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55 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Gender Roles

- A set of norms, or culturally defined expectations, that define how people of one gender ought to behave.


- A generalization about a group of people than distinguishes them from others.


- An approach that simultaneously considers the meaning and consequences of multiple categories of identity, difference, and disadvantage.

- Combines factors such as gender, race, social class, sexual orientation simultaneously.

Gender Roles and Stereotypes: African Americans

- 13% of the US population.

- Heritage of African culture and experience in America of slavery and oppression are two major factors.

- Emphasis of the collective than the individual.

- Mother to child relationships are valued.

- Traditional stereotypes vary including being overly promiscuous, being fat and asexual, gold digger, "gangster bitches" (being violent and focusing on survival), and the Savior Sister stereotype (virtuous and abstinent).

- There is a greater stigma against black men including being dangerous, untrustworthy, violent, etc.

- This is negative image is tied to the fact that the unemployment rate of black men is double that of white men, half of all prison inmates are black, and only few black men go to college.

- Black men are also less likely to remain committed in a relationship or get married.


- The process of incorporating the beliefs and customs of a new culture.

Gender Roles and Stereotypes: Latinos

- The nation's largest minority at 16% of the population.

- Very accustomed in the American culture, having both characteristics of native culture mixed with Anglo culture.

- Values family loyalty and focuses on mutually supportive family and community values.

- Gender roles are sharply defined. Women are expected to be virtuous, passive, and obedient while men are given greater freedom, not expected in household work, and encouraged in sexual exploits.

- Roles of marianismo and machismo are implicitly encouraged where a woman's sexual desires are repressed and are obligated to have sex with her husband.

Gender Roles and Stereotypes: Asian Americans

- A very small minority of only 5% of the US population.

- The first Asian-Americans were the Chinese recruits that came abroad in the 1840's as laborers and 1860's to work on the transcontinental railroad.

- Racist sentiment grew against the Chinese and resulted in a shift to recruiting the Korean and Filipinos and then again in the 1960's and 1970's of a mass exodus of refugees from war torn southeast Asia.

- Much like White Americans, Asian Americans emphasize on the values of achievement and education and thus, Asian American women have a higher level of education on average compared to White American women.

- Asian Americans also place high values on family and interdependence than White American women.

- There may be conflict in cultural values of acculturated Asian American women between the traditional gender roles vs the more independent and assertive gender roles of the Anglo culture.

- Sexuality of Asian Americans are greatly misinforming as viewing Asian American males to be asexual and women to be exotic sex toys.

- Compared to White Americans, Asian Americans tend to have more conservative sexual attitudes and experience more anxiety about about sex.

Gender Roles and Stereotypes: American Indians

- Some tribes such as the Cherokee, Navajo, Iroquios, Hopi, and Zuni traditionally had more egalitarian gender roles than the White culture.

- The acculturation and adaptation of the White culture had resulted in more male dominant gender roles.

- More than 2/3 of the 200 or so Native American tribes believed in genders beyond male and female. Anglo anthropologists referred to this category as berdache, a term rejected by the Native American people who prefer the term "two spirit". The same anthropologists concluded these people to be homosexuals, transsexuals, or transvestites; none of which were accurate since marriage always consisted of pairing 2 different genders.

- There was also a role of a "warrior/manly-hearted" woman in some tribes such as the Apache, Crow, Cheyenne, Blackfoot, Pawnee, and Navajo tribes who could express masculine traits and attend male stereotyped activities while continuing to live and dress as women.


- The ways in which society conveys to the individual its norms or expectations for his or her behavior.

- Occurs especially in childhood through conditioning and learned behavior.

- Parents, media, and peers are the largest agents of this factor

Psychological Gender Differences

- Aggressiveness differs in males and females with males being generally more aggressive and this being true at all ages in all forms of aggression (physical, verbal, fantasy).

- Males dominate the statistics for violence.

- Men and women also differ in styles of communication verbally and nonverbally.

- Men and women differ in self-disclosure, women being more engaged in self-disclosure.

- Norms of self-disclosure however, are changing from traditional roles to a more equalized setting.

- Women are better at decoding nonverbal cues than men.

Gender Differences in Sexuality: Masturbation

- According to a review of 730 studies, the largest gender difference was the incidence in masturbation.

- According to Kinsey's data, 92% of men masturbated to orgasm as opposed to 58% of females.

- Virtually all men had masturbated by the age 20 with most beginning from ages 13 and 15 while substantial number of women began masturbating at ages 25, 30, or 35.

- Men are likely to masturbate more likely and more frequently than women according to the NSSHB: 94% males masturbated at least once in their lives compared to 84% females and 20% of men masturbated 4 or more times a week compared to 5% of women.

Gender Differences in Sexuality: Attitudes About Casual Sex

- Men were more accepting of the idea than women while as women only thought it acceptable if it is a emotionally committed relationship.

- According to Clark and Hartfield's studies, 70% of men and no women agreed in the idea of having casual sex.

- From an evolutionary perspective, men would select to have many sex partners while women would be choosy and more attached.

Gender Differences in Sexuality: Use of Pornography

- Men are considerably more likely to report using porn than women.

Gender Differences in Sexuality: Arousal to Erotica

- Research shows that men are more aroused by erotic materials, but the gender differences are not large.

- Both men and women are more aroused to female centered erotica.

- Explicit heterosexual sex was most arousing for both genders.

- Women were sometimes not aware of the physiological arousal.

Penile Strain Gauge

- A device used to measure physiological sexual arousal in the male.

- It is a flexible loop that fits around the base of the penis.


- An acrylic cylinder placed inside the vagina to measure physiological sexual arousal in the female.

- Also called a photometer.

Gender Differences in Sexuality: Orgasm Consistency

- Men are more consistent than women at having orgasms during sex.

- According to NSSHB, 91% of men and only 64% of women had an orgasm in their most recent sexual encounter.

- The gap is narrower in orgasm but men seem to be more efficient: men reported 80% versus 60% of women reporting to usually or almost always having an orgasm during masturbation.

Gender Differences in Sexuality: Sex Drive

- Men on average think about sex more often than women with more frequent and varied fantasies.

- Men also desire more sexual partners than women, with this being generally true world wide according to a research across 52 nations.

- According the Fisher's research, men on average think about sex on average 19 times a day compared with 10 times a day for women.

5 Differences In Male Vs Female Sexuality

- Lower percentage of females compared to males in masturbation.

- Women are more disapproving of casual sex.

- Women have a lesser orgasm consistency.

- Men's greater usage of porn.

- Men's greater sex drive.

Bogus Pipeline Method

- A method used in a study notably by Alexander & Fisher; Jonason & Fisher.

- Used to test the reliability of self-evaluated studies when paired with different situations.

- Consists of the bogus pipeline condition, anonymous condition, and the exposure. threat condition.

Bogus Pipeline Condition

- The participant (student) is hooked up to a fake polygraph or "lie detector machine" and told the machine can detect false answers.

- People should respond honestly in this condition.

Anonymous Condition

- The participant (student) simply fill out a questionnaire anonymously and then place it inside a locked box for confidentiality.

Exposure Threat Condtion

- Respondents (students) are instructed to complete a self evaluated questionnaire and hand it in directly to the experimenter who is an undergraduate peer.

Results of the Bogus Pipeline Experiment

- Men and women had nearly identical number of sexual partners with women having having slightly more (bogus condition).

- In the anonymous condition, men would slightly bias to have more while women would report fewer than they actually have.

- The exposure threat condition brought the largest gap between the number of sex partners reported from men and women. Women reported significantly lower number of sexual partners, conforming to the female gender role while as the men's reports were nearly identical (slightly less).

Difference in Sexuality Between Genders: Biological Factors (Anatomical)

- Men's sexual anatomy is external and visible.

- The physical responses of a male's sexual anatomy is also very obvious: an erection.

- The female sexual anatomy is mostly hidden and internal and the physical sexual response is much more subtle than a male's and therefore would be less aware and would be less likely to masturbate and develop their sexuality.

Difference in Sexuality Between Genders: Biological Factors (Hormonal)

- Presumed from studies with animals that testosterone is responsible for sex drive and that women have 1/10th less testosterone than men.

- It criticized because of two factors: Results from research done on animals should not be used to infer the same for humans and secondly, it could be that the female hypothalamus or genitals are more sensitive to testosterone.

Difference in Sexuality Between Genders: Cultural Factors

- The double standard for women that they have to remain chaste and submissive while their male counterparts have freedom sexually.

- The expectation for submissiveness for women may react to create difficulty in becoming aroused.

- Marital and family roles play a factor as the woman's responsibility to keep their children from hearing or seeing them engage in sexual activity may hamper her sexual experience.

- Body images and the expectations culture and media portrays may hamper a woman's sexuality.

Difference in Sexuality Between Genders: Other Factors

- The fact that women become pregnant may bring up the idea of its negative consequences, thus impacting a woman's sexuality.

- Ineffective methods of stimulating a woman may also be a factor if the clitoris is not well stimulated during intercourse.

- Masturbation is another factor, men learn and engage in masturbation much earlier and more frequently and commonly than women which hampers women's sexual development as supported by the study that women who masturbate to orgasm before marriage will have greater chances of orgasm in intercourse after marriage.

Difference in Sexuality Between Genders: Across the Lifespan

- The male's sexuality is most intense in his teens until about his 30's and is mostly focused on the genitals.

- A man's refractory period becomes longer with age so that by 50, he is satisfied with 2 orgasms a week and sex becomes more person-centered.

- For women, their sexual response becomes more quicker and intense and orgasm more consistently in their middle ages than they did in their teens or 20's. Extramarital sex for women therefore occurs more likely in the upper 30's as with instantaneous vaginal lubrication.

Person Centered Sex

- Sexual expression in which the emphasis is on the relationship and emotions between the two people.

Body Centered Sex

- Sexual Expression in which the emphasis is on the body and physical pleasure.


- A person who believes he or she was born with the body of the other gender.

- Some transsexuals are bisexual, one study report MTF's stating 32% attracted to men, 31% to women, and 28% to both genders.

Gender Reassignment

- The process transsexuals change their body to the other gender.

- Also called sex change, gender transition, or crossing by the transgender community.

Gender Dysphoria

- Unhappiness with one's gender.

- Another term for transsexualism.


- A category including transsexuals.

- Those who think of themselves as a third gender, transvestites, gender benders, and others.


- A person whose gender matches the body he or she is born with.

Male-to-Female Transsexual (MTF)

- A person who is born with a male body but who has a female identity and wishes to become a female biologically in order to match her identity.

- More likely to seek help in clinics and more often candidates to undergo reassignment surgery.

Female-to-Male Transsexual (FTM)

- A person born with a female body whose gender identity is male and wishes to undergo gender reassignment.

- A notable person in history of early Christianity was Pelagia, who fled from not wanting to marry to a monastery to live as a man, later elected to a covenant and then expelled due to false allegations, dying later in disgrace.


-Sexually attracted to women.


- Sexually attracted to men.

MTF: Androphilic vs Gynephilic

- Androphilic MTF's tend to be lighter in weight and shorter in height compared to the general population of males.

- GynephilIc MTF'S tend to marry women and have children in early adulthood and have a eroticized cross-dressing in childhood and adolescence. They are more inclined to undergo reassignment surgery than those who are androphilic.

Steps in Gender Reassignment

- Some steps may be skipped, depending on the individual.

1. Careful counseling and careful evaluation to establish that they truly is a transsexual. Sometimes a confused individual or schizophrenics may display such qualities who are not true transsexuals.

2. Real life experience. The person lives as a member of their new gender for a period of 3 months or more. The goal is to endure the person can adjust to their new gender without regret. Some transsexuals consult a physician cross dressed in their efforts to become the opposite sex but problems sometimes arise as cross dressing is illegal in many cities and the problem of transphobia. Hormone therapy sometimes occurs at this stage.

3. The final stage is the surgery itself which some transsexuals skip.

Hormone Therapy (MTF)

- Trans woman is given estrogen and must remain on it for life and gradually gives feminization.

- Breasts enlarge.

- Fat patterns of fat deposits become feminine, the hips become rounded.

- Balding if it has begun, stops.

- Secretions from the prostrate diminish until eventually there is no ejaculate.

- Erections become less and less frequent, pleasing the individual.

Horome Therapy (FTM)

- The trans man is given androgens, bringing about gradual masculinization.

- A beard may develop, varying in degrees.

- Voice deepens.

- Fat patterns becomes more masculine.

- The clitoris enlargens and becomes more erectile but not nearly as big as a penis.

- MRI studies suggests that the brain may change as well, the hypothalamus grows to the typical male size.

Gender Reassignment Surgery Methods (MTF)

- The penis and testes are removed without severing the sensory nerves of the penis.

- The external genitalia are then reconstructed to resemble female genitalia.

- The glans penis is formed to make the clitoris with sexual sensitivity.

- Next an artificial pouch 15mm to 20mm deep is constructed using the skin of the penis. It must be dilated with a plastic device for 6 months afterward so that it does not reclose.

- Other methods include surgery to enhance breasts or shaving the Adam's apple to taking out the bottom set of ribs.

Gender Reassignment Surgery Methods (FTM)

- Generally more complex and less successful.

- Metoidioplasty.

- Phalloplasty.

- Some methods include breast removal and hysterectomy (removal of the uterus).


- FTM surgery that elongates the clitoris which is already enlarged by the enhancement of hormones.


- FTM surgery that require a skin flap from the forearm, lower abdomen, or thigh to create an artificial penis.

- Some surgeons are able to create a urethra so that a transman can urinate standing.

- Generally the penis is not capable of an erection although some surgeons are now experimenting new techniques.

Causes for Transsexualism

- Not yet well known.

- Possibly the atypical development of the brain: hypothalamus, corpus callosum, or anterior commissure.

- Failure to defeminize or demasculinize the fetus in the prenatal stage of development.

- There was a correlation in the difference in the brains of MTF and typical men in the bed of the stria terminalis (BST) of the lymbic system. In FTM's vs typical females, FTM's display brain regions that are intermediate between the cismales and cisfemales.

- There are however, certain genes associated with transsexualism which are also different between MTF and FTM.

Gender Identity Disorder (GID)

- A strong and persistent cross-gender identification.

- Can be found in children as young as 2 or 3 years of age.

Gender Variance

- Refers to cases in which the person does not have the typical pairing of a male gender identity and behavior with a male body, or with a female identity with a female body and behavior.

Children with GID

- Only 23% of children with GID persist to become transsexual adults.

- If GID persists to adolescence or adulthood, they are considered transsexual.

- Some argue children with these symptoms should not be diagnosed as it pathologizes them ad the majority go on to lead normal lives.

- Other experts argue that if GID persists throughout childhood, then treatment will be more effective then than later as hormonal treatments can suppress pubertal development.

- MTF outnumbers FTM perhaps because the male prenatal development is more complex and prone to error or that the male role is so restrictive that it doe not tolerate variations very well.

Buccal Smear Test

- A test of genetic sex, in which a small scraping of cells is taken from the inside of the mouth, stained, and examined under a microscope.

Issues in Transexualism

- Issues range from:

1. Psychological

2. Legal

3. Ethical / Religious

- Dr. Renee Richards: before changing genders, she was a successful tennis player but raised controversy when she tried to enter a woman's tennis tournament because of his bone structure which is unfair to the other athletes.

- International Olympic Committee suspended gender verification for female athletes in 2000 but seemed to accomplish nothing.

- Spanish hurdler Maria Jose Martinez brought controversy in the 2012 Olympics because she has chromosomes XY but has an androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS) so she has a female body.

- The International Olympic Committee in 2012 decided to use blood testosterone level as the criterion in women's events for gender verification but people with CAIS would be accepted.

Criticism of Gender Reassignment Surgery

- One criticism is if the transsexual's adjustment improves after surgery. They do have problems adjusting but this is primarily due to the gender related abuse they suffer.

- According to research however, 86% report satisfaction MTF and 89% satisfaction in FTM's.

- In a study of 32 MTF's, none expressed regret of surgery.