• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

Card Range To Study



Play button


Play button




Click to flip

Use LEFT and RIGHT arrow keys to navigate between flashcards;

Use UP and DOWN arrow keys to flip the card;

H to show hint;

A reads text to speech;

25 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Early Adulthood
Period that lasts from about the end of adolescence(~age 20) until the start of middle age (~age 40) (~20 to 40)

People are at the height of their physical & cognitive abilities.
Physical alcohol dependence refers to a physiologic addiction that has two major symptoms: 1. Tolerance 2. Withdrawal

Tolerance means needing more and more of the substance to get the same effect.
Physical alcohol dependence refers to a physiologic addiction that has two major symptoms: 1. Tolerance 2. Withdrawal

Withdrawal means having negative symptoms, such as shaking, nausea, and vomiting, as well as strong cravings that begin 8 to 24 hrs after the last dose of the substance.
Psychological Dependence
A subjective feeling that one must have the drug in order to perform adequately.
Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS)
Aids is a terminal disease that can be transmitted through sexual contact, direct blood-to-blood contact, or from mother to baby at the time of delivery:
Aids is caused by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and is defined as having a T-Cell count below 22 (indicating severe impairment of the immune system)
Chlamydia is the most frequently reported bacterial sexually transmitted infection (STD) in the US.
Post-formal Thought
Some adults never achieve formal operational thinking (Piaget), but this does not mean they think the way a child thinks.
Post-formal Though: Label given to the changes in adult thinking.
Post-formal Thought
Ways adults differ from adolescents in reasoning skills (4)
1. Loss of idealism & recognition that not all problems can be solved by pure logic; adults become more pragmatic.
2. Shifting from dualistic thinking to multiple thinking, to relativism.
3. Integrating the subjective aspects of a situation with the objective or logical solution.
4. Dialectical thinking, or understanding that in any idea is also contained its opposite, middle ground.
Achieving Stage
K. Warner Scaie described stages of cognitive development in adulthood, extending Piaget's theory.
He proposed that young adults are in the achieving stage, putting their cognitive abilities to use in meeting their goals.
Normative Crisis Model
One or two major models to explain personality development in adulthood:

The normative crisis model suggests that there are predictable changes that nearly everone experiences, thus these changes can be described in terms of stages of development.
(Erikson, Vaillant, & Levitson theories are crisis model theories)
Timing-Of-Events Model
The timing-of-events model allows for more individual variation in personality development, as it focuses on life events rather than stages or age groups.
Ex. Widowhood is looked at as happening in the late adult stage, but can occur at any point & has significant effects on the life course of the individual.
Normative Life Events
Marriage, parenthood, and retirement

On time: Having a baby at age 25
Non-Normative Life Events
Having your house destroyed by fire, or winning the Pulitzer Prize.

Off time: Having a baby at age 15.
Roger Gould
(7 Stages of Adult Life)
5 Stages for Young Adults:
1. Age 16-18: Desire for autonomy; deep relationships with peers.
2. Age 18-22: Seek to recreate with peers the families they are leaving.
3. Age 22-29: Working at being adults; achieving competence; building for the future.
4, Age 29-35: Role confusion; many questions about self, relationships & Career; Desire to be true to self.
5. Age 35-43: Increased awareness of time passing; revise goals & feel urgency to achieve them; control over kids declining
Daniel Levinson
Focused more on career development than family in young adulthood.

1. Novice Phase (17-33): Building the initial life structure.
a. Early Adult Transition (17-22): Move out of family home.
b. Entry Life Structure (22-28): Initial choices.
c. Age 30 Transition (28-33): Evaluate & make changes if necessary.
2. Culminating Phase (33-35): Achieving life goals
a. Culminating Life Structure (33-40): Settling down.
b. Midlife Transition (40-45): Ending young adulthood.
Focused on ego development.
Proposed that some adults have a low level of ego development and are impulsive, do not schedule their time efficiently, do not resolve conflicts well, & strive for immediate gratification. On the other hand, adults w/ high levels of ego development are sensitive to others and are more accomplished & efficient, but may be concerned w/ moral or abstract issues.
George Vaillant
Vaillant found 4 styles of adapting to the environment:
1. Mature (using humor, altruism)
2. Immature (reacting to stress w/ psychosomatic symptoms)
3. Psychotic (distorting reality)
4. Neurotic (repressing negative emotions, rationalizing)
Consensual Validation
Our own beliefs, attitudes, identities, and behaviors are validated or supported when we encounter someone with similar characteristics.
We all seek validation - it feels good, so we tend to end up w/ partners & friends who are very similar to us in terms of age, race, religion, political beliefs, and deeply held values.
Vaillant found 4 styles of adapting to the environment. 1. Mature 2. Immature 3. Psychotic 4. Neurotic

Immature: Reacting to stress with psychosomatic symptoms.
Vaillant found 4 styles of adapting to the environment. 1. Mature 2. Immature 3. Psychotic 4. Neurotic

Mature: Using humor, altruism
Vaillant found 4 styles of adapting to the environment. 1. Mature 2. Immature 3. Psychotic 4. Neurotic

Neurotic: Repressing negative emotions, rationalizing
Vaillant found 4 styles of adapting to the environment. 1. Mature 2. Immature 3. Psychotic 4. Neurotic

Psychotic: Distorting reality
Robert Sternberg
Love consists of 3 elements: Passion, Intimacy, & Commitment

The presence or absence of any of these elements defines different kinds of love relationships.

When all 3 elements are present, consummate love, the most fulfilling type of relationship, could exist.
Typical Family Life Cycle
1. Launching Period/Leaving Home
2. Relationship/Marriage
3. Becoming Parents
4. Family w/ Adolescents
5. Family at Midlife/Empty Nest
6. Family in Later Life
Divorce Risk Factors
1. Younger age at the time of marriage
2. Lower educational level
3. Lower income
4. Premarital Pregnancy