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53 Cards in this Set

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homeostasis

dynamic mechanisms that detect and respond to deviations of physiological variables from their "set points", causing them to return to their optimum functioning range

acclimation

physiological adjustment to one variable




usually describes laboratory systems

acclimatization

physiological adjustment to all aspects of the environment




usually describes natural systems

What determines O2 solubility?

Water temperature and salinity; colder and less salty --> O2 more soluble

countercurrent exchange

Direction of water flow opposes direction of blood flow, maximizing O2 absorption

What do fish erythrocytes possess that mammal erythrocytes do not?

nuclei

Brownian motion

small particles are constantly moving around

chloride (mitochondria-rich) cells

cells in freshwater fish gills that actively transport NaCl into body, HCO3 and H+/K+/NH4 out

Name two methods elasmobranchs and coelacanths use to keep NaCl levels safe in blood

1. high levels of urea and TMAO in blood


2. rectal gland eliminates excess salt

stenohaline

fish that can only tolerate a narrow range of salinity

euryhaline

fish that can tolerate a wide range of salinities

neurotransmitters

molecules that transmit a message in synapses between neurons


ex. hormones

hormones

neurotransmitters in the blood

endocrine signaling

hormone targets and reaches a distant cell through the bloodstream

paracrine signaling

a hormone targets and reaches a nearby cell through interstitial fluid

autocrine signaling

a hormone targets the cell that created it

juxtacrine signaling

the molecule that communicates the message is embedded in the cell membrane

ectocrine

hormone leaves the body to affect the cells of another individual (pheromones)

Describe the effects of thyroid hormones.

-affect metamorphosis


-stimulate metabolic activity


-TRH: thyrotropin releasing hormone -->


TSH: thyroid stimulating hormone (thyrotropin)

Describe the effects of stress hormones.

-glucose and fat metabolization


-anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive


-CRH: corticotropin releasing hormone -->


ACTH: adrenocorticotropic hormone --> Cortisol



What is the "stress hormone"?

cortisol

FSH

follicle stimulating hormone


stimulate gamete production

LH

lutenizing hormone


releases sex hormones



functional morphology

relationship between form and function of an organism in evolutionary context

Mauthner's cell

giant nerve involved in the C-start, an escape mechanism used to evade predators

Give five examples of different feeding techniques employed by fishes.

hagfish: ties itself in a knot and slides the knot down its body


eel: shakes it entire body around to rip flesh away


shark: palatoquadrate elevation


hammerhead shark: slams its head down on stingrays to stun them so it can eat them


wrasses: suction feeding via enlarged maxilla and premaxilla



What is the functional unit of hearing, lateral line system, and orientation/balance

hair cell

How many semicircular canals are in the ear?

3


lamprey has 2



What are the three parts of the inner ear from top to bottom?

utriculus


saggita


lagena

What is the function of the semicircular canal?

Detect changes in motion

What is the function of the otolith?

Provide a sense of balance


Mostly lapillus?

What is a neuromast?

The structure that detects water movement, for example in the lateral line

Basically a hair cell just like the ones found in the ear



Between rods and cones, which one detects black and white and which one detects color?

Rods: blk and wht


cones: color

Name and explain the difference between the two types of electroreceptors.

Tuberous:


-do not detect weak signals from other species


-sense EOD from other members of same species in communication


-no gel




Ampullary: everything opposite of tuberous



Which fishes can detect disturbances in their own electric fields?

mormyrids and gymnotiforms

Explain the jamming avoidance response (JAR)

Two fishes in the same vicinity sending out the same electrical signals will change the frequencies of their signals so as to not interfere with each other

Which fishes possess ampullae of Lorenzini?

Chondrichthyes


Chondrostei


Cladistia (Polypteriformes)


Coelacanthiformes


Dipnoi

Disruptive coloration

Light and dark contrast


Eyes often concealed


Visible to predators BUT not recognizable as a fish


Deep-bodied fishes will have bars while slender fishes will have stripes

Poster coloration

Helps fish tell other fishes apart from one another


Warns other fishes of aggression

How can there be so many brightly colored fishes in coral reefs when there are so many predators who could easily see them?

1. There are many places to hide


2. The water is very clear so they can see predators coming




This may have liberated some fishes from needing camouflage and allowed them to evolve bright colors for other purposes

linear dominance heirarchy

alpha, beta, gamma, etc

despotic dominance heirarchy

one alpha, the rest are equals

aggregation

mutual attraction to food or other resources

shoal

aggregation caused by social attraction of individuals to other individuals

school

polarized shoal

effects of overfishing



1. learning/predator avoidance


2. large individuals taken preferentially --> reduction in avg size over time


3. fish sexually mature at younger age


4. reduced fecundity


5. gill nets select for more slender body shape


6. fish in shallower waters are gone so nets have to be cast deeper, fish for less desirable species

Solutions to overfishing?

1. education


2. protected ares


3. government management and regulations


4. aquaculture

tragedy of the commons

individuals behaving rationally and independently will not be acting in the best interest of the group and will eventually deplete common resources

solutions to tragedy of the commons?

1. communal management


2. government ownership of public property


3. privatization of natural areas

maximum sustainable yield (MSY)

maximum number of individuals that can sustainably be removed from a population


= half the population at carrying capacity

gonochore

fish that functions as one sex for its lifetime `

protogyny

start as female, change into male



protandry

start as male, change into female