work required is documented and distributed to all key personnel
Ensuring that all work performed is both authorized and funded by contractual documentation - Question 5.16 from pg.169

What is the most common cause of project failure?
The lack of proper integration of these functional units - Question 5.17 from pg.169-170

What 4 major activities of the project office indicate the need for using full-time people?
Integration of activities
In-house and out-of-house communication
Scheduling with risk and uncertainty
Effective control - Question 5.18 from pg.170

Why must functional management be included during functional team staffing?
Functional manager have more expertise and can identify high-risk areas
Fucntional managers must develop a positive attitude toward project success, best achieved by inviting their participation. - Question 5.19 from pg.174

List and define the 7 destructive roles that can undermine a project?
The aggressor - Criticizes everbody and everything on the project, deflates the state/ego of other team members, always acts aggresively
The dominator - Always treis to take over, professes to know everthing about projectmanagement, tries to manipulate people, will challenge those in change for leadership role
The devil's advocate - finds faults in all areas of project, refuses to support project management, act more of a devil than an advocate
The topic jumper - must be the first one with a new idea/approach, constantly changes topics, cannot focus on ideas for a long time unless it's his/her idea, tries to keep project managment implementation as an action item forever
The recognition seeker - always argues in favor of his/her ideas, always demonstrates status consciouness, volunteers to become the project manager if status is recognized, likes to hear himself talke, likes to boast rather than provide meaniful info
The withdrawer - is afraid to be criticized, will not participate openly, may withold info, may be shy
The blocker - likes to criticize, rejects the views of others, cites unrelated examples and personal experiences, has multiple reasons why project management will not work - Question 5.20 from pg.181-182

Which one of the destructive roles must be the first one with a new idea/approach to project management?
A. The aggressor
B. The dominator
C. The topic jumper
D. The recognition seeker
C. the topic jumper - Question 5.21 from pg.181

List the type of people who should be assigned to implementation teams and what questions they might ask that makes them assets to a team.
The initiators - "Is there a chance this might work?"
The information seekers - "Have we tried anything like this before?"
The information givers - "other companies found that . . . "
The encouragers - "Your idea has a lot of merit"
The clarifiers - "Are we saying that . . .?"
The harmonizers - "We sort of agree, don't we?"
The consensus takers - "Let's see if the team is in agreement."
The gate keepers "Who has not given us their opinion on this yet?" - Question 5.22 from pg.182-183

Which one of the supportive roles would use the words "let's try this."
A. The encouragers
B. The harmonizers
C. The gatekeepers
D. None of the above
D. None of the above (the initiator) - Question 5.23 from pg.182-183
List and explain the 5 management school philosophies
1. Classical/traditional management school – management is the process of getting things done (i.e., achieving objectives) by working both with and through people operating in organized groups. Emphasis is placed on the end–item or objective, with little regard for the people involved.
2. Empirical management school – managerial capabilities can be developed by studying the experiences of other managers, whether or not the situations are similar.
3. Behavioral management school – consists of 2 schools of thought. 1st – We have human relations classroom, in which we emphasize the interpersonal relationship between individuals. 2nd – Includes the social system of the individual. Management is considered to be a system of cultural relationships involving social change.
4. Decision theory management school – management is a rational approach to decision making using a system of mathematical models and processes, such as operations research and management science.
5. Management systems school – says management is the development of a systems model, characterized by input, processing, and output, and directly identifies the flow of resources (money, equipment, facilities, personnel, information, and material) necessary to obtain some objective by either maximizing or minimizing some objective function. The management systems school also includes contingency theory, which stresses that each situation is unique and must be optimized separately within the constraints of the system. - Question 6.1 from pg.192

Which 2 of the 5 management schools are utilized by project managers?
A. Empirical/behavioral
B. Behavioral/decision theory
C. Decision theory/management systems
D. Management systems/traditional
C. Decision theory/management systems - Question 6.2 from pg.192

Define the 3 steps associated with the ""controlling"" function
Measuring–determining through formal and informal reports the degree to which progress toward objectives is being made

Evaluating–determining cause of and possible ways to act on significant deviations from planned performance, and correcting

Correcting–taking control action to correct an unfavorable trend or to take advantage of an unusually favorable trend - Question 6.3 from pg.193

The ""directing"" functional involves which of the following steps?
A. staffing, training, evaluating
B. supervising, delegating, measuring
C. measuring, evaluating, corrective
D. motivating, counseling, coordinating
D. motivating, counseling, coordinating

NOTE: Also includes staffing, training, supervising, and delegating - Question 6.4 from pg.193-194

What are the 4 questions that must be considered in describing project authority?
1. What is project authority?
2. What is power, and how is it achieved?
3. How much project authority should be granted to the project manager?
4. Who settles project authority interface problems? - Question 6.5 from pg.198

What are the most common sources of power and authority problems in a project environment?
Poorly documented or no formal authority
Power and authority perceived incorrectly
Dual accountability of personnel
Two bosses (who often disagree)
The project organization encouraging individualism
Subordinate relations stronger than peer or superior relationships
Shifting of personnel loyalties from vertical to horizontal lines
Group decision-making based on the strongest group
Ability to influence or administer rewards and punishment
Sharing resources among several projects - Question 6.6 from pg.199

Differentiate between the project manager's authority level and the functional manager's authority level in a project effort.
Project manager - determines "when" and "what" of project activities
Functional manager - determines ""how the support will be given"" - Question 6.7 from pg.199-200

Which of the following is viewed as the critical stage of a project?
A. planning
B. organizing
C. directing
D. controlling
A. planning - Question 6.8 from pg.200

What does the project team develop during the planning phase?
A responsibility assignment matrix (RAM) - Question 6.9 from pg.200

Explain why documenting the project manager's authority is necessary.
All interfacing must be kept as simple as possible.
The PM must have the authority to ""force"" functional managers to depart from existing standards and possibly incur risk.
The PM must gain authority over those elements of a program that are not under his control (normally by earning respect).
The PM should not attempt to fully describe the exact authority and responsibilities of his project office personnel or team members - instead encourage problem-solving. - Question 6.10 from pg.205

List and define the 5 interpersonal influences that project managers use
–Legitimate power – The ability to gain support because project personnel perceive the project manager as being officially empowered to issue orders.
–Reward power – The ability to gain support because project personnel perceive the project manger as capable of directly or indirectly dispensing valued organizational rewards (i.e., salary, promotion, bonus, future work assignments).
–Penalty power – The ability to gain support because the project personnel perceive the project manager as capable of directly or indirectly dispensing penalties that they wish to avoid. Penalty power usually derives from the same source as reward power, with one being a necessary condition for the other.
–Expert power – The ability to gain support because the project personnel perceive the project manager as possessing special knowledge or expertise (that functional personnel consider as important).
–Referent power – The ability to gain support because the project personnel feel personally attracted to the project manager or his project. - Question 6.11 from pg.206-207

What barriers are typical for many project environments?
Differing outlooks, priorities and interested
role conflicts
project objectives/outcomes not clear
dynamic project environments
competition over team leadership
lack of team definition and structure
team personnel selection
credibility of project leader
lack of team member commitment
communication problems
lack of senior management - Question 6.12 from pg.211-212

Which one is NOT a barrier to effective team building?
A. Dynamic project environment
B. Team personnel Selection
C. Cost allocation issues
D. Credibility of project leader
C. Cost allocation issues - Question 6.13 from pg.211-212

What are the likely characteristics of an effective team?
High performance and task efficiency
Innovative/creative behavior
Professional objectives of team members coincide with project requirements
Team members highly interdependent; interface effectively
Capacity for conflict resolution, but conflict encouraged when it can lead to beneficial results
Effective communication
High trust levels
Results orientation
Interest in membership
High energy levels and enthusiasm
High morale
Change orientation - Question 6.14 from pg.216

What are the likely characteristics of an ineffective team?
Low performance
Low commitment to project objectives
Unclear project objectives and fluid commitment levels from key participants
Unproductive gamesmanship, manipulation of others, hidden feelings, conflict avoidance at all costs
Confusion, conflict, inefficiency
Subtle sabotage, fear, disinterest, or foot-dragging
Cliques, collusion, isolation of members
Lethargy/unresponsiveness - Question 6.15 from pg.216

List the 5 most common dysfunctions of a team
1. Absence of trust
2. Fear of conflict
3. lack of commitment
4. avoidance of accountability
5. inattention to results - Question 6.16 from pg.217

Define leadership. What are the 3 most common complex elements of leadership?
A style of behavior designed to integrate both the organizational requirements and one's personal interests into the pursuit of some objective.

3 elements:
1. person leading
2. people being led
3. situation (project environment) - Question 6.17 from pg.220

Explain what the life-cycle leadership model is, and explain why it is perceived to be the best model for analyzing leadership.
Hersey and Blanchard - delegating, particpating, selling, telling
Model implies that effective leadership must be both dynamic and flexible - Question 6.18 from pg.221-223

Leadership emphasis is best seen by which of the following?
A. Management problem-solving, organizational order, employee performance, and performance of the project manager
B. Contributions from people, organizational order, employee performance, and performance of the project manager
C. Contributions from people, organizational order, performance of the project manager, and management problem-solving
D. None of the above
B. Contributions from people, organizational order, employee performance, and performance of the project manager - Question 6.19 from pg.225-226

The 2 most common problem areas in the project environment are:
A. Task assignment and evaluation process
B. Training and development
C. Job descriptions and salary grades
D. Authority and responsibility
D. Authority and responsibility - Question 6.20 from pg.227

One of the major causes of prolonged problem-solving is a lack of pertinent information. What information should be reported by the project manager?
The problem
The cause
The expected impact on schedule, budget, profit, or other pertinent areas
The action taken or recommended and the results expected of that action
What top management can do to help - Question 6.21 from pg.230

List the different types of management pitfalls.
Lack of self-control (knowing oneself)
Activity traps
Managing vs. doing
People vs. task skills
Ineffective communications
Time management
Management bottlenecks - Question 6.22 from pg.230-231

Why do activity traps result and what are the most common activity traps?
When the means become the end, rather than the ends to achieve the end.

Team meetings, customer-technical interchange meetings, and the development of special schedule and charts to inform upper-level management of project status - Question 6.23 from pg.231

Define effective project communication and explain why it is needed.
An exchange of information
An act or instance of transmitting information
A verbal or written message
A technique for expressing ideas effectively
A process by which meanings are exchanged between individuals through a common system of symbols

Ensures that we get the right info to the right person at the right time in a cost-effective manner - Question 6.24 from pg.233

What are the techniques that can be used to improve communications?
1. Obtaining feedback
2. Establishing multiple communications channels
3. Using face–to–face communications is possible
4. determining how sensitive the receiver is to your communications
5. being aware of symbolic meaning such as expressions on people's faces
6. communicating at the proper time
7. reinforcing words with actions
8. using simple language
9. using redundancy - Question 6.25 from pg.239

Which one of the following is a barrier associated with communications?
A. reinforcing words with actions
B. using redundancy
C. Receiver evaluating the source before accepting the communications
D. Words meaning the same things to different people
C. Receiver evaluating the source before accepting the communications - Question 6.26 from pg.239

What are typical communication styles?
Combative - Question 6.27 from pg.240-242

What 3 important conclusions can be drawn about communications techniques and barriers?
Don't assume that the message you sent will be received in the form you sent it.
The swiftest and most effective communications take place among people with common points of view. The manager who fosters good relations with his associates will have little difficulty in communicating with them.
Communications must be established early in the project - Question 6.28 from pg.240

What is the most common communication bottleneck?
When all communications between the customer and the parent organization must flow through the project office. - Question 6.29 from pg.243

Between what relationships do communication traps occur most frequently?
A. Customer–contractor
B. Project office – line managers
C. Project manager – customer
D. None of the above
A. Customer–contractor - Question 6.30 from pg.244
What questions can be asked of project managers to help them realize that a time management problem may exist?
1. Do you have trouble completing work within deadlines?
2. How many interruptions are there each day?
3. Do you have a procedure for handling interruptions
4. If you need a large block of uninterrupted time, is it available? with or without overtime
5. How do you handle drop–in visitors and phone calls?
6. How is incoming mail handled?
7. Do you have est procedures for routine work?
8. Are you accomplishing more or less than you were 3 months ago? 6 months ago?
9. How difficult is it for you to say no?
10. How do you approach detail work?
11. Do you perform work that should be handled by your subordinates?
12. Do you have sufficient time each day for personal interests?
13. Do you still think about your job when away from the office?
14. Do you make a list of things to do? If yes, is the list prioritized?
15. Does your schedule have some degree of flexibility?
16. Do you have established procedures for routine work? - Question 7.1 from pg.286

The most challenging time robber facing project managers is their inability to say no. An example of this that you might face as a project manager is when an employee comes into your office with a problem. Identify the steps you should keep in mind as a project manager when this employee wants you to own this problem.
Screen out the problems with which you do not want to get involved.
If the situation does not necessitate your involvement, make sure the employee knows that it is his problem.
If it still requires your attention, remind the employee that all future decisions will be joint decisions and the problem will still be on his shoulders. - Question 7.2 from pg.286-287

Which of the following are time robbers?
A. Incomplete work
B. Desire for perfection
C. Too many meetings
D. All of the above
D. All of the above - Question 7.3 from pg.287

List the steps (in chronological order) to follow when using a "to do" pad and a daily calendar log.
–Prepare the list of things to do
–Decide which activities must be performed by the project manager
–Assign the appropriate priorities
–Transfer the highest priorities to the daily calendar log
–Assign activities to the appropriate time blocks based on the project manager's energy cycle - Question 7.4 from pg.288

List the techniques that project managers can practice in order to make better use of their time.
follow the schedule
decide fast
decide who should attend
learn to say no
start now
do the tough part first
travel light
work at travel spots
avoid useless memos
refuse to do the unimportant
look ahead, ask: is this trip necessary
know your energy cycle
control telephone and email
send out the meeting agenda
overcome procrastination
manage exception - Question 7.5 from pg.289-290

Identify the rules for time management that all project managers must establish in order to be effective
Rules for time management:
conduct a time analysis(time log)
plan solid blocks for important things
classify your activities
establish priorities
establish opportunity cost on activities
train your system
practice delegation
practice calculated neglect
practice management by exception
focus on opportunities – not on problems - Question 7.6 from pg.290

Describe the 4 questions that project managers can ask themselves to gauge their time management effectiveness
What am I doing that I don't have to do at all?
What am I doing that can be done better by someone else?
What am I doing that could be done as well by someone else?
Am I establishing the right priorities for my activities? - Question 7.7 from pg.290

List the factors that can make an occupation stressful, all of which are common in a project manager's job.
responsibility without the authority or ability to exert control
a necessity for perfection
the pressure of deadlines
role ambiguity, role conflict, role overload
the crossing of organizational boundaries
responsibility for the actions of subordinates
the necessity to keep up with the information explosions or technological breakthroughs - Question 7.8 from pg.290

One of the manifestations of stress for a project manager is "feeling trapped". Identify the most common situation in which project managers feel trapped, and provide a suggestion for how to remedy the situation.
The most common situation where PM's feel trapped is when they have no control over the assigned resources on the project and feel as though they are at the mercy of the line managers. Providing the project manager with some type of direct reward power can remedy the situation. - Question 7.9 from pg.291
What are 4 questions that should be asked in order to understand why conflict occurs?
What are the project objectives and are they in conflict with other projects?
Why do conflicts occur?
How do we resolve conflicts?
Is there any type of analysis that could identify possible conflicts before they occur? - Question 8.1 from pg.296

What invites conflict to occur?
The objectives of the project must be made known to all the project personnel and managers at every level of the organization. If this information is not communicated accurately, then it is entirely possible that upper level managers , project managers, and functional managers may all have a different interpretation of the ultimate objective, a situation that invites conflicts. - Question 8.2 from pg.296

Projects are established with objective in mind. Which of the following is NOT characteristic of what a project objective should be?
A. General in nature
B. Not overly complex
C. Established within resource bounds
D. None of the above
A. General in nature - Question 8.3 from pg.296

Explain the philosophy of the management-by-objective (MBO) approach.
Is pro-active rather than reactive management
Is results oriented, emphasizing accomplishment
Focuses on change to improve individual and organizational effectiveness - Question 8.4 from pg.297

The most common types of conflicts involve:
A. manpower resources, capital expenditures, costs
B. priorities, personality clashes, scheduling, technical opinions, and performance trade–offs
C. responsibilities, administrative procedures, equipment and facilities
D. All of the above
D. All of the above - Question 8.5 from pg.297-298
Name the most common factors influencing the establishment of project priorities.
The technical risks in development
The risks the company will incur, financially or competitively
The nearness of the delivery date and the urgency
The penalties that can accompany late delivery dates
The expected savings, profit increase, and return on investment
The amount of influence that the customer possesses, possibly due to the size of the project
The impact on other projects or product lines
The impact on affiliated organizations - Question 8.6 from pg.299

Why do conflicts still occur?
Increase potential for conflict:
- Greater diversity of disciplinary expertise
- Lower project manager's authority, reward, and punishment power
- Less specific objectives of a project
- Greater role of ambiguity among participants
- Perception that implementation of a project management system will usurp traditional roles
- Lower interdependence
- Deep-seated parochial resentments (with higher managerial level)

Decrease potential for conflict:
- Greater agreement on superordinate goals by participants - Question 8.7 from pg.299-300

What are the 4 most common methods for resolving conflict?
1. Development of company–wide conflict resolution policies and procedures
2. The establishment of project conflict resolution procedures during the early planning activities
3. Use of hierarchical referral
4. Requirement of direct contact - Question 8.8 from pg.300
Which one of the 4 conflict resolution methods is doomed to failure, and why?
Development of company–wide conflict resolution policies and procedures, because each project and each project manager is different - Question 8.9 from pg.300

Which one of the 4 conflict resolution methods is often very effective?
The establishment of project conflict resolution procedures during the early planning activities. "Plan" for conflicts during the planning activities. - Question 8.10 from pg.300

What statement best describes direct contact?
A. Conflicting parties meet face–to–face and resolve their disagreement
B. Project and functional manager agree that their common superior must resolve conflict
C. Managers prefer to resolve conflicts in their own fashion
D. Penalty power is the best resolution to conflict
A. Conflicting parties meet face–to–face and resolve their disagreement - Question 8.11 from pg.301

What is needed for a project manager to be effective?
A. Develop a company wide conflict resolution policies and procedures
B. Set strict completion dates and deadlines for projects
C. Understand how to work with the various employees who interface with the project
D. Ignore personality conflicts and hope they will go away on their own
C. Understand how to work with the various employees who interface with the project - Question 8.12 from pg.301

Who are the various employees that a project manager must interface with during a project?
Upper-level management, subordinate project team members, and functional personnel - Question 8.13 from pg.301

What preliminaries must a project manager observe when conflict occurs?
Study the problem and collect all available information
Develop a situational approach or methodology
Set the appropriate atmosphere or climate - Question 8.14 from pg.303

Which is NOT a logical step or sequence of events that should be taken if a confrontation meeting is necessary?
A. Collecting the information
B. Dictating the information
C. Sharing the information
D. Organizing the group
B. Dictating the information - Question 8.15 from pg.303-304

Which of the following is a conflict minimization procedure?
A. Not pausing and thinking before reacting
B. Not educating others on your views
C. Not acting as a superman and leveling the discussion only once in a while
D. None of the above
C. Not acting as a superman and leveling the discussion only once in a while - Question 8.16 from pg.304

What is the role of an effective manager in conflict problem solving?
Knows the organization
Listens with understanding rather than evaluation
Clarifies the nature of the conflict
Understands the feelings of others
Suggests the procedures for resolving differences
Maintains relationships with disputing parties
Facilitates the communications process
Seeks resolutions - Question 8.17 from pg.304

Which conflict resolution mode should be used to maintain your relationship with your opponent?
A. Confronting
B. Compromising
C. Smoothing/accommodating
D. Avoiding/withdrawing
B. Compromising - Question 8.18 from pg.305

Which conflict resolution mode is used as an attempt to reduce the emotions that exist in a conflict?
A. Confronting
B. Compromising
C. Smoothing/accommodating
D. Avoiding/withdrawing
C. Smoothing/accommodating - Question 8.19 from pg.305

Which of the conflict resolution modes is often regarded as a temporary solution? Explain why.
Avoiding (or withdrawing) The problem and the resulting conflict can come up again and again. - Question 8.20 from pg.306
What are the most important responsibilities of a project manager?
Planning, integrating, and executing plans - Question 9.1 from pg.411

What are the four key attributes shared by all successful project plans?
1. Systematic
2. Flexible
3. Disciplined
4. Multifunctional - Question 9.2 from pg.412

Why is "completely define all work required" a necessity in project planning?
If the task is well understood prior to being performed, much of the work can be preplanned.
If the task is not uderstood, then during the actual task execution more knowledge is gained that, in turn, leads to changes in resource allocations, schedules, and priorities.
The more uncertain the task, the greater the amount of information that must be processed in order to ensure effective performance. - Question 9.3 from pg.412

List the consequences of poor planning.
Project initiation without defined requirements
Wild enthusiasm
Search for the guilty
Punishment of the innocent
Promotion of the nonparticipants - Question 9.4 from pg.412

Basic reasons for project planning include all except
A. Eliminate or reduce uncertainty
B. Define tasks
C. Promote better understanding of objectives
D. Provide basis for monitoring and controlling work
E. Improve efficiency of the operation
B. Define tasks - Question 9.5 from pg.414

List the 9 major components of the planning phase.
Standard - Question 9.6 from pg.415

Project management/project planning is most closely aligned with:
A. Strategic planning (5 yrs or more)
B. Tactical planning (1–5 yr)
C. Operational planning (6 months to 1 yr)
D. Procedural planning (1 month–6 mnths)
C. Operational Planning – 6 months to 1 year - Question 9.7 from pg.415

Operational planning is generally for how long?
A. 6 months to 1 year
B. 1 - 5 years
C. 5 or more years
D. B and C only
A. 6 months to 1 year - Question 9.8 from pg.415

There are 3 levels in the organization in which planning takes place. Name and describe them.
Individual - so that cognitive simulation can be established before irrevocable actions are taken.

Working group/functional - includes:
agreement on purpose
assignment and acceptance of individual responsibility
coordination of work activities
increased commitment to group goals
lateral communications

Organizational/project - includes:
recognition and resolution of group conflict on goals
assignment and acceptance of group responsibilities
increased motivation and commitment to organizational goals
vertical and lateral communications
coordination of activities between groups - Question 9.9 from pg.416

In order to keep planning on target, project managers should:
A. Stay flexible
B. Let functional managers do their own planning
C. Test the assumptions behind the forecasts
D. All of the above
D. All of the above

Also includes:
Establish goals before you plan
Set goals for the planners
Keep a balanced outlook
Welcome top-management participation
Beware of future spending plans
Don't focus on today's problems
Reward those who dispel illusions - Question 9.10 from pg.417-418

There are 2 levels on which project planning takes place. Name the levels and describe the first approach.
Level 1 - Corporate cultural approach - breaks the project down into life-cycle phases.
Level 2 - Individual's approach - Question 9.11 from pg.418

During which phase of the project is it best to approach to choose and document project objectives?
3rd life cycle: Preliminary planning or defining the requirements - Question 9.12 from pg.420

The conceptualization phase includes brainstorming and common sense and involves which 2 critical factors?
A. Identify and define the problem
B. Feasibility
C. Identify and define potential solutions
D. A & C only
D. A & C only - Identify and define the problem and Identify and define potential solutions - Question 9.13 from pg.419

What is the purpose of the feasibility phase?
Provide management with the predictable results of implementing a specific project and to provide generalized project requirements. - Question 9.14 from pg.419

Up to ____% of the direct labor hours and dollars can be spend before execution begins:
A. 25
B. 50
C 75
D. None of the above
B. 50 - Question 9.15 from pg.421

What is the preferred method for project proposal preparation?
A. Project manager prepares entire proposal
B. Project manager prepares proposal but is assisted by a proposal manager
C. Proposal manager prepares entire proposal
D. Proposal manager prepares proposal but is assisted by a project manager
D. Proposal manager prepares proposal but is assisted by a project manager - Question 9.16 from pg.421

List the aspects of planning for which line managers and senior management are responsible.
Line managers will define:
● detailed task descriptions to implement objectives, requirements, and milestones
● detailed schedules and manpower allocations to support budget and schedule
● identification of areas of risk
Senior Management will:
● Act as the negotiator for disagreements between project and line management
● Provide clarification of critical issues
● Provide communication link with customer's senior managements - Question 9.17 from pg.424

What two characteristics are common to project objectives?
They are:
Generally not independent
Interrelated both implicitly and explicitly - Question 9.18 from pg.425

Problems can occur in trying to properly define a project because:
A. Project goals may not be agreeable to all parties
B. The plan was too loose, thus allowing priorities to change
C. Turnover of project personnel is low
D. There is too much communication between the client and project personnel
A. Project goals may not be agreeable to all parties - Question 9.19 from pg.425

What are the 4 questions that must be considered after the objectives are clearly defined?
What are the major elements of the work required to satisfy the objectives, and how are these elements interrelated?
Which functional divisions will assume responsibility for accomplishment of these objectives and the major element work requirements?
Are the required corporate and organizational resources available?
What are the information flow requirements for the project? - Question 9.20 from pg.425

Effective total program planning must include:
The Statement of work (SOW)
The project specifications
The milestone schedule
The work breakdown structure (WBS) - Question 9.21 from pg.425

In what will misrepresentation of the SOW result, and what are some common causes of the misinterpretation?
Mixing tasks, specifications, approvals, and special instructions.
Using imprecise language.
No pattern, structure, or chronological order.
Wide variation in size of tasks.
Wide variation in how to describe details of the work.
Failing to get 3rd-party review.
- Question 9.22 from pg.427

For what are project specifications used?
Man-hour, equipment, and material estimates.
Makes sure there are no surprises for customer downstream.
Standards for pricing out a proposal. - Question 9.23 from pg.431

What information do project milestone schedules contain?
Project start date
Project end date
Other major milestones (review meetings, prototype available, procurement, testing)
Data items (deliverables or reports) - Question 9.24 from pg.433

A work–breakdown structure can best be defined as a:
A. Detailed plan
B. Linear responsibility chart
C. Product–oriented family tree of activities
D. Cost accounting coding system
C. Product–oriented family tree of activities - Question 9.25 from pg.434

List four considerations for preparation of the WBS.
1. Scheduling
2. configuration management
3. contract funding
4. technical performance parameters - Question 9.26 from pg.434

Why is the WBS the single most important element in planning?
A. Provides project start date
B. Provides a common framework
C. Provides project requirements
D. Provides ground rules
B. Provides a common framework - Question 9.27 from pg.434

WBS can be used to provide the basis for:
The responsibility matrix
Network scheduling
Risk analysis
Organizational structure
Coordination of objectives
Control (including contract administration) - Question 9.28 from pg.435

What are the purposes and characteristics for each level in the WBS?
Level 1: Is generally used for the authorization and release of all work
Level 2: prepare budgets
Level 3: prepare schedules - Question 9.29 from pg.435-436

Name and explain the natural subdivisions of cost accounts that constitute the basic building blocks used by the contractor in planning, controlling, and measuring contract performance.
Work packages - low level tasks or job assignments. - Question 9.30 from pg.437

Which of the following is a characteristic of a work package?
A. Represent units of work at a level where work is performed
B. Clearly distinguish one set of tasks from all others assigned to a single functional group
C. Limit the work to be performed to relatively short periods of time
D. All of the above
D. All of the above - Question 9.31 from pg.437-438

If the contractor is required to develop a WBS, name the guideline(s) that must be considered.
A. Number of contacts
B. Complexity and technical requirements of the program
C. Contractors' and customers' external structure for management control and reporting
D. All of the above
B. Complexity and technical requirements of the program - Question 9.32 from pg.439

What are some common problems associated with WBS decomposition?
● The number of work packages required is so large that the costs exceed the benefits.
● Costs may not be available for the level of detail required.
● Combining direct support activities with adminstrative activies.
● Interdependencies between activities become so complex that meaningful networks cannot be constructed. - Question 9.33 from pg.440

WBS can be used to structure work for reaching what objectives?
● Lowering cost
● Reducing absenteeism
● Improving Morale
● Lowering scrap factors - Question 9.34 from pg.441

Describe the preparating guidelines, and checklists for WBS
Preparationg guides:
● Develop the WBS structure by subdividing the total effort into discrete and logical subelements
● Check the proposed WBS and the contemplated efforts for completeness and compabilitiy
● Determine that the WBS satisfies both functional and program/project requirements, including recurring and nonrecurring costs
● Check to determine if the WBS provides for logical subdivion of all project work
● Establish assignment of responsibilities for all identified effor to specific organization
● Check the proposed WBS against the reporting requirements of the organizations involved
Checklists used in preparation:
● Develop a preliminary WBS to not lower than the top three levels for solicitation purposes
● Assure that the contractor is required to extend the preliminary WBS in respons to the solicitation to identify and structure all contractor work to be compatible with his/her organization and management system
● Following negotiations, the CWBS included in the contract should not normally extend lower than the third level
● Assure that the negotiated CWBS structure is compatible with reporting requirements
● Assure that the negotiated CWBS is compatible with the contractor's organization
● Review the CWBS elements to ensure correlation with specifiation tree, contract line items, end-items of the contract, data items required, work statement tasks, and configuation management requirements
● Define CWBS elements down tot he level where such definitions are meaningful and necessary for management purposes
● Specify reporting requirements for selected CWBS elements if variation from standard reporting requirements are desired
● Assure that the CWBS covers measurable effort, level of effort, apportioned effort, and subcontractors
● Assure that the total costs at a particular level will equal the sum of the costs of the constituent elements at the next lower level - Question 9.35 from pg.442-443

Which are the common methods for structuring the WBS?
● Flow - projects less than 2 years in length
● life-cycle - longer than 2 years
● Organization - used for project that may be reptitive or require very little integration between functional untis. - Question 9.36 from pg.444
Project selection is the prime responsibility of senior management. This is a 2-part process. Name and explain their purpose.
Feasibility study - can the project be done?
Benefit-to-cost analysis - should the project be done? - Question 10.1 from pg.444-446

What are executives responsible for during planning?
Selecting the project manager. - Question 10.2 from pg.449

What can be used to keep extra costs and delays down during planning phasing?
A management cost and control system (MCCS) - Question 10.3 from pg.449

List the 5 phases of a management cost and control system.
Work authorization and release
Cost data collation and reporting
Cost accounting
Customer and reporting - Question 10.4 from pg.450

What is a narrative description of the effort to be performed by the cost center?
C. SWD - subdivided work description - Question 10.5 from pg.450-451

Give the reasons project plans fail. * KNOW THIS*
Corporate goals are not understood at the lower organizational levels
Plans encompass too much in too little time
Financial estimates are poor
Plans are based on insufficient data
No attempt is being made to systematize the planning process
Planning is performed by the planning group
No one knows the ultimate objective
No one knows the major milestone dates
Project estimates are not based on standards or history
Not enough time given for proper estimating
Not working toward same specifications
Unsure if personnel has necessary skills
People consistently shuffled in and out of the project - Question 10.6 from pg.451

Give reasons why projects are stopped. *KNOW THIS*
Final achievement of the objectives
Poor initial planning and market prognosis
A better alternative is found
A change in company interest and strategy
Allocated time is exceeded
Budgeted costs are exceeded
Key people leave to organization
Personal whims of management
Problem too complex for the resources available - Question 10.7 from pg.452

How does one stop a project?
A. The "hatchet"
B. Reassignment of people to higher priority tasks
C. Redirection of efforts toward different objectives
D. All of the above
D. All of the above - Question 10.8 from pg.452-453

What should planning for project termination include?
Transferring responsibility
Completion of project records (historic reports and postproject analysis)
Documenting results to reflect "as built" product or installation
Acceptance by sponsor/user
Satisfying contractual requirements
Releasing resources
Reassigning project office team members
Disposition of functional personnel
Disposition of materials
Closing out work order (financial closeout)
Preparing for financial payments - Question 10.9 from pg.453

What are some of the personnel issues that might arise that are associated with the closing (final phase) of a project? *KNOW THIS*
Due to uncertain job assignments once a project ends, employees can experience anxiety and conflict leading to foot dragging, sabotage, work slowdowns, demoralization, wasted energy for job hunting, and leaving the project prematurely. - Question 10.10 from pg.454

List the 4 guidelines used in the preparation of schedules, regardless of their projected use or complexity.
All major events and dates must be clearly identified
The exact sequence of work should be defined through a network in which interrelationships between events can be identified
Schedules should be directly relatable to the work breakdown structure
All schedules must identify the time constraints and, if possible, should identify those resources required for each event. - Question 10.11 from pg.455

What is the question that should be considered before preparing a schedule?
A. How much of a detailed technical breakdown should be included?
B. How many interruptions are there each day?
C. What is the impact of overtime?
D. All of the above
A. How much of a detailed technical breakdown should be included?
- Question 10.12 from pg.455

Why do most corporations use multiple schedules and what are the objectives for developing them?
Summary schedules are for management and planners
Detailed schedules are for doers and lower-level control
Objectives are to coordinate activities to complete the project with the best time, least cost, and least risk, also to study alternatives - Question 10.13 from pg.455

Describe what a hedge position is on a schedule *KNOW THIS*
Situation in which the contractor may not be able to meet a customer's milestone date without incurring risks, or may not be able to meet activity requirements following a milestone date because of contractual requirements - Question 10.14 from pg.455-456

What is the definition of a master production schedule? List its objectives. *KNOW THIS*
Is a statement of what will be made, how many units will be made, and when they will be made (production plan not a sales plan). - Question 10.15 from pg.458

The project plan can measure performance by the customer and program and functional managers. What questions can it answer?
What will be accomplished?
How will it be accomplished?
Where will it be accomplished?
When will it be accomplished?
Why will it be accomplished? - Question 10.16 from pg.459

What are the most common reasons for revising a project plan?
A. "Crashing" activities to meet end dates
B. Trade–off decisions involving manpower, scheduling, and performance
C. Adjusting and leveling manpower requests
D. all of the above
D. all of the above - Question 10.17 from pg.461

What are the 4 main sections of a project [or program] plan? *KNOW THIS*
A. Schedule development, budget development, project administration, and conflict management
B. Introduction, summary and conclusions, management, and technical
C. Planning, work authorization, cost accounting, and customer reporting
D. Work breakdown structure, work planning authorization, master production schedule, and detailed schedule
B. Introduction, summary and conclusions, management, and technical - Question 10.18 from pg.461

What does project planning involve?
Schedule development
Budget development
Project administration
Leadership styles
Conflict management - Question 10.19 from pg.464

List the key factors that affect the delegation of authority and responsibility.
The maturity of the project management function
The size, nature, and business base of the company
The size and nature of the project
The life cycle of the project
The capabilities of management at all levels - Question 10.20 from pg.464

Why might documenting the project manager's authority be necessary?
A. The project manager must have the authority to ""force"" functional managers to depart from existing standards and possibly incur risk.
B. All interfacing must be as detailed as possible.
C. Gaining authority over elements of a program is unimportant.
D. Role definition rather than problem-solving should be encouraged.
A. The project manager must have the authority to "force" functional managers to depart from existing standards and possibly incur risk. - Question 10.21 from pg.465

List the variables that must be analyzed before finalizing schedules.
Introduction or acceptance of the product in the marketplace
Present or planned manpower availability
Economic constraints of the project
Degree of technical difficulty
Manpower availability
Availability of personnel training
Priority of the project - Question 10.22 from pg.468

Today, the project charter is an internal legal document that includes what? *KNOW THIS*
A. Manager's authority and responsibility
B. Approved scope of the project
C. Summary of the conditions defining the project
D. All of the above
D. All of the above - Question 10.23 from pg.468

Why must management control be established?
Because the planning phase provides the fundamental guidelines for the remainder of the project - Question 10.24 from pg.469

What happens at the project manager-line manager interface?
The project manager answers these questions:
o What is to be done? (using the SOW, WBS)
o When will the task be done? (using the summary schedule)
o Why will the task be done? (using the SOW)
o How much money is available? (using the SOW)

The line manager answers these questions:
o How will the task be done? (i.e. technical criteria)
o Where will the task be done? (i.e. technical criteria)
o Who will do the task (i.e. staffing) - Question 10.25 from pg.472-473

What risks are associated with fast–tracking a project? *KNOW THIS*
Either the end date will slip and/or expensive rework will be needed - Question 10.26 from pg.475

What does configuration management provide?
Appropriate levels of review and approval for changes
Focal points for those seeking to make changes
A single point of input to contracting representatives in the customer's and contractor's office for approved changes - Question 10.27 from pg.475

What question should the configuration control committee answer?
A. When will the task be done?
B. Who will do the task?
C. What is the cost of the change?
D. Why will the task be done?
C. What is the cost of the change? - Question 10.28 from pg.476

State the steps that enhance the implementation process of configuration management.
Define the starting point or "baseline" configuration
Define the "classes" of changes
Define the necessary controls or limitations on both the customer and contractor
Identify policies and procedures - Question 10.29 from pg.476

What benefits does effective configuration control give? * KNOW THIS*
Better communication among staff
Better communication with the customer
Better technical intelligence
Reduced confusion for changes
Screening of frivolous changes
Providing a paper trail - Question 10.30 from pg.476
The most common types of schedules are Gantt charts, milestone charts, line of balance, and which of the following? * KNOW THIS*
A. Networks
B. Time phased events
C. Calendar integrated activities
D. B and C
A. Networks - Question 11.1 from pg.493-494

What does the acronym PERT stand for?
Program Evaluation and Review Technique - Question 11.2 from pg.494

Basic requirements of the PERT/time method include all except which of the following?
A. Events and activities must be sequenced
B. Time estimates must be made for all activities
C. Critical path and slack times are computed
D. Cut time required for routine decisions
D. Cut time required for routine decisions - Question 11.3 from pg.494-495

The advantages of network–based schedules include which of the following? [Important]
A. Reveals interdependencies
B. Facilitates "what–if" exercises
C. Identifies critical activities
D. All of the above
D. All of the above - Question 11.4 from pg.494

Disadvantages of PERT
Time and labor intensive
Decision-making ability reduced
Lacks functional ownership in estimates
Lacks historical data for time-cost estimates
Assumes unlimited resources [Important]
Requires too much detail - Question 11.X from pg.495

What is the primary purpose of network planning and what management information can be obtained? * KNOW THIS*
To eliminate the need for crisis management by providing a pictorial representation of the total program.
The information that can be obtained from such a representation:
Interdependencies of activities
Project completion time
Impact of late starts
Impact of early starts
Trade-off between resources and time
"What if" exercises
Cost of a crash program
Slippages in planning/performance
Evaluation of performance - Question 11.5 from pg.496

What is the work required to proceed from one event or point in time to another called? * KNOW THIS*
Activity - Question 11.6 from pg.496

What is the primary purposes of constructing a PERT chart?
To determine how much time is needed to complete the project. - Question 11.7 from pg.498

What 2 things regarding the critical path are vital for successful control of a project?
1. Because there is no slack time in any of the events on this path, slippage will cause a corresponding slippage in the end date of the program unless this slippage can be recovered during any of the downstream events on the critical path.

2. Because the events on this path are the most critical for the success of the project, management must take a hard look at these events in order to improve the total program. - Question 11.8 from pg.499

Which statement is correct? * KNOW THIS*
A. PERT is based on a single time estimate and CPM is based on a beta distribution for expected time duration
B. PERT is used for projects where percent complete can be determined with reasonable accuracy. CPM is used for projects where percent complete is almost impossible to determine.
C. PERT is used for projects where the risks in calculating time durations have variability. CPM is used for projects that are resource dependent and based on accurate time estimates.
D. PERT uses 1 time estimate that represents normal time. CPM uses 3 time estimates to derive an expected time.
C. PERT is used for projects where the risks in calculating time durations have variability. CPM (critical path method) is used for projects that are resource dependent and based on accurate time estimates. - Question 11.9 from pg.500

List the 3 basic types of interrelationships/dependencies. * KNOW THIS*
External - Question 11.10 from pg.501

Activities with zero time duration are referred to as which of the following? * KNOW THIS*
A. Critical path actives
B. Slack time activities
C. Dummy Activities
D. Events
C. Dummy Activities - Question 11.11 from pg.501

Slack is defined as the difference between the latest allowable date and the earliest expected date based on which of the following ?
D. Both A & C
D. Both A & C

Slack = TL - TE - Question 11.12 from pg.502

When does negative slack normally occur? * KNOW THIS*
When the forward pass extends beyond the customer's end date - Question 11.13 from pg.507

Methods for reducing expected project time include all except which of the following?
A. Addition of more resources
B. Parallelization of activities
C. Calculating slack
D. Shortening early activities
C. Calculating slack - Question 11.14 from pg.510

List 3 possible completion assumptions used when estimating nonrepetitive events and activities.
Optimistic completion time
Pessimistic completion time
Most likely completion time - Question 11.15 from pg.512

In step 4 of the PERT scheduling process the functional manager converts the arrow diagram to a PERT chart using time estimates that assume which of the following?
A. Optimum schedules
B. Unlimited resources
C. Management approvals
D. Least cost
B. Unlimited resources - Question 11.16 from pg.515

What is the term used for considering speeding up certain portions of a project? * KNOW THIS*
Crashing (as opposed to fast-tracking, which is speeding up the whole project) - Question 11.17 from pg.516

Which is not an advantage to PERT/time?
A. Trade–off studies for resource control
B. Visually tracking up to date performance
C. Demonstrating integrated planning
D. Providing contingency planning in the later stages of the project
D. Providing contingency planning in the later stages of the project - Question 11.18 from pg.522

The time period between the early start/finish of one activity and the early start/finish of another activity in the sequential chain is referred to as which of the following? * KNOW THIS*
A. Slack
B. Free Float
C. Lag
D. Level Float
C. Lag - Question 11.19 from pg.526

List and explain what features most project management software packages offer. * KNOW THIS*
1. Planning, tracking, and monitoring
2. Reports
3. Project calendar
4. What-if analysis
5. Multiproject analysis - Question 11.20 from pg.530-531

List the 3 categories of project management software and give a brief description of each. * KNOW THIS*

1.) Level I software – designed for single project planning.
These software packages are simple, easy to use, and their outputs are easy to understand. They do provide, however, only a limited analysis of the data. They do not provide automatic rescheduling based on specific changes. Therefore, deviations from the original project plan require complete replanning of the project and a complete new data input to the computer.

2) Level II software – designed for single project management.
These software packages aid project leaders in the planning, tracking, and reporting of projects. They provide a comprehensive analysis of the project, progress reports, and plan revisions, based on actual performance. This type of software is designed for managing projects beyond the planning stage, and for providing semiautomatic project control.

3) Level III software – designed for multiproject planning.
These packages feature multiproject planning, monitoring and control by utilizing a common database and sophisticated cross–project monitoring and reporting software. - Question 11.21 from pg.532

What are common difficulties during implementation?
Upper level management may not like the reality of the output.
Upper level management may not use the packages for planning, budgeting, and decision-making.
Day-to-day project planners may not use the package for their own projects.
Upper level management may not demonstrate support and commitment to training.
Use of mainframe software requires strong internal communications line for support.
Clear, concise reports are lacking.
Mainframe packages do not always provide for immediate turnabout of information.
The business entity many not have any project management standards in place prior to implementation.
Implementation may highlight middle management's inexperience in project planning and organizational skills.
The business environment and organizational structure may not be appropriate to meet project management/planning needs.
Sufficient/extensive resources (staff, equipment, etc.) are required.
The business entity must determine the extent of, and appropriate use of, the systems within the organization.
The system may be viewed as a substitute for the extensive interpersonal skills required by the project manager.
Software implementation is less likely to succeed if the organization does not have sufficient training in project management principles. - Question 11.22 from pg.533-534

Differences between PERT and CPM
CPM allows calculation of % complete.
CPM allows crashing - Question 11.X from pg.

Critical path is defined as: * KNOW THIS*

The only one way through the network schedule that is the longest - Question 11.X from pg.
Explain the difference between type I and type II acquisitions.
Type I - a one-of-a-kind program with little or no follow-on potential.
Type II - an entry point to a larger follow-on or repeat business, or may represent a planned penetration into a new market - Question 12.1 from pg.572

Define and give accuracy percentages for the four different types of estimates.
1. Order-of-magnitude analysis - top-down estimate made without detailed engineering data using past experience. +/- 35%
2. Approximate estimate - pro-rated from previous projects of similar scope and capacity. +/- 15%
3. Definitive estimate - (grassroots buildup estimate) prepared from well-defined engineering data. +/- 5%
4. Learning curves - Graphical representations of repetitive functions in which continuous operations will lead to reduction in time, resources, and money. - Question 12.2 from pg.574
What types of tasks are best suited to be included in an estimating manual? *KNOW THIS*
Repetitive tasks or similar tasks that can use a previous estimates adjusted by a degree-of-difficulty factor. - Question 12.3 from pg.575

Give several examples of pricing reports.
Detailed cost breakdown for each WBS element
Total program manpower curve for each department
Monthly equivalent manpower cost summary
Yearly cost distribution table
Functional cost and hour summary
Monthly labor and dollar expenditure forecast
Raw material and expenditure forecast
Total program termination liability per month - Question 12.4 from pg.589-590

Explain what perturbation analysis is used for once the base case has been formulated.
To develop alternatives in order to respond to management's questions during the final review - Question 12.5 from pg.592

Discuss why the 10% solution very rarely succeeds.
For the most part, the result is simply havoc, resulting in scheduling slippage, a degradation of quality and performance, and eventual budgetary increases rather than the expected decreases - Question 12.6 from pg.606

Define capital budgeting. *KNOW THIS*
Capital budgeting is a process used to provide the financial benefits for a proposed project. It is used during the benefit to cost analysis phase and takes into consideration depreciation schedules, tax information and cash flow. - Question 12.7 from pg.614

Define payback period. *KNOW THIS*
The exact length of time needed for a firm to recover its initial investment as calculated from cash inflows. This is the least precise method because the calculations are in dollars and not adjusted for the time value of money. - Question 12.8 from pg.614

Define time value of money.
A dollar today is worth more than a dollar a year from now - Question 12.9 from pg.615

Define net present value (NPV). *KNOW THIS*
A sophisticated capital budgeting technique that equates the discounted cash flows against the initial investment. A project should be accepted if the NPV is greater than or equal to zero dollars. A project should be rejected if the NPV is less than zero dollars. - Question 12.10 from pg.616

Define internal rate of return (IRR). *KNOW THIS*
The internal rate of return is the most sophisticated capital budgeting method. It is the discount rate with which the present value of the cash inflows exactly equals the initial investment - Question 12.11 from pg.617

Which type of capital budgeting method tends to be more conservative in its approach? *KNOW THIS*
A. Internal rate of return (IRR)
B. Payback period
C. Time value of money
D. Net Present value (NPV)
D. Net Present value (NPV) - Question 12.12 from pg.618

Which type of capital budgeting method tends to be the least precise in its approach? *KNOW THIS*
A. Internal rate of return (IRR)
B. Payback period
C. Time value of money
D. Net Present value (NPV)
B. Payback period - Question 12.13 from pg.614

Using the net present value (NPV) approach, when would you accept a project? *KNOW THIS*
A. If the NPV is greater than 0 dollars
B. If the NPV is less than zero dollars
C. If the NPV is greater than or equal to zero dollars
D. If the NPV is equal to zero dollars
C. If the NPV is greater than or equal to zero dollars - Question 12.14 from pg.617

Which type of capital budgeting method tends to be the most sophisticated approach? *KNOW THIS*
C. Payback period
D. Time value money
A. IRR (Internal rate of return) - Question 12.15 from pg.617

Explain risk analysis as it relates to capital budgeting.
Refers to the chance that the selection of this project will prove to be unacceptable - Question 12.16 from pg.618

Which of the following results can a well-disciplined management cost and control system provide? *KNOW THIS*
A. Weekly team meetings with a formalized agenda, action items, and minutes
B. Strong management emphasis on meeting commitments.
C. Top-management periodic review of the technical and financial status.
D. All of the above
D. All of the above - Question 12.17 from pg.632

Discuss what the disciplined use of a management cost and control system (MCCS) is designed to do.
To put pressure on the project manager to perform exceptionally good project planning so that changes will be minimized - Question 12.18 from pg.633

Explain why time, cost, and performance must be analyzed and compared as a group rather than as separate functions.
We might win the battle but lose the war." May succeed in 2 parameters but fail in the third. Need to succeed in all 3. - Question 12.19 from pg.634

Explain why it is preferred to make any necessary changes at the beginning of a project rather than downstream.
The cost of changes at the beginning of a project are usually much less than changes made later in a project. - Question 12.20 from pg.635

Which is not a phase of the operating cycle? *KNOW THIS*
A. Cost analysis
B. Planning
C. Work authorization and release
D. Customer and management reporting
B. Planning - Question 12.21 from pg.636

Define work package.
Detailed short-span job or material items identified for the accomplishment of required work - Question 12.22 from pg.637

What are the 4 categories of cost data that are normally collected? *KNOW THIS*
A. Labor, material, other direct charges, and overhead
B. Labor, material, accounts payable, and overhead
C. Material, overtime, other expenses, and overhead
D. none of the above
A. Labor, material, other direct charges, and overhead - Question 12.23 from pg.642

Explain management reserve and discuss its usage.
Generally the dollar amount established for unforeseen problems and contingencies resulting in special out-of-scope work to the performers.

Should be used for tasks or dollars, such as rate changes.
Should not be used to cover up bad planning estimates or budget overruns. - Question 12.24 from pg.644

Which of the following is a common cause of cost problems? *KNOW THIS*
A. All of the answers listed
B. Inadequate work breakdown structure
C. Poor comparison of actual and planned costs
D. Schedule delays that require overtime or idle time costing
A. All of the answers listed - Question 12.25 from pg.685

In which phases of project development can cost overruns occur? *KNOW THIS*
A. Planning and negotiation
B. Contractual and design
C. Design and production
D. All phases of project development
D. All phases of project development - Question 12.26 from pg.685-686
What should the risk management process be designed to do?
More than just identify potential risks. It must include:
a formal PLANNING activity
ANALYSIS to estimate the probability and predict the impact of identified risks
HANDLING selected risks
the ability to MONTOR progress in reducing selected risks - Question 13.1 from pg.743

Identify the 2 primary components of risk for a given event and how they relate to the magnitude of the risk. *Know this*
1. A probability of occurrence of that event or likelihood.
2. Impact (or consequence) of the event occurring (amount at stake). Likelihood increases risk increases. - Question 13.2 from pg.743

What do we call future events or outcomes that are favorable? *Know this*
A. Surprises
B. Opportunities
C. Risks
D. Contingencies
B. Opportunities - Question 13.3 from pg.744

What do we call future events or outcomes that are unfavorable? *Know this*
A. Surprises
B. Opportunities
C. Risks
D. Contingencies
C. Risks - Question 13.4 from pg.744

Hazards' are identified as the cause of risk and 'Safeguards' are practices developed to overcome identified hazards. Describe how risk relates to hazards and safeguards. *Know this*
Risk = f (hazard, safeguard) Risk increases with hazard but decreases with safeguard. - Question 13.5 from pg.744

List and define the 3 commonly used classifications for a project manager's tolerance for risk. *Know this*
The risk averter or avoider – utility rises at a decreasing rate, when more money is at stake the project manager's satisfaction diminishes. demand a premium to accept risk

The neutral risk taker – utility rises at a constant rate (Note: A risk neutral position is a specific course of action, and not the average of risk averter and risk taker positions as is sometimes erroneously claimed).

The risk taker or seeker – The project manager's satisfaction increases at an increasing rate when more money is at stake. Prefers uncertain outcome and willing to pay a penalty. - Question 13.6 from pg.745-746

How is risk management defined?
A. Risk management is an act or practice of dealing with risk
B. Risk management includes planning for risk, assessing risk issues, developing risk handling strategies, and monitoring risks to determine if they have changed
C. Risk management is an aspect of sound project management.
D. All of the above
D. All of the above - Question 13.7 from pg.746

Identify and explain the 3 categories of decision-making *Know this*
Certainty - implies that we know with 100% accuracy what the states of nature will be and what the expected payoffs will be. Shown with Payoff Matrices.

Risk - When there does not exist a dominant strategy, a probability must be assigned to the occurrence of each state of nature. Risks = outcomes that can be described with established confidence limits.

Uncertainty - Under uncertainty, meaningful assignments of specific probabilities are not possible. Decision maker has 4 basic criteria from which to make a decision - Question 13.8 from pg.747-749

Expected values are used when faced with decision-making under risk. How are expected values computed and which resulting expected value indicates that it is the best choice of strategy? *Know this*
E = sum of the payoff times the probability of occurrence of the payoff for each state of nature.

If the expected value is positive, then the strategy should be considered.
If the expected value is negative, then this strategy should be proactively managed. The strategy with the largest (highest) expected value is the best choice. - Question 13.9 from pg.748-749

Identify and describe the 4 basic criteria that can be used when making decisions under uncertainty.
Hurwicz criterion – referred to as the maximax criterion – decision maker is optimistic – go for broke – max profit no matter risk

Wald Criterion – we consider only the minimum pay–offs, concerned with how much he can afford to lose, minimum payoffs are compared

Savage or minimax criterion – we assume that the project manager is a sore loser – minimizes the maximum regret

Laplace criterion – is an attempt to transform decision–making under uncertainty to decision–making under risk by making an assumption that each state of nature has an equal chance of occurrence - Question 13.10 from pg.749-751

List (in sequence) the steps involved in the Risk Management Process, and give a brief description of each step. *Know this*
1. Risk planning: This is the process of developing and documenting an organized, comprehensive, and interactive strategy and methods for identifying and tracking risk issues, developing risk handling plans, performing continuous risk assessments to determine how risks have changed, and assigning adequate resources.

2. Risk assessment: This process involves identifying and analyzing program areas and critical technical process risks to increase the likelihood of meeting cost, performance, and schedule objectives.

3. Risk identification: This is the process of examining a situation and identifying and classifying areas of potential risk.

4. Risk analysis: This is the process of examining each identified risk issue or process to refine the description of the risk, isolate the cause, and determine the effects.

5. Risk handling: This is the process that identifies, evaluates, selects and implements options in order to set risk at acceptable levels given program constraints and objectives. This includes the specifics on what should be done, when it should be accomplished, who is responsible, and associated cost and schedule. Risk handling options include assumption, avoidance, control (also known as mitigation), and transfer. The most desirable handling option is selected, and a specific approach is then developed for this option.
6. Risk monitoring: This is the process that systematically tracks and evaluates the performance of risk handling actions against established metrics throughout the acquisition process and provides inputs to updating risk handling strategies, as appropriate. - Question 13.11 from pg.753

Which of the following is not a method for identifying risks? *Know this*
A. Systems engineering documents
B. Life–cycle cost analysis
C. Pareto Charts
D. Lessons learned charts
C. Pareto Charts - Question 13.12 from pg.756-757

List 2 expert judgment techniques that are used for risk identification, and describe the general steps followed for each technique. *Know this*
1. Delphi Method:
Step 1 – A panel of experts is selected from both inside and outside the organization. The experts do not interact on a face–to–face basis and may not even know who else sits on the panel.
Step 2 – Each expert is asked to make an anonymous prediction on a particular subject.
Step 3 – Each expert receives a composite feedback of the entire panel's answers and is asked to make new predictions based upon the feedback. The process is then repeated as necessary.

2. Nominal Group Technique:
Step 1 – A panel is convened and asked to generate ideas in writing.
Step 2 – The ideas are listed on a board or a flip chart. Each idea is discussed among the panelists.
Step 3 – Each panelist prioritizes the ideas, which are then ranked mathematically. - Question 13.13 from pg.757

There are numerous ways to classify risks. In a simple business context, risk can be defined as "Business risk" and "insurable risk". Describe these classifications in terms of what they provide for us and give examples for each:
Business risks provide us with opportunities of profit and loss. Examples of business risk would be competitor activities, bad weather, inflation, recession, customer response, and availability of resources. Insurable risks provide us with only a chance for a loss. Examples include direct property damage, legal liability, personnel. - Question 13.14 from pg.758

Which of the following risks are generally considered unpredictable? *Know this*
A. Business risk
B. Financial Risks
C. Inflation
D. Natural Hazards
D. Natural Hazards - Question 13.15 from pg.758

Which of the following are typical tools used in risk analysis?
A. life–cycle cost analysis
B. DoE Directive
C. WCS simulation
D. Alpha techniques
A. life–cycle cost analysis - Question 13.16 from pg.762-763

The Monte Carlo process is a common tool used in risk analysis. Summarize the steps used in performing a Monte Carlo simulation for cost and schedule.
1.Identify the lowest activity level for which probability distribution functions will be constructed.
2. Develop the reference point estimate for each activity.
3. Identify activities that contain estimating uncertainty or risk.
4. Develop probability distributions for each activity with estimating uncertainty or risk.
5. Aggregate the WBS activity probability distributions using a Monte Carlo simulation program. - Question 13.17 from pg.776-777

Identify the 4 Risk Handling options available to project managers, and state the assumptions the project manager is making by selecting each of these options. *Know this*
Risk Assumption: The project manager says "I know the risk exists and am aware of the possible consequences. I am willing to wait and see what happens. I accept risk should it occur"

Risk Avoidance: The PM says "I will not accept this option because of the potentially unfavorable results. I will either change the design to preclude the issue or requirements that lead to the issue"

Risk Control: The project manager says, "I will take the necessary measures required to control this risk by continuously reevaluating it and developing contingency plans or fall–back options. I will do what is expected."

Risk Transfer: The PM says "I will share this risk with others through insurance or a warranty or transfer the entire risk to them. Perhaps I can convert the risk into an opportunity." - Question 13.18 from pg.784

A project manager states, "I will take the necessary measures required to control this risk by continuously reevaluating it and developing contingency plans or fallback positions. If the risk even occurs, I will take the appropriate actions." Which risk handling option are they following? *Know this*
A Risk transfer
B. Risk Avoidance
C. Risk Control
D. Risk Assumption
C. Risk Control - Question 13.19 from pg.784

List and define 4 techniques suitable for risk monitoring.
Earned Value (EV) - uses standard cost/schedule data to evaluate a program's cost performance (and provide an indicator of schedule performance) in an integrated fashion.
Program Metrics - Formal, periodic performance assessments of the selected development processes, evaluating how it is achieving its objective.
Schedule Performance Monitoring - Use of program schedule data to evaluate how well the program is progressing.
Technical Performance Measurement (TPM) - A product design assessment that estimates, through engineering analysis and tests, the values of essential performance parameters as affected by risk response actions. - Question 13.20 from pg.788

Why should lessons learned be documented?
So that future project managers can learn from past mistakes. - Question 13.21 from pg.790

What are the 4 most common factors supporting the need for continuous risk management?
How long the project lasts
How much money is at stake
The degree of development maturity
The interdependencies between the different risks - Question 13.22 from pg.796

What is a critical interdependency between risks?
A. Design reviews and design process
B. Overhead and material
C. Change management and risk management
D. All of the above
C. Change management and risk management - Question 13.23 from pg.796

What are the levels of tolerance and at which levels do risk and safety system policies, procedures, and guidelines exist? *Know this*
Project's tolerance
Customer's tolerance
Individual's tolerance
Workplace tolerance
Cultural tolerance

Safety system policies, procedures, and guidelines exist at the Cultural, Individual, and Workplace levels - Question 13.24 from pg.798

What are some commonly accepted practices to reduce risks?
Flexibility in both the resources provided and the product's performance requirements to allow for uncertainties of technical progress.
Disciplined paths for technology to be included in products, with strong gatekeepers to decide when to allow it into a product development program
High standards for judging the maturity of the technology
The imposition of strict product development cycle times
Rules concerning how much innovation can be accepted on a product before the next generation must be launched. - Question 13.25 from pg.803
Strategic planning for project management is most frequently performed at what level? *KNOW THIS*
A. Executive management
B. Middle management
C. Employee
D. All of the above
B. Middle management - Question 14.1 from pg.928

Identify and define the 5 different levels of maturity in the Project Management Maturity Model (PMMM).
Level 1. Common Language - the organization recognizes the importance of project management and the need for a good understanding of basic knowledge and terminology

Level 2. Common Processes - the organization recognizes that common processes need to be defined and developed. Also the recognition that project management principles can be applied to and support other methodologies

Level 3. Singular Methodology - the organization recognizes the synergistic effect of combining all corporate methodologies into a one.

Level 4. Benchmarking - recognition that process improvement is necessary to maintain a competitive edge so benchmarking must be done on a continuous basis. Classified as low risk based on degree of difficulty.

Level 5. Continuous Improvement - the organization evaluates the info obtained through benchmarking and must decide whether or not this info will enhance the singular methodology. Classified as low risk based on degree of difficulty. - Question 14.2 from pg.928-929

List the possible overlaps that can exist in the PMMM, and give reasons as to why each of these overlaps may occur. Also, identify the 2 levels that generally do not overlap. *KNOW THIS*
Overlap of Level 1 and Level 2: This overlap will occur because the organization can begin the development of project management processes either while refinements are being made to the common language or during training.

Overlap of Level 3 and Level 4: This overlap occurs because, while the organization is developing a singular methodology, plans are being made as to the process for improving the methodology.

Overlap of Level 4 and Level 5: As the organization becomes more and more committed to benchmarking and continuous improvement, the speed by which the organization wants changes to be made can cause these two levels to have significant overlap. The feedback from Level 5 back to Levels 4 and 3 implies that these three levels form a continuous improvement cycle, and it may even be possible for all three of these levels to overlap.

Level 2 and Level 3 generally do not overlap. - Question 14.3 from pg.929-930

Each level of the PMMM is classified in terms of risk (low, medium, and high), based on the degree of difficulty. Identify which levels are classified as low risk, medium risk, and high risk. *KNOW THIS*
Low Risk: Level 4 and 5
Medium Risk: Level 1 and 2
High Risk: Level 3 - Question 14.4 from pg.931

An important facet of any project management methodology is to provide people in the organization with procedural documentation on how to conduct project-oriented activities. Identify the specific benefits of procedural documents. *KNOW THIS*
Provide guidelines and uniformity
Encourage useful, but minimum, documentation
Communicate information clearly and effectively
Standardize data formats
Unify project teams
Provide a basis for analysis
Ensure document agreements for future reference
Refuel commitments
Minimize paperwork
Minimize conflict and confusion
Delineate work packages
Bring new team members on board
Build an experience track and method for future projects - Question 14.5 from pg.932

Even though procedural documents can provide many benefits, management is often reluctant to implement or fully support a formal project management system. What are the 4 issues that management concerns often center around? *KNOW THIS*
Overhead burden
Start-up delays
Stifled creativity
Reduced self-forcing control - Question 14.6 from pg.933

What 2 vital purposes do project control forms provide?
Establishing a common framework from which:
● the project manager will communicate with executives, functional managers, functional employees, and clients
● executives and the project manager can make meaningful decisions concerning the allocation of resources - Question 14.7 from pg.934

What is a practical, cost-effective way for executives to overcome the problem of project control forms growing exponentially? *KNOW THIS*
A. Enforcing a limit on the number of forms
B. Establishing a separate department to handle the forms
C. Establishing a task force responsible for development of the forms
D. None of the above
C. Establishing a task force responsible for development of the forms - Question 14.8 from pg.934

What is one simple and effective way of categorizing the broad spectrum of procedural documents? *KNOW THIS*
A. The ""layering"" of policies and procedures
B. Utilizing the work breakdown concept
C. Bringing in a consultant to categorize these documents
D. None of the above
B. Utilizing the work breakdown concept - Question 14.9 from pg.935

Why is continuous improvement important when it comes to project management?
Without it, organizations could become complacent and lose their competitive advantage - Question 14.10 from pg.937

What is determining how many new projects an organization can take on called? *KNOW THIS*
A. Capacity planning
B. Continuous improvement
C. Multiple project management
D. None of the above
A. Capacity planning - Question 14.11 from pg.942

List the advantages of using competency models in lieu of job descriptions. *KNOW THIS*
Allows the training department to develop customized project management training programs to satisfy the skill requirements
- Question 14.12 from pg.944

Identify 3 factors supporting the managing of multiple projects by 1 project manager.
1. Cost of maintaining a full-time project manager on all projects may be cost prohibitive
2. Line managers are now sharing accountability with project managers
3. Senior management has come to the realization that they must provide high-quality training for their project managers - Question 14.13 from pg.946

List and describe the 6 major areas where the corporation as a whole may need to change in order for the managing of multiple projects to succeed.
1. Prioritization - must be used correctly such that employee credibility in the system is realized
2. Scope Changes - must be understood that the majority of scope changes may have to be performed through enhancement projects
3. Capacity Planning - Need tight control of resource scheduling so must have knowledge of capacity planning
4. Project Methodology - The project manager must be granted some degree of freedom
5. Project Initiation - It is best if the projects are in different life-cycle phases
6. Organizational Structures - Project manager probably won't be a technical expert in all areas of all projects. Assuming that line managers share accountability then the organization will most likely adopt a weak matrix structure. - Question 14.14 from pg.946-947

Why is it that today, end–of–phase review meetings take on a different dimension?
A. Executives are likely to ""rubber stamp"" the project to continue
B. Executives are not afraid to cancel projects
C. Meetings are used to give executives some degree of comfort concerning project status
D. Only good news is presented by the project team
B. Executives are not afraid to cancel projects - Question 14.15 from pg.947

*KNOW THIS*Procedural Documentation
Procedural Documentation are policies, procedures, guidelines, forms and checklists, that accelerate the project management maturity process, foster support, improve project communications - Question 14.KW
What 2 important conclusions did management come to during the late 1990s regarding project management?
1. Project management had to be integrated and compatible with the corporate reward systems for sustained project management growth.
2. Corporate recognition of project management as a profession was essential in order to maximize performance. - Question 15.1 from pg.956

List 5 of the critical activities that should be included under the supervision of the Project Office? *KNOW THIS*
Standardization in estimating
Standardization in planning
Standardization in scheduling
Standardization in control
Standardization in reporting
etc. - Question 15.2 from pg.956

What is a Center of Excellence (COE) in project management mainly responsible for?
Providing information to stakeholders rather than actually executing projects or making midcourse corrections to a plan. - Question 15.3 from pg.957

Which is not one of the benefits that are apparent to executive levels of management that utilize a Project Office? *KNOW THIS*
A. Standardization of operations
B. Better capacity planning
C. Silos become more authoritative and effective in decision making
D. Quicker access to higher-quality information
C. Silos become more authoritative and effective in decision making - Question 15.4 from pg.957-958

Which type of Project Office services the entire company and focuses on corporate and strategic issues rather than functional issues? *KNOW THIS*
Corporate (or Strategic) Project Office - Question 15.5 from pg.958

Which statement is correct regarding a Functional Project Office? *KNOW THIS*
A. Its major responsibility is resource management
B. Resource management is dealt with at the executive level
C. If time permits resource management should be addressed
D. It relies on the enterprise to make resource management decisions
A. Its major responsibility is resource management - Question 15.6 from pg.958

List the 5 primary responsibilities for Networking Project Management Offices.
Promoting the enterprise project management methodology
Promoting the use of standard project management tools
Assuring the standardization in project execution and delivery
Maintaining a source of project management subject matter expertise
Coordinating multinational project management knowledge - Question 15.7 from pg.959

Which project management information system answers the 2 questions: Where is the project today? And where will the project end up?
Earned Value Measurement Information System - Question 15.8 from pg.960

List the 4 types of information systems used in project management.
Earned Value Measurement Information System
Risk Management Information System
Performance Failure Information System
Lessons-Learned (Postmortem Analysis) Information System - Question 15.9 from pg.960-961

What are the 4 questions that should be addressed in a lessons-learned postmortem analysis meeting? *KNOW THIS*
What did we do right?
What did we do wrong?
What future recommendations can be made?
How, when, and to whom should the information be disseminated? - Question 15.10 from pg.961

List the 3 major benefits of mentoring in project management.
The line manager to whom the project manager reports administratively may not have the necessary PM knowledge.
The project manager may not wish to discuss certain problems with his or her superior for fear of retribution.
The project mentoring program could use the lessons-learned files and provide the inexperienced project manager with early warning indicators - Question 15.11 from pg.962

Explain why there is a danger in providing templates as a replacement for standards in project management.
Templates serve as a guide and might not satisfy the needs of a particular program.
There is a risk that some perspective users of the templates may simply adopt the templates "as required as written." - Question 15.12 from pg.963

When should a project manager be assigned, before or after a business case is developed?
After - Question 15.13 from pg.964-965

According to senior management, the most important of all activities assigned to the project office is? *KNOW THIS*
A. Managing stakeholders
B. Managing schedules
C. Resource scheduling
D. Capacity planning
D. Capacity planning - Question 15.14 from pg.967

Explain how headcount is impacted as an organization becomes more knowledgeable about project management.
There is a tendency to increase the project office headcount with the false belief that additional benefits will be forthcoming. Headcount in the project office should decrease. - Question 15.15 from pg.968

Within the risk of Trying to Service Everyone in the Organization, which is NOT a threshold for involving the Project Office? *KNOW THIS*
A. Dollar value of the project
B. Low impact and minimal cost
C. Amount and complexity of cross functionality
D. Risks to the company
B. Low impact and minimal cost - Question 15.16 from pg.968

What are the 3 types of Project Offices? *KNOW THIS*
Functional Project Office
Customer Group Project Office
Corporate (or Strategic) Project Office - Question 15.Bonus