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56 Cards in this Set

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A ____ is a heritable factor of DNA that influences a specific characteristic.

Gene

True or False: a gene occupies a specific location on a chromosome.

True

The various specific forms of a gene are _______.

Alleles

True or False: Alleles differ from each other by 10 or more bases.

False. Alleles differ from each other by one or only a few bases

New alleles are formed by ________.

Mutation

What is the whole of the genetic information of an organism?

Genome

What was the Human Genome Project?

A project in which the entire base sequence of humans was sequenced.

Describe the mutation that causes sickle cell anemia.

In normal hemoglobin the 6th amino acid is glutamic acid which is coded for by GAG. However if there is a mutation and instead a person has GTG, that codes for Valine which causes polymerization and pokey ends.

Put the following in order of highest to lowest number of genes: Rice, E. Coli, humans.

Rice, humans, E. Coli

True or False: prokaryotes have one chromosome consisting of a circular DNA molecule.

True

True or False: some prokaryotes have plasmids and eukaryotes do as well

False. Eukaryotes do not have plasmids

Eukaryote chromosomes are ______ DNA molecules associated with _______ proteins.

Linear; histone

True or False: In a eukaryote species there are different chromosomes that carry different genes.

True

__________ chromosomes carry the same sequence of genes but not necessarily the same alleles of those genes.

Homologous

_______ nuclei have pairs of homologous chromosomes.

Diploid

_______ nuclei have one chromosome of each pair.

Haploid

True or False: the number of chromosomes is a characteristic feature of members of a species.

True

What shows the chromosomes of an organism in homologous pairs of decreasing length?

A Karyogram

Sex is determined by sex chromosomes and _________ are chromosomes that do not determine sex.

Autosomes

Describe Cairns’ technique for measuring the length of DNA molecules by autoradiography.

1. Allow cells to grow in radioactive thymine which has radioactive tritium 3H


2.When DNA replication occurs, radioactive thymine will be incorporated into the DNA


3. Lyse cells open and extract DNA


4. Place radioactive DNA on autoradiography film

Order the following from largest to smallest genome size: T2 phage, Escherichia coli, Drosophila melanogaster, Homo sapiens and Paris japonica.

Paris Japonica, Homo sapiens, Drosophila melanogaster, Escherichia coli, T2 Phage

Order the following from smallest to largest according to number of chromosomes in a diploid cell: Homo sapiens, Pan troglodytes, Canis familiaris, Oryza sativa, Parascaris equorum.

Homo sapiens, Pan troglodytes, Canis familiaris, Oryza sativa, Parascaris equorum.

True or False: If a person has three 21st chromosomes instead of a pair of 21st chromosomes on a karyogram, they have down syndrome.

True

True or False: On a karyogram, if both of the sex chromosomes are the same length, the individual is a female.

True

One diploid nucleus divides by meiosis to produce ____ haploid nuclei.

Four

True or False: DNA is replicated before meiosis so that all chromosomes consist of eight sister chromatids.

False. DNA is replicated before meiosis so that all chromosomes consist of two sister chromatids.

The early stages of meiosis involve pairing of homologous chromosomes and ________ ____ followed by condensation.

Crossing over

When does random orientation occur during meiosis?

During metaphase I

Separation of pairs of homologous chromosomes in the first division of meiosis ______ the chromosome number.

Halves

True or False: Crossing over, Random Orientation, and Meiosis are all processes that promote genetic variation.

True

What is non-disjunction and what are its effects?

Non-disjunction is the failure of DNA to separate and it can result in down syndrome and other chromosomal abnormalities.

True or False: Age of parents does not influence the risk of non-disjunction.

False. Older parents are at an increased risk of non-disjunction

What are two methods of obtaining pre-natal cells?

1. Chorionic Villus Sampling


2. Amniocentesis

Who is Gregor Mendel and what is he known for?

He is known as the father of genetics, he experimented on pea plants

_______ are haploid so contain only one allele of each gene.

Gametes

True or False: the two alleles of each gene separate into different haploid daughter nuclei during meiosis.

True

Fusion of gametes results in diploid _______ with two alleles of each gene that may be the same allele or different alleles.

Zygotes

________ alleles mask the effects of recessive alleles but ___________ alleles have joint effects.

Dominant; Co-dominant

List three diseases that are caused by a recessive phenotype.

Cystic Fibrosis, hemophilia, color-blindness

List a disease that is caused by a dominant phenotype.

Huntington's disease

List two sex-linked diseases.

Hemophilia, Color-blindness

True or False: Radiation and mutagenic chemicals increase the mutation rate and can cause genetic diseases and cancer.

True

If a person has a phenotype of ii (little i little i), what blood type will they have?

Blood type O

List two significant radiation producing events and their effects.

1. Chernobyl disaster: increase in thyroid cancer


2. Bombing of Hiroshima: increase in leukemia and other cancers

What is used to separate proteins or fragments of DNA according to size?

Gel electrophoresis

This lab technique can be used to amplify small amounts of DNA.

PCR (Polymerase chain reaction)

Genetic modification is carried out by ____ ________ between species.

Gene transfer

______ are groups of genetically identical organisms, derived from a single original parent cell.

Clones

What is a method that has been developed to clone adult animals using differentiated cells?

Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer

List two uses of DNA profiling.

Forensics investigations, paternity tests

Gene transfer to bacteria using plasmids makes use of ___________ _____________ and ___ ______.

Restriction endonucleases; DNA ligase

On a pedigree chart, if both of the parents are shaded and they have an unshaded offspring, is the trait dominant or recessive?

Dominant; they hid the non-trait

On a pedigree chart, if both parents are unshaded and they have a shaded offspring, is the trait dominant or recessive?

Recessive; they hid the trait

What is one example of a genetically modified crop?

Bt corn

What are the advantages of genetically modified crops?

More durable plants, don't need to apply pesticides, larger food yield, less space needed for crops

What are the disadvantages of genetically modified crops?

Hybridization with nearby plants, Dominance of local ecosystems, potential monopoly by genetic engineering companies