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58 Cards in this Set

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What is the range of a Servomotor placement?

- 0 to180 degrees

What do the wires means in a Servomotor?

Black = Ground


Red = Power (+5V)


Yellow = Control (PWM)

What are the two ways to code for the servo control?

- By pulse: writing a pulse to the motor that is the desired length, in microseconds


- By angle: a value between 0 and 180 degrees (followed by a non-digit character)

What is the correlation between the angle and the microseconds in a Servomotor?

- 0 degrees = 1000 microseconds


- 45 degrees = 1250 microseconds


- 2000 degrees = 2000 microseconds

What are the 3 methods that the Arduino Servo Library has?

1. attach()


2. write()


3. read()

How many Servomotors can an Arduino control with the Servo Library?

- up to 12

What are the advantages of using a Servomotor?

- easy to control


- precise


- powerful tool for anything needing controllable, repeatable movement


- signals used to control servos are almost always the same

What does Physical Identity mean?

- Presence: Is it near me?


- Address: Where is it?

How do Computers Identify Objects?

- Use information from sensors


- Techniques: Optical Recognition & Radio Frequency Identification (RFID)

What is Optical Recognition?

- Can take many forms: Video Color Tracking, Shape recognition, Barcode


- Identifiers: Colors, Shapes, Barcodes (can be fluid/ mean different things depending on context)

What is Shape and Pattern Recognition?

- Recognizing a color: simple computationally


- Recognizing a physical object: more challenging


2D geometry has to be known: from every angle, able to compare any view we get form the object, computer compares patterns, it doesn't understand the object as a discrete entity


Solution: simplify to barcode

What is Barcode Recognition?

- Pattern of dark and light lines or cells used to encode an alphanumeric string


- Computer reads the barcode by scanning the image and interpreting the light and dark bands as 0 or 1


- Scanning: done by camera or photodiode

What are the different kinds of barcodes?

- 1D bardcode: ISBN of a book, Scanner or camera needs to read the image only along one axis




-2D barcode: QR (Quick Response Code) has a 2D matrix and therefore more info density

What are the drawbacks of barcodes?

- distortion form analog to digital conversion through the camera causes many errors


- line of sight


- barcode image has to be centered- otherwise the pattern recognition routine will not work properly due to distortion at edges

What is Radio Frequency Identification?

- Relies on tagging object in order to identiy them


- RFID tags do not need to be visible to be read


- RFID reader sends out a short-range radio signal, which is picked up by an RFID tag


- the tag then transmits back a short string of data

What are the types of a RFID System?

1. Passive


2. Active

Explain a Passive RFID System?

- the tags contain an integrated circuit that has a basic radio transceiver and a small amount of nonvolatile memory


- powered by the current that the reader's signal induces in their antennas


- received energy is just enough to power the tag to transmit its data once

Explain an Active RFID System?

- the tag has its own power supply and radio transceiver


- transmits a signal in response to a received message from a reader


- longer range


- more expensive

When is an RFID reader activated? Deactivated?

- LOW


- HIGH

What are Haptics?

- Study and implementation of interaction techniques involving touch

What are the Input devices commonly used in Haptics?

- force-sensitive resistors


- thermistors


- capacitance sensors

What are Force-Sensitive Resistors (FSR)

- covert mechanical force into electrical resistance


- generally small, flat

What are flex sensors?

- look and work like FSR


- vary resistance based on how much they are bended


- flat plastic strip that van bend up to 180 degrees


- resistance: 10 KOhms to 40 KOhmns


- used in virtual reality gloves

What are pressure sensors?

- measure pressure exerted by a gas or fluid


- most commonly used in pneumatic or hydraulic applications

How/Why can Capacitience Sensors be used to sense touch

- human body always stores a small electic charge

What is the Matrix Library?

- A library that enabled you to work with a single LED Driver

What is the LedControl Library?

- Enables you to work with multiple LED drivers and newer drivers as well

What is the Sprite Library?

- A library allows you to create image sprites to use with the Matrix library

What does LCD stand for?

- Liquid Crystal Display

How many data lines does and LCD library use?

- LCD = 8 data lines


- LCD 4 Bit = 4 data lines

Name 4 parts to consider in communication between different machines and applications.

1. Context: continuous, non-continuous, a/synchronous, peer-to-peer, client-sever, ect.


2. Means of Communication


3. Machines used


4. Amount of data being exchanged

What are the benefits of communicating over Networks?

- enable your application to work remotely: get info from remote locations; send info to other devices, applications, and locations; send commands to a remote server


- gather data from the internet


- network multiple devices and machines

What are the layers of agreement?

1. Physical


2. Electrical


3. Logical


4. Data


5. Application

Explain the Physical Layer of Agreement

- how are the physical inputs and outputs of each device connected to the other


- how many connections between the two devices do you need to get messages across

Explain the Electrical Layer of Agreement

- what volatage levels will you send to represent the bits of your data

Explain the Logical Layer of Agreement

- does an increase in voltage level represent a zero or a one (5V = 1 and 0V = 0)

Explain the Data Layer of Agreement

- what is the timing of the bits


- are the bits read in groups of 8, 9 or 10 bits


- are there bits at the beginning of end of each group to punctuate the groups

Explain the Application Layer of Agreement

- how are the groups of bits arranged into messages


- what is the order in which messages have to be exchanged in order to get something done

What do Network Maps do?

- show how things are connected


- show arrangements of physical connections: how we want to route the messages on that network


- types of network connections

Draw a Star Network.

Do it.

Draw a Ring Network.

Do itt.

What is an IP Address?

- it can change when a device is moved form one network to another

What is a Hardware Address?

- does not changed when device is moved from one network to another

What are the pieces of information required to identify the receiving application?

1. the name or address of the host machine


2. the identity of the receiving process(application) on the destination host




**in internet application the destination host's address is specified by its IP address**

What are Ports?

- help computer sort data from network to different applications


- identified by a 16-bit number

Explain a User interface.

- allows the user to invoke and control application functionality

Explain Application logic

- the software code, processing instruction that provide functionality

Explain the Application-level protocol

- define the format and order of the messages exchanged between processes, as well as the action taken on the transmission or receipt of a message

What is the Transport Layer?

- the layer of the network responsible for making sure packets get to their destination



What are the two protocols used to handle transport of packets on the internet?

1. Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)


2. User Datagram Protocol (UDP)

What is a packet?

- the data, broken into smaller pieces, for easier sending

What is the ping Command?

- tests whether an internet host is reachable


- also measures the round-trip time to the host, thus providing some indication of how 'far away' the remote host it

What is a Client Class?

- is used to create a client object that connects to a server to exchange data

What are the Characteristics of a Client Class?

- sends the request


- initiates requests


- waits for and receives replies


- usually connects to small number of servers at one time


- typically interacts directly with end


-users using a graphical interface

What is a Server Class?

- is used to create server objects that can send and receive data to and from any client connected to it

What are the characteristics of a Server Class?

- receiver of request which is send by client is known as server


- passive


- waits for requests from clients


- upon receipt of requests, processes them and then serves replies


- usually accepts connections from a large number of clients


- typically does not interact directly with end-users

What does a UDP service entail?

- lightweight transport protocol with a minimalist service model


- connection-less, no handshaking before the two processes start to communicate


- provides an unreliable data transfer service. When a process sends a message into a UDP socket, UDP provides no guarantee that the message will ever reach the receiving socket


- messages that do arrive to the socket may arrive out of order


- does not include a flow control or congestion control mechanism, so a sending process can pump data into a UDP socket at any rate it please. But data may not make it

What does a TCP service entail?

- includes a connection-oriented service and a reliable data transfer service


- client and server exchange control info with each other before the application-level messages begin to flow, allows them to prepare for transfer


- full-duplex connection, two processes can send messages to each other over the connection at the same time


- tears down connection when done. referred to as "connection-oriented"


- reliable transport service


- congestion control mechanism