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10 Cards in this Set

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Kasamatsu and Hirai (1999)
aim: determine how sensory deprivation affects the brain
method: studied buddhist monks on a 72 hour pilgramage to a holy mountian; took blood samples before the trip and after monks reported hallucinations
results: found increase in serotonin levels had activated the hypothalamus
John Harlow (1848)
Phineas Gage Case Study
railroad worker was seriously injured when a pole was sent through his skull. he lost vision in his left eyes and all apparent emotional control.
Bouchard et al (1990)
Minnesota Twin Study
aim: investigate the role of genetics in intelligence
method: coorelational, longitudinal study compared MZAs (identical twins raised together) with MZTs (identical twins raised apart); cross-cultural, older subjects completed 50 hours of testing and interviews
Results: 70% of intelligence can be attributed to genetic inheritance (30% other factors)
Frederic Bartlett (1932)
War of the Ghosts
Aim: deonstrate the role of culture in schema processing
method: participants read the native american legend twice without knowledge of the experimental aim. after 15 minutes, bartlett asked them to reproduce the story from memory, multiple times.
result: people reconstuct the past by trying to fit into existing schemas; the mor complicated the story, the more likely it is that elements will be forgotten or distorted.
Atkinson and Shriffen (1968)
suggested basic structure/ architecture of memory with the multi-store model, with the sensory input moving from sensory memory to short-term memory, then to and from long-term memory after a period of rehearsal.
Bradley and Hitch (1974)
suggested the working memory model, based on the multi-store model, but challenged the view that STM is a single store. Their model includes several components of STM (where multi-store model has only one)
Method: asked participants to read prose and understand it, while at the same time remembering sequences of numbers
result: clear and systematic increase in reasoning time if people had to undertake a memory-dependent task at the same time, although the impairmentwas not catastrophic
Eric Kandel (2000-nobel prize)
Studied learning and memory at a cellular level in the sea snail aplysia (single celled organism). Found that STM and LTM result in a synaptic changes in the neural network. These chages are important in memory function. In the 1990s, kandel studied memory function in relation to synaptic changes in the hippocampus
Loftus and Palmer (1974)
Aim: investigate the role of leading questions in recall
Method: show participants film of a car crash, then ask them to estimate the cars' speed at the time of impact, chaning one word in the question to see how it would influencespeed estimates
Results: mean speed estimate was affected by word choice; "smashed" and "collided" increased estimated speed.
Brown and Kulik (1997)
Flashbulb Memory
found that people said they had clear memories of details surrounding finding out about an important public occurrence such as the assasination of JFK, Martin Luther King, or Bobby Kennedy. 73 of 80 participants said they also had flashbulb memories associated with personal shocks such as the sudden death of a close relative. The researchers' belief that there may be a special neural mechanism that triggers an emotionsal arousal has been proven by more modern neuroscience
Bandura Ross and Ross (1963)
Aim: to determine the importance of observational learning for children who learning the rules of social behavior
Method: researchers showed children short film of two men playing with toys that displays aggresive behavior, then left children alone for 20 minutes
Result: children were much more aggresive in their play than a control group that had not seen the film, and the difference was more noticeable when the children were of the same gender as the models they saw