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35 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the two types of membrane transport?
Passive and Active
What is passive transport?
Passive transport does not require energy and substance moves down its concentration gradient
What is active transport?
Active transport requires energy (ATP)
What are the three types of passive transport?
Simple Diffusion, Facilitated Diffusion and Osmosis
What is carrier-facilitated diffusion?
Trans-membrane integral proteins carry large non-lipid soluble solutes (like sugars and amino acids)
What is channel-facilitated diffusion?
Trans-membrane proteins that form channels transfer ions or water
What is osmosis?
Osmosis is the specialized diffusion of water through the membrane or through aquaporins
What is simple diffusion?
Simple diffusion is the unassisted diffusion of non-polar, lipid soluble solutes passing through the membrane
What is a solute?
A solute is the substance being dissolved in a solution
What are some examples of solutes that can pass directly through the membrane?
Sex hormones, oxygen, fat-soluble vitamins, steroid hormones
What are two different types of channels?
Leak channels and gated channels
What are leak channels?
Leak channels are always open
What are gated channels?
Gated channels open due to electrical or chemical signals
Why can't ions diffuse directly through the membrane?
Because they are positively charged. The charge is repelled by the phospholipid bilayer
What is osmolarity?
Osmolarity is the total concentration of all solute particles in a solution
What is the normal osmolarity of body fluids?
300 mOsm (milliosmolar)
What should the osmolarity be of a typical healthy adult both inside and outside a cell?
300 mOsm
What is 1 Molar NaCl equal to?
2 Osm NaCl
What is tonicity?
Tonicity is the measure of the ability of an extracellular solution to change the shape of cells by causing them to lose or gain water
What is an isotonic solution?
The ECF has the same osmolarity as the ICF or cytosol
What happens to a cell in an isotonic solution?
Cell neither gains nor loses water. It does not change shape
What is a hypertonic solution?
The ECF solution has a greater solute concentration than the ICF
What happens to a cell in a hypertonic solution?
Cell loses water and shrinks (crenates)
What is a hypotonic solution?
The ECF solution has a lower solute concentration than the ICF
What happens to a cell in a hypotonic solution?
Cell gains water and swells. It may burst (lyse)
What is hemolysis?
The bursting of red blood cells
What is primary active transport?
Transports solutes AGAINST their concentration gradient.
What does "against their concentration gradient" mean?
From low concentrations to high concentrations
What is the most common example of primary active transport?
Na+/K+ pump
What is a Na+/K+ pump?
It is a globular functional protein that pumps Na+ out of the cell and K+ into the cell.
What occurs if a 100 mOsm NaCl solution is separated from a 300 mOsm NaCl solution by a membrane that is permeable only to water but not Na+ or Cl-?
The water diffuses from the 100 mOsm to the 300 mOsm solution
What is vesicular transport?
Sacs called vesicles uses ATP to transport fluids with large particles across cell membrane
What is exocytosis? What is secretion?
Ejecting substances FROM inside the cell. Secretion is an example of exocytosis
What is endocytosis?
Moving substances INTO the cell
What is phagocytosis?
Phagocytosis is an example of endocytosis where macrophage eats a bacterium or virus