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84 Cards in this Set

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sexual conflict definition
one person interferes w/ the achievement of the goal of another person - goal being reproductive success

NOT ADAPTIVE - a by-product of what M & F look for & how they use sexual strategies

M & W are equipped with psychological solutions to the conflict
basic sexual conflicts b/wn men and women
1) women selectively withhold sex
2) men reluctant to give resources/commitment
3) women may mate with multiple partners but men want paternity assurance
sexual overperception bias
infer a state that's not there - men are more likely to make this mistake

psychology of men has evolved to minimize the costs of missed opportunities by assuming an interest that's not there
commitment skepticism bias
failing to infer a state that IS there - women do this more often

minimize costs of being duped by deceitful tactics AKA MEN
differing perceptions about intent and reaction b/wn men & women
men are more likely to attribute friendly behavior as sexy, while women will just see it as friendly

men assume women's psychology is like their own
how and why men and women withhold sex
women withhold sex to
1) assess commitment
2) avoid costs of sex (pregnancy, disease, etc)

men withhold sex in the form of emotion and resources
1) to assess sexual interest
2) to avoid over-investing

results in men complaining about possessiveness & dependency, women complain about emotional communication, time, and calling
sexual harassment definition
unwanted and unsolicited sexual attention

most harassers = men

most victims are young, attractive, single women b/wn 18-36 yrs old

women's perception depends on harasser's profile
The number one reason for abuse as reported by M & F is _______

(remember Eminem and Rihanna video)
examples/manifestations of jealous behavior
restricting contact w/other men/women
threats of violence
mate guarding - humans kinda do this, especially when she's ovulating
Jealousy is exacerbated by 3 things:
mate value mismatch - when they think they're not as valuable as their partner

emotional instability

history of abuse
reasons for conugal dissolution (divorce) across cultures
reason/number of societies/attributed to men/women


elopement w/ lover and laziness also play factors
Are all men united to control women?
NO, because

men compete among other men

men form coalitions against M&W

no, it doesn't make sense :P
rape is nearly _______ since in all cultures studied its present
__/___ of men report that they might do rape if they wouldn't get caught
Theories about rape: Power theory
reason: men want to dominate women

"rape is not about sex, its about pwr"

prediction 1: if rape is only about pr, expect women w/ the most pwr to be targeted

P2: unlikely to be caught
P3: pregnancy doesn't matter, neither would age (fertility fitness doesn't matter in who you target)
P4: all men can rape
Theories about Rape: The Evolutionary Theory
Reason: men have no other means of reproducing than by force

"rape IS about sex" - different from other forms of violence

a) adaptation hypothesis - "rapist is a loser" or "mixed strategy"
P1: pregnancy maters - if men using rape as strategy, it might be related to fitness
P2: perps have low mating success

b) byproduct hypothesis - not adaptive, related to something that IS adaptive. adaptation = sex drives in genders, which IS adaptive
P1: pregnancy matters
P2: all men might rape
Coercive sex in other species
a) conditional "mixed" strategy - as a last resort - scorpion flies
b)a by-product - of lowered threshold of arousal in men/of coercion in other areas
c) female selection - based on how coercive males are
d) sometimes coercive sex NEVER happens in a species
scorpion flies and coercive sex
1) nuptial gift of a dead insect OR
2) nuptial gift of saliva (less nutrients)

if she doesn't like the saliva, she might not have sex with him, which leads to

3) forced copulation
characteristics of human rape
-victims are of reproductive age
-non-consensual sex conception rates are higher than in consensual sex
-men are aroused by rape scenes
-rape occurs in non-westernized cultures
-women are rarely rapists
-women may have anti-rape defenses
-specific characteristics of perpetrators
characteristics of rape perpetrators
-insecure & hostile
-feel rejected, like women don't like them
-have sex earlier & have more partners than men who aren't rapists (adaptation hypothesis destroyed)
-do not commit other crimes (does not fit with pwr hypothesis)
-less aggressive overall
Is every man a potential rapist? things that influence the chance of being a rapist:
-man's social background (hostile/abuse, marital discord b/wn themselves or their parents, rejection by women, hostility to women, gratification from domination, antisocial)
conclusions about rape
rape is a by-product of differences in arousal & sexual desire

activated by a hostile masculinity pattern

which makes promiscuity more likely

which makes coercive sex more likely

*rape is an interaction b/wn biology and the environment*

men are NOT genetically determined to rape

men have a choice to rape - predisposition doesn't justify the behavior
True or False

A biological explanation for rape justifies rape as a sexual strategy

A biological explanation for spousal violence justifies men's violence towards women

Rape is a combination of biology and the environment
Importance of studying sex
1) it is central to the human experience (relationships, identity, motivation)
2) it effects our health
3) there's a lot we don't know
4) there's a lot we know that's wrong: "size matters"
Who studies sex and what are their questions?
Biomedical Researchers
-how can we improve lives?
-how does the body work?

-how does society influence sexuality?

-how can we improve lives?

-how does sexuality vary across culture?
-how is it universal?

-how can we solve sex-related problems?

-What is the individual experience of human sexuality?
-how can we make things better?
-health psychologists (birth control, how sexuality influences health)
Why we study sex
-to improve health
-to improve sex lives
-to improve relationships
-to develop a moral identity
-to instill responsible decision making
-to instill tolerance
-to be better parents
studying sex is about making people better, not about imposing a _______ ________, but to ________ _______
moral agenda; alleviate discomfort
psychopathia sexualis (1886)
written by Richard von Kraft-Ebing, described "crazy" sexual behavior = "masturbation, fetishism, pedophilia, necrophilia, homosexuality"
a history of changing sexual perceptions
1846 - 1st diaphragm = 1st female contraception

1900s - studies in the psyc of sex by Freud; also Margaret Sanger founded planned parenthood

1920s - cars = privacy

1940s-50s - planned parenthood really took off + kinsey reports + G spot + Playboy

1960s - the Pill + Masters & Johnson sex research, stages of arousal

1970s - Roe v Wade + homosexuality removed from list of disorders + 1st conviction of a man raping his own wife

1980s - HIV

1990s - Clinton (define sex) + Viagra, Don't ask don't tell

2000s - will & grace + morning after pill + date rape drugs + same sex marriage + HPV vaccine
challenges to sex research
sex is an emotional topic

sex has moral implications
-ppl aren't truthful
how do we learn about sex?
-the media
-personal experience - incredibly salient in forming sexual attitudes - abuse, date rape, etc
-folk knowledge & old wives tales
-religious authorities
-empiricism = facts + logic
how do you study sex?

2 definitions
1) case studies = close records & analysis of rare cases
-gives close inspection
-but not always generalizable

2) survey methodology = collecting info from volunteer respondents to assess beliefs, attitudes, knowledge & behavior

3) naturalistic observation (flirting)
4) participant observation (attitudes)
5) lab observation (masters & johnson)
6) by demonstrating correlational relationships (chance of contracting STI's positively correlated w/ crack cocaine use but STI's don't cause ppl to use crack cocaine) correlation does not equal causation
7) by demonstrating causal relationships - a true experiment
elements of a good survey

memorize the definitions!
should be reliable, valid & biased
-self-selection bias: volunteers may differ inherently from non-volunteers in their attitudes & behavior
-social desirability: individuals may answer in a way that is socially acceptable or culturally approved - avoid w/ anonymity
-generalizability: results may not generalize to everyone what your results say about your population

Good surveys need:
-a target population
-representative sample (convenience, random, volunteer)
-has a large sample
-has good questions
How to create a true experiment
Question/Hypothesis: Do foot rubs enhance sexual arousal?/Foot rubs enhance sexual arousal

Prediction: men & women who have received a foot rub, compared to M&W who have received a backrub, will be more aroused

select a group: get volunteers & don't give away the hypothesis when asking ppl to participate

assign two groups: experimental group = will get foot massage from current partner

control group = will get back rub from current partner

BONUS: the research for our questions are correlational research

then measure arousal after getting rubs and watching some porn
the female reproductive system evolved as a ______ _______ to get them interested in sex or back into the rhythm after pregnancy
jumpstart mechanism
hormones definition
chemical messengers released from endocrine cells to communicate w/ other cells
phases of female reproductive cycle
1) follicular phase (pre-ov)
-develop follicle: nourishes ova & grows over time then releases ova
2) ovulation: release from follicle
3) luteal phase (post-ov)
-active corpora lutea - like an organ used once a month, secretes its own hormones
4) fertilization or
5) pseudo pregnancy - the occurrence of a functional lutea in the absence of implantation (no pregnancy)
2 types of ovulation
-spontaneous ovulation - nothing else outside the body causes ovulation. Our bodies use its own rhythm
-spontaneous pseudopregnancy
-copulation @ ovulation or anytime
-social; long-lived; few offspring

Other species
-induced ovulation (usually need presence of a male)
-spontaneous pseudopgrenancy
-solitary, short-lived, and many offspring
hormones/structures in the female reproductive system
the hypothalamus - governs lots of regulatory processes

FSH hormone - folicular stimulating hormone

LH - lutenizing hormone causes ovulation

Ova/follicle - estradiol & progesterone - get ready for implantation

Corpus Luteum - progesterone; job is to maintain uteran lining

progesterone inhibits FSH & LH and changes the cervical mucus
the menstrual cycle
1) FSH & LH go up during menses
2) follicle develops - estradiol & progesterone
3) uterus lining develops
4) surge in LH & FSH
5) ovulation
6) corpus luteum - releasing more estradiol & progesterone. Progesterone inhibits LH & FSH so ovulation can't occur
7) ovum enters fallopian tubes
8 a) fertilization occurs: implants into uterine wall & corpus lutea, PROG, HCG maintains progesterone
8 b) no fertilization occurs: progesterone levels drop, means the lining goes away and the inhibited hormones can produce again
goals of our brain & body
-signal reproductive information to the opposite sex
-minimize the costs of sex
-make sex efficient - unconscious processes
-have sex & like it - need sex drive, get it from hypothalamus
-organize appropriate sexual behavior
we get our sexual behavior from the ______ _______ & ________ _____
cerebral cortex; HPG axis
purpose of the hypothalamus
-ensures species typical behavior
-the four Fs - feeding, flight, fight and fucking
-biological rhythms (menses, etc)
-information from
*amygdala (houses emotions) & thalamus
*cerebral cortex (decision making)
*VMN = vomeronasal organ aka olfactory info, humans have two parts but the VMN doesn't work in us, in other animals VMN detects pheremones
*reward circuit = dopamene

-all of these are used to orchestrate sexual behavior & hormone control
importance of testosterone
study with hypogonadal men (those who have low levels of testosterone), 3 groups - placebo, 100mg, 400mg, the 400 guys will have higher libido

-testosterone influences but does not CAUSE sex drive
-hormones influence the likelihood that a behavior will occur
-testosterone also influences women's libido, too
sex drive in men
-influenced by tesosterone threshold
-drugs & alcohol can affect T levels
-men have 10 times more T than women
-influenced by progestin, which lowers arousal & aggression
how the male body minimizes the costs of sex
-sperm production; must produce all the time
-penis can fracture - bundles of blood vessels and membranes can break so the penis is only erect when it needs to be
-nicotine effects erections since it constricts blood vessels
-ejaculate = 98% semen, 2% sperm
-the scrotum protects the testicles, which can be elevated or lowered by spermatic cord - regulate temp, prepare for ejaculation, fear response
characteristics of ejaculate
semen is alkaline - helps keep sperm alive & counteracts acidic vaginal tract

semen protects sperm - glucose and fructose = 37 cals in 2 tablespoons

bases and proteins and albumen - slick, slippery fluid

semen transports sperm
sexual differentiation definition
the developmental process of becoming male or female

(men and women share 99% of genes)

it's shaped by hormones (which produce physiological, morphological, and psychological differences) as well as culture
how do you study sexual differentiation?
1) non-human animals (you can separate babies from their mothers, injections)
*study genes and sociality (only when the dominate male leaves will a diff chicken b/cm the new rooster)
*mice - babies grow next to M/F or 2M & 2F - these in between embryos have higher or lower levels of hormones - 2M mice more interested in mating

2) Humans
*castrati = males been castrated to keep their voices high, affects their skeletal structure to shape their ribcage like that of a woman - effects sound production
*take away sources of hormones & ppl still have reg sex life

3)cross-cultural studies
*play difference
chromosomes can produce sex-_____ traits (gene leads to a trait) and sex-______ traits (expression depends on the environment)

traits can be _______ (height) or ________ (color-blindness)
linked; limited

continuous; dichotomous
Why are men more prone to colorblindness?
color-blindness is on the X chromosome but women have two X chromosomes, one is a back up
sexual differentiation of sex organs
1) Fetal gonad: 6-8wks
*all embryos have a bipotential germinal ridge - special tissue that could b/cm either sex
*SRY gene encodes for Testis Determining Factor - testes form.
*If no SRY - ovaries form

2) Internal Sex Organs
*all embryos have a dual duct system
*if ovaries or no gonads are present, Mullerian ON (girl stuff develops), Wolffian OFF
*If tests are present, mullerian inhibiting hormone, MIH, released, turns Mullerian OFF, testosterone turns Wolffian ON

the dual continuum is hormone dependent

3) external sex organs
*all embryos start w/ a urogenital sinus
-genital folds
-genital tubercle
-genital swellings
*no hormones
-tubercle - clitoris
-folds - labia
*hormones - androgens
-tubercle - penis
-folds - scrotum

single continuum - hormone-dependent

this continuum is gene dependent
memorize fig ______ in textbook
notes about hormones
1)organization - gonadal hormones organize & differentiate, occurs during a critical window

2)activation of system later on - gonadal hormones activate brain & tissues during puberty
Tturner syndrome
faulty or missing X - dysfunctional ovaries - don't produce proper hormones

treatment: hormone treatment at puberty
exposure to androgens: endogenous/ exogenous
endogenous - congenital adrenal hyperplasia (amped up levels of testosterone) -> androgens

women with this have masculanized genitalia - treatment w/ surgery

exogenous: steroids during pregnancy (DHT) - may be more likely to be lesbian
testicular feminization mutation (TFM)
-single base pair substitution on X chromosome - no androgen receptors
-XX females experience no effects
-XY males - female system shut down but male system never turned on

SRY - testes
testes - T & MIH

sexed as girls but don't menstruate
feel like girls, reportedly - genetically male but don't feel like that at all
5 alpha reductase deficiency
-no enzyme to convert testosterone to ADT - incomplete development of external genitalia
-males who don't have enzyme have ambiguous genitalia, raised as girls
-@ puberty, androgens masculinized genitalia
-raised as girls but feel like boys after puberty (guevedoche)
sexual development anomalies
a true hermaphrodite has both M & F goands - really rare, mostly ppl are

PSEUDOhermaphrodites - mismatch b/wn gonads and phenotype
characteristics of homosexuality and behavior
occurs cross-culturally (64%)
up to 23% women & 37% men report homosexual behavior

up to 10% men 4% W report exclusively homosexual

it is accepted as part of human behavior

it is part of culture - occurs in different contexts
*patron/client (Libya)
*mentoring (Melanesia)
*friendships (Tahiti)
*rites of passage (New Guinea boys give oral sex to older men)
*usually occurs during adolescence
objections to same sex-pairbonding
sometimes viewed negatively

unsacred sex

non-reproductive sex

poor parenting

narrowly defined gender roles for men
sexual orientation definition
stable, internal, enduring preference for one sex over the other (or both)

partly innate
sexual preference definition
the manifestation of a preference that is evident when given a choice

context dependent, can be measured by behavior
*pairbonding - with who

can include celibacy as an orientation
pairbonding definition
the mutually beneficial, enduring relationship b/wn a pair of ppl/breeding pair of individuals

can include parenting, grooming, emotional ties, & other social behavior
mixture of nature vs nurture leads to homosexuality: 4 factors
1) genes
2) development
*immunity to y-linked complex
3) experience - if raised w/ only same sex, then you'll have sex w/ them
4) social context - captive chinstrap penguin "and tango makes 3"
what is the birth order effect in determining homosexuality?
women develop immunity to the y complex after each boy, so the mixture of hormones changes and shapes the degree of masculinization of each boy
why same-sex pairbonding? 8 reasons
1) reduce INTRAsexual (b/wn men or women) conflict
2) form alliances (reduce aggression/ promote cooperation)
3) trickery (male beetles will engage in courtship w/ each other - douse male who WILL fertilize a female w/ ur sperm b/c u can't get a girl yourself
4) practice for real copulation
5) parental manipulation
6) helpers @ the nest - when sibling get coerced into staying to help raise younger siblings
7) inclusive fitness - your direct fitness (# kids you have)+ indirect fitness (# kids your relatives have)
8) a byproduct of another trait (female fecundity enhancement)
predictions of inclusive fitness hypothesis for homosexuality
more nieces and nephews, they'd be better off because a homo would be able to take care of siblings' kids instead of their own, but there's no evidence to back this up
same-sex pairbonding can influence _____ ________ & ________. Example = albatrosses
social dynamics; evolution

up to 30% F in colony in a F/F pair, some even have chicks

increased fitness for F when paired with another F

increased male promiscuity - decreased parental care of M b/c Fs are pairing up

expressed as a relationship

malleability maintained - F will have sex w/ M but its based on conflicts
what we know about homosexual behavior
behavior is not the same as orientation

homosexuals DO reproduce

homosexual behavior tends to be
-age stratified
-gender stratified - 2 indivs in same sex relationship, one might take on a masculine role

homo behavior occurs during adolescence and in prisons

conflict reduction is a big deal
why is there less information and fewer studies about lesbians?
less access
less consistency
more complex
F see sex as an extension of relationships
less polarized
fewer negative attitudes towards
sex differences come primarily from _______
life-span development stages
embryological - fetal - juvenile - adolescent - adult - senescence - death
embryological sexual development
-differention of cell types
-organ systems - circulation, reproductive
-body structures
-migration of germ cells
-gonadal differentiation
-increasing cell numbers
fetal sexual development
-increased details & external features
-increased cell #s
-gonadal system active, ONLY IN MALES
-sensitivity to steroids
infantile/juvenile sexual development
gonadal system off & b/cms insensitive to steroids
adolescent sexual development
gonadal system turns on
sensitivity to steroids returns

big difference b/wn M&F at this point (esp in the brain)
adulthood sexual development
gonadal system functional
senescence sexual develpment
decreased steroid sensitivity

F gonadal system turns off
_____ is not a very meaningful marker during development b/c mammals are at diff stages of development among species
two types of babies in mammals: altricial and precocial
altricial: born b/f nervous system totally developed (rat, mouse, dog, cat)

precocial: includes humans, our nervous system is pretty much developed (really precocial = rhesus monkey and guinea pig)
you need ______ on y chromosome to b/cm a boy

medullary development so it b/cms testis
boys need ______ to act on Mullerian Ducts so it will be suppressed and the wolffian duct will develop

need _____ to act on wolfian ducts
anti-mullerian hormone

if man has no androgen receptors, will have ______ genitals but ______ gonad
female; male