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108 Cards in this Set

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Little is known about the origins of the Etruscans. By 700 BCE they had established themselves in modern day Tuscany. Their occupation of Rome signified a turning point for the Romans, for when they arrived they drained the marshy area and created an urban center. They also built temples and shrines and roads, and they created public games like chariot racing. The rise of Rome signaled the decline of the Etruscans (can see worried look on faces of the "funerary lid" couple (pg. 93) reflecting their decline. Many aspects of their art suggests that they came from the East. They had showed an outstanding sophistication and technological ability. Distinct elements of Etruscan art are: a sort of elemental force almost primitive in spirit, although they were very sophisticated craftsmen. They were less concerned with intellectual problems of proportion or understanding how the human body works than in producing an immediate impact on the viewer. On the other hand, other characteristics show a great love for nature and are more relaxed.
When Romans began to rise, and the Etruscans fade, Rome constituted itself a Republic. Two chief Consuls were elected for a one year term to help the senate govern. This system put the power in the hands of the upper class.
The Forum was the meeting place in the Roman Republic where the Senate and the assemblies met. It was the center of the political, economic and religious life of the Romans. It was a large open space at the foot of the Palatine and Capitoline hills that had been drained and made habitable by the Etruscans.
A term used for the upper class in the Roman Republic. The senate drew most of its members from the aristocratice families, so most of the power resided with the Patricians.
A term used for the lower class in the Roman Republic. The plebians were allowed to form their own assembly, and the leaders they elected (the tribunes) represented their interests in the government, and protected them against state officials who treated them unjustly.
lus Civile
Rome's Code of Civil Law, first organized under Julius Caesar. Ius Civile is Latin for "citizen law". The creation of this single unified code of civil law was among the most lasting achievements of Julius Caesar's dictatorship. This code of law served as the model for later times and has profoundly influenced the development of modern legal systems.
p. 96 - One of the two principle schools of philosophy to influence Rome, imported from Greece. Epicureanism never gained many followers, although Lucretius (a famous poet) supported it. According to Epicurus (the founder of the school of Epicureanism), the correct goal and principle of human actions is pleasure. This school stresses moderation and prudence in the pursuit of pleasure, but the Romans insisted on viewing it as a typical Greek enthusiasm for self-indulgence and debauchery. Lucretius tried to emphasize the profoundly intellectual aspects – teaching that the gods, if they exist, play no part in human affairs or in the phenomena of nature. Therefore, people could live free of superstitious fear of the unknown. This school of philosophy explains the world as made up of two elements: small particles of matter, or atoms, and empty space. Atoms can be neither split nor destroyed. According to Epicurus, at death the atoms that make up our body separate, and body, mind, and soul are lost. Because no part of humans are immortal, Epicurus said no one should be afraid of death.
p.96 - Practical and moralizing Romans were much more fond of Stoicism, the second school of philosophy. Stoics taught that the world was governed by Reason and that Divine Providence watched over the virtuous, never allowing them to suffer evil. The key to becoming virtuous lay in willing or desiring only that which was under one's own control. Thus riches, power, and even physical health - all subjects to the whims of Fortune - were exluded as objects of desire. For the Stoic, all that counted was that which was subject to the individual's will. It's chief literary exponents came with Seneca, who wrote several essays on Stoic morality.
A public speaker
Orator Stance
a statue who is in position to speak. ex: augustine orator
Triumphal arch
The original triumphal arches commemorated military victories; each was a permanent versionof the temporary wooden arch erected to celebrate the return to the capital of a victorious general. The Roman use of the arch was probably borrowed from the Etruscans, and was widely imitated throughout the world.
Augustus (63 BC - AD 14) was the first emporer of Rome. Augustus was born Octavius (Octavian) in Rome. In 43 BC his great-uncle, Julius Caesar, was assassinated and in his will, Octavian, was named as his heir. After fighting and deafeating Antony and Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium (31 BC), Octavian was left as sole ruler of the Roman world, which was now in ruins. His victory marked the end of the Roman Republic. Octavian built a new political order and founded the system of monarchy headed by an emporer. His powers were hidden behind constitutional forms, and he took the name Augustus meaning 'lofty' or 'serene'. However, he retained ultimate control of all aspects of the Roman state, with the army under his direct command. By the time of Augustus' death in CE 14, Rome had achieved a peace and prosperity unequaled in its history - before or after.
Pax Romana
"Roman Peace", the long period of relative peace and minimal expansion by military force experienced by the Roman empire. Established by Caesar Augustus. 27 BCE-180CE
Term used to descible deciptions of Mary holding the dead Christ in her arms. page 297
Impius Furor
painting done on fresh coats of plaster.
The re-use of earlier building material or decorative sculpture on new monuments
Latin word for "eye." A circular-eye-like window or opening, technically used to describe the empty round hole at the top of the dome.
Barrel Vault
A series of arches forming a tunnel (or "barrel"). Vaults were often used for domestic buildings. Using both bricks and concrete, architects could comine vaults, barrel vaults and domes to construct elaborate buildings capable of holding thousands of people at a time. pg. 108
literally Greek word "image"/painting of a religious figure or a religious scee that is used in the public worship of the church. They are not primarily decorative. pg 173
Literally "image breaking" -movement in Christian East that militated against the use of icons in worship and devotion. Because of the iconoclastic controversies of the 8thh and 9th centuries in the Byzantine Empire, almost no pictorial art remains from the period before the 8th century.
Iconography is the branch of art history which studies the identification, description, and the interpretation of the content of images. The word iconography literally means "image writing" Four evangelist symbols: Matthew = Human/Angel, Mark = Lion, Luke = Ox, John = Eagle
Floor or wall decoration consisting of small pieces of stone, ceramic, shell or glass set into plaster or cement.
The small colored cubes of marble, glass, and stone that make up a mosaic.
Also known as a water bridge, these are used to transport water from one location to another. Aqueducts were built in all parts of the Roman Empire and were important for supplying water to large cities across the empire, where they totalled over 260 miles.
Edict of Milan or Edict of Toleration
This was a letter signed by emperors Constantine and Licinius that proclaimed religious toleration in the Roman Empire, issued in 313 AD, granting the Christians the right to worship without persecution.
Ancient underground burial places where the bodies of Christians were interred. The Roman catacombs never served as secret places of worship or of hiding for the Christians of the time, although religious frescoes were often painted there along with some of the first depictions of the virgin and child.
Basilica-including nave, aspe, transept, and narthex
A Roman public building usually located in the forum of the town although after the Roman Empire became officially Christian, the term came to signify a large and important church that has been given special ceremonial rites by the Pope. Nave - a long central approach to the high alter flanked by two parallel side aisles. Apse - the semi-circular or polygonal section of the sanctuary at the liturgical east end beyond the altar. Transept - the area set crosswise to the nave in a cruciform building that separates the nave from the sanctuary. Narthex - the entrance or lobby area located at the end of the nave at the far end from the church's main altar. Atrium - courtyard.
The belief that God has made a formal alliance or agreement with a man or with humanity in general.
The religious belief that affirms that there is only one God.
Name used to describe the Roman empire during the middle ages (330-1453). The city of Constantinople (founded by Constantine) became the center of the imperial life in this time. The main religion of this period was Christianity/Eastern Orthodox more specifically. During this time, there were major events that occured including: East-West Schism. Important people during this time was Augustine.
circular vault made up of a series of arches intersecting each other around a central axis
triangular masonry devices that carried the weight of the dome on massive piers rather than straight down to the drum
it is the greek word for "fish" and used to represent many things (usually Christ) and was adopted as a Christian symbol
from the Greek meaning "one who rules or dominates all"
a compartment in an altar, in which relics are kept.
Antiphonal singing
Cantar and Audience sing different parts-- Music in which two or more voices alternate with one another
A painting technique using molten wax colored by pigments
Carolingian Renaisance
A revival of classical art and architecture in parts of northern and western Europe begun under Charlemagne and lasting into the 10th century.
the 1st two letter in the greek spelling of the word Christ
Gregorian Chant
The plain unaccompanied song of the church liturgy, where the notes are correlated with the syllables of the text being sung.
A capella
no accompaniament
one or many voices sing a single melodic line - gregorian chants
This is the doctrine that through denying the flesh and rejecting the pleasures of the world, one releases the soul to attain unity with the divine
characterized by solitude—sacrificing the social aspect of life for spiritual enlightenment
refers to the spirituality and consecrated life in accordance with the Rule of St. Benedict.
Monasticism in the medieval times was a religious practice where one denies wordly pleasure in order to fully devote their life to spiritual aspects.
Also known as the Preaching Friars of Saint Dominic. Thomas Aquinas joined this group in 1243. Under the Dominican Order, (founded by St. Dominic) Friars would study, learn and teach.
Those under St. Francis of Assisi. Believed life of total freedom demanded a life of total poverty. Preached concern for the poorest of the poor. Believed that all creation was a gift and that everythhing in creation praised God in its own way.
The enclosed part of a monastery, but more commonly, the enclosed garden and walkway in the interior of the monastary.
Book with bound pages of parchment used instead of scrolls. They were very expensive, yet many of the churches had at least one. Parchment was made from animal skin.
Another name for the Book of Psalms from the Bible.
The monastic room used by monks for the copying and illumination of manuscripts and their study. It served as the library and copying area of the monastery.
The half-moon-shaped space over the portal of a cathedral. The sculpture in the tympanum is usually the most iconographic found on the cathedral. An example is the tympanum depicting scenes from the life of the virgin Mary on the Chartres Cathedral.
Though not all tympanums have them, the mandorla is the center almond shape that contains some representation of Christ.
The pillars on the sides of the doorway (or entry) to a cathedral. The jambs are sculpted with, usually, several figures. Saint Gilles du Gard (fig. 9.14)
The pillar separating the doorway (or entry) of a cathedral decorated with sculpture (most times a sculpture of a prophet or apostle). The Prophet Jeremiah from the south portal of St. Pierre
The horseshoe shaped space behind the altar, generally a walkway where monks might meditate. It allowed access to the side chapels.
journey to a sacred place or shrine for one's religious beilefs. A pilgrimage church is designated as a destination opposed to a church that was also a cathedral. Jerusalem-Life of Christ, Rome - early Martyrs, EXAMPLES OF CHURCHES: Cantebury england, Santiago de Compostela- Spain
The set of symbols and allusions that gives meaning to a complex work of art
The artistic decoration of hand written text. This was a symbol of status, usually a patron of a wealthy aristocrat. book of hours; Limbourg brothers - Trest Riches Heares des Ducde Berry (this was the example given in class with the different seasons and signs of the zodiac showing what month it was)
Relic and Reliquary
Relic: parts of a body or material (clothing, personal objects)associated with a saint. Reliquary: A small casket or shrine in which sacred relics are kept. The 'sacred tunic' of Mary, at Chartres
From 1000-1200, architecture that was larger and more Roman-looking than the that of the earlier medieval centuries. Characterized by use of heavy stone arches (mainly Roman barrel arch) and generous exterior decoration, mainly sculpture. This permitted larger and more spacious interiors and fireproof stone and masonry roofs.
The highly structured social organization typical of the early Middle Ages based on a pyramidal model with the lord at the top and gradations down to the serfs, who were bound to the land. For an exhaustive definition see CV 213.
A person who has retired to a solitary place for a life of religious seclusion, a hermit. Julian or Norwich
Gothic art was a Medieval art movement that lasted about 200 years. It began in France out of the Romanesque period in the mid-12th century, concurrent with Gothic architecture found in Cathedrals.
Rib Vault
intersection of 2 or 3 barrel vaults. made it possible for stained glass windows to be present, relieved pressure and necessity for solid walls allowing more windows to be added. (see "Romanesque and Pilgramage Powerpoint for examples)
Stained glass
Popularized by Abbott Suger through his effusive use of it, stained glass windows were used in a great deal of cathedrals During the High Middle Ages as part of the Gothic Style. Stained glass was seen as the epitome of Light Mysticism which was a theory that focused on God being light, and creating structures and art that symbolized such. For example, the purpose of mosaics were to reflect light, and stained glass became the high embodiment because it allowed the viewer to see the light directly. Stained glass windows were often called the "Bible of the Poor" because those who were illiterate (who were many) could learn Bible stories from looking at the windows. Stained glass also makes use of the Platonic analogy of "the viewer sees an object but 'through it' is conscious of the distant unseen source (the sun--God). One of the most famous stained glass windows is the Notre Dame de Belle Verriere(Our Lady of the Beautiful Window) (CV p226 fig10.5) at Chartres in Paris. (CV pg 225-226)
Flying buttress of Arch
external curved architectural support of a Gothic church that enabled the cathedrals to be built to the Gothic desire for verticality. used to accomodate the weight of a pitched roof and weighty ascending walls.(CV p222 fig 10.3)
series of intersecting ribs used in Gothic style architecture particulary for windows. It is the stonework used to support the glass in a stained glass windows, added another decorative element to the window. Often decoratively used in Rose windows
Lancet window
a tall narrow window with a pointed arch at its top. Also characteristic of the Gothic architectual style
Rose window
circular windows common in Gothic style architecture for cathedrals and churches. Generally contains complex designs formed out of tracery or mullion. Found in many Gothic style cathedrals in Northern France and from the Romanesque period in Germany and England. noted among the Cathedrals that make use of it is the Abbey of Denis from Abbot Suger
Supported Florence independence, favored papacy over Roman
Favored roman over papacy
A literal translation would be "counter-suffering". It is the ironic cosmological law ensuring that "the punishment fits the crime".
terza rima
Triple rhyme-ABA,BCB,CDC-lines tercets, groups of three lines, each line has 11 syllabuls, tercet has 33, causes reader to look fowards and backwards, impossible to replicate in English, wrote in Vernacular. Example in The Late Middle Ages slide "Poem Opening"
Lines form groups of three
tragedy vs. comedy
Tragedy- narrative structure, happiness to misery, style exalted, character historical. Comedy- narrative structure: misery to happiness (hell to paradise), style: ranges-elevated to grotesque, common to highborn
Summa and its diminutive summula (plural summae viz. summulae) are mainly used, in English and other modern langages, for texts that 'sum up' knowledge in a field, such as the compendiums of theology, philosophy and canon law which were used both as textbooks in the schools and as books of reference during the Middle Ages.
dream vision
A literary genre where the narrator falls asleep and dreams. In the dream there is usually a guide that imparts knowledge the dreamer could not have learned otherwise. After waking the narrator usually resolves to share this knowledge with others. Dante Alghieri- The Divine Comedy, Augistine Soliloquia
philosophical allegory
to describe one's life in explicit philosophical terms or philosophically suggestive ways. Reading life allegorically is to recognize philosophy in what seems merely details of the whole picture and to develop a sense for how philosophical constellations are mirrored in one's life. Augustine Confessions
bubonic plague
In 1348 the Bubonic Plague swept through Europe and disrupted trade, culture and daily life. It is estimated that some Italian cities lost two thirds of their population
peasant revolt of 1381
One of many popular revolts in late medieval Europe. Marked the Beginning of the End of Serfdom
great schism
Split in the Catholic Church when three men claimed to be the true pope. It was a political and not religous split. It was ended by the Council of Constance
chivalric romance
romance found in medieval Europe from the 12th century onwards, describing (usually in verse) the adventures of legendary knights, and celebrating an idealized code of civilized behaviour that combines loyalty, honour, and unrequited love.
"moral stories" discuss moral topics Ex: In "The Canturbury Tales" by Chaucer, the pardoner tells an exemplum. It tells of the many moral issues in disturbing detail
"ribald fables" Ex: In "the Canterbury Tales" by Chaucer, the miller and the reeve tell stories that spring from the ribald fabliaux tradition of time.
senex amans
a stock character of classical Greek and Roman comedy, medieval literature (e.g., fabliau) and drama. It is an old jealous man married to a young woman and thus often an object of mockery. He is variously ugly, impotent, puritanical, and foolish to be cuckolded by a young and handsome man. The classic example of a senex amans is Januarie (January) in the Merchant's Tale (part of the Canterbury Tales). He is nigh on 60 (a worthy age for then) and he marries a young girl (under 20).
the native language of a country or a locality. It appears as though it is a different language. The Dante's "Divine Comedy" is an example of early vernacular literature in a language that would one day be called Italian respectively.
mass (including the ordinary parts: Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Agnus Dei & Sanctus)
A religious meeting with the purpose of taking the sacrament. There are different parts that the members say. the PROPER parts change from meeting to meeting. The ORDINARY parts are fixed and never change. These are the words and their meanings. Kyrie= "O Lord" ; Gloria= "Glory"; Credo= "I Believe"; Sanctus= "Holy"; Benedict= "Blessed"; Agnus Dei= "Lamb of God"
In music, it is a texture consisting of two or more independent melodic voices, as opposed to music with just one voice (monophony) or music with one dominant melodic voice accompanied by chords (homophony).
Polyphonic music of the 14th centryand for a different type that originated in the Renaissance. The 13th-century motet, a creation (c.1200) of the school of Notre-Dame de Paris, was a polyphonic composition based on a tenor that was a fragment of plainsong
Ars Nova
Polyphonic music of the 14th centry
A representation of an abstract or spiritual meaning through concrete or material forms
Courtly love
A highly stylized code of behavior that prescribed the rules of conduct between lovers
in Dante, the journeyer is the "everyman". It represents everyone, generalizing the journey that we all need to take.
Rooted in byzantine tradition, rich glowing surface, elaborate linear designs - this was the beinning of realism and sense of emotion was present.
Inernational Style
Style a gothic style of art that has crowded, and busy compositions, is very rich in detail, and often has lots of gold leaf. However, it lacks Renaissance art forms because of its lack of perspective and naturalism
Book of hours
a book containing the perscribed order of prayers, readings from scripture, and rites for the canonical hours, used in monasteries.
Linear perspective
a system of perspective in which all parallel lines converge at a single vanishing point.
pyramidal construction
i couldnt find an actual definition of this, but from what i understood of it in class Masaccio's piece with the pardoners above and the bones lying beneath is a perfect example because all the key points are arranged into a triangle shape.
the activity, spirit or time of the great revival of art, literature, and learning in Europe beginning in the 14th century and extending to the 17th century, marking the transition from the medieval to the modern world.
the philosophical and cultural movement during the renaissance where individuals were inspired by important classical texts from ancient Greece and Rome which offered a different vision of life and humanity. It was first and foremost and educational philosophy, that was formed off of Greek and Roman models. It is known for its optomism, and the changing view of human nature and human potential, and glorifying mankind. there were two forms of humanism... secular humanism, and christian humanism (which was the marriage of classical and christian traditions
All knowledge can be fit together in one systematic, hierarchical whole. As all truth comes from God, all can be reconciled. Arose at Cathedral schools in the 12th century. Inspired by re-discovery of Aristotle by Islamic scholars (Thomas Aquinas—Summa Theologica Abelard—Sic Et Non “Yes and No”)
Great Chain of Beings
Seven liberal arts (trivium and quadrivium)
The basic classic set of courses typically constituting education up to the university level made up of grammar, rhetoric, and dialects (the trivium) - and arithmetic, geometry, music, and astronomy ( the quadrivium)
Begging friars carry the message of Christ of love (Francian and Dominican Orders)
place where time is measured. people are on the honor system and repent of the seven deadly sins based on contrapasso. once repented of the sin, the insignia on the forhead of dante is removed.