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10 Cards in this Set

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Study of the physical functions of living organisms

Four Primary types of Cells

Epithelial Cells- barrier function, skin cells, endothelial cells

Connective cells- connective and anchor, bone, blood cells

Nerve cells- communication, neuron

Muscle cells- generate force, skeletal muscle cell, cardiac muscle cell

Flood of Fluids through Body Compartments

Nutrients: plasma > interstitial fluid > extracellular fluid > intracellular fluid

Wastes: intracellular fluid > extracellular fluid > interstitial fluid > plasma

Herders on Hasselbalch Equation

pH= pKa + log (A-)/(HA)

Components of Proteins

-amino acids arranged in one long chain

-side chain gives the shape (R group)

-R group can tell us the function

-central alpha connection connects R group to carboxylgroup and amino group

-linked amino acids for peptide bonds

Structural Levels of Proteins

1°- linear chain, order of amino acids

2°- alpha helix, and beta sheet connected by loop conformation

3°- fully folded, 3D functional characteristics

4°- multiple tertiary protein assembled together

Factors determining protein shape

-Hydrogen bonds to side chains

-Ionic bonds to side chains

-Van Der Waal's forces (hydrophobic regions)

-covalent linking of side chains (disulfide bonds)

-denaturing agents (acetic acid, ethanol, formaldehyde)- disrupt protein structure


Selectivity of binding site


Strength with which ligand binds to its binding site

What determines Chemical Reaction rates?

-reactant concentration

-energy of activation



-presence of catalyst