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346 Cards in this Set

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The branch of psychology concerned with interaction between physical and psychological processes and with stages of growth from conception throughout the entire life span
developmental psychology
Question of whether development is gradual and evenly continuous or whether it is marked by age-specific periods
continuity vs. discontinuity debate
A perspective that reduces complex phenomenon or events to a single cause
reductionist perspective
Interaction of biological, psychological, and social aspects of developmental psychology
holistic biospychosocial perspective
Messages received during childhood
Jean Piaget
Lawrence Kohlberg
Erik Erikson
John Bowlby
Carol Gilligan
Mary Ainsworth
John Bowlby
Meanie Klein
Daniel Levinson
Developmental theorists
Swiss psychologist known for his theory of cognitive development, who influenced educational psychology greatly during his lifetime
Jean Piaget
Developmental psychologist and psychoanalyst known for his theory on social development
Erik Erikson
The American psychologist who established the school of behaviorism after studying animals
John B Watson
British psychologist in the field of child development who pioneered attachment theory
John Bowlby
American psychologist best known for his "stages of moral development" theory
Lawrence Kohlberg
Austrian neurologist who founded psychoanalytic method of psychiatry
Sigmund Freud
An English psychologist who pioneered several statistical approaches and developed the concept of a single intelligence factor (g)
Charles Edward Spearman
American feminist psychologist who proposed a stage theory of moral development for women
Carol Gilligan
Psychologist known for his social learning theory, as well as influencing the transition between behaviorism and cognitive psychology.
Albert Bandura
One of the founders of the field of Positive Adult Development
Daniel Levinson
Russian development psychologist who developed the sociocultural theory of cognitive development
Lev Vygotsky
British psychoanalyst who was the leading innovator in theorizing object relations theory
Melanie Klein
American developmental psychologist known for her development of Attachment Theory and work with "The Strange Situation"
Mary Ainsworth
A system of beliefs and values that ensures that individuals will keep their obligations to others in society and will behave in ways that do not interfere with the rights and interests of others
A socially defined pattern of behavior that is expected of a person who is functioning in a given setting or group
social roles
The lifelong process whereby an individual's behavioral patterns, values, standards, skills, attitudes, and motives are shaped to conform to those regarded as desirable in a particular society
An individual's anatomical sex
sexual assignment
One's sense of maleness or femaleness; usually includes awareness and acceptance of one's biological sex
gender identity
Outward expression of gender identity, according to cultural and social expectations
gender role
Expressions of gender based on sexual assignment, not gender role
sex role
Process whereby a child learns the norms and roles that society has created for his or her gender
gender socialization
Cultural and personal gender roles
gender schemas
Age by which gender identity appears irreversible in a child
age 4
Approach that believes children learn gender roles because they are rewarded for appropriate behavior, punished for inappropriate gender roles, and because they watch and imitate others
social learning theory
Who believed that preschool children first identify as their gender; then classify others, objects, activities, etc. as male or female then engage in gender-typed behavior?
When a preschooler believes that a person's gender is determined by their physical appearance, what are they demonstrating?
Their lack of gender constancy
Older children in which stage of cognitive development understand gender constancy as they master the idea of a stable identity?
concrete operations stage
How does classic psychoanalysis propose that children establish their gender roles?
At the resolution of the phallic stage when they identify with their same-sex parent
Theory that sexual orientation develops from a complex interaction of biological, psychological, and social factors
interactional theory of homosexuality
Debate over the relative importance of an individual's innate qualities versus personal experiences in determining or causing individual differences in physical and behavioral traits
nature vs. nurture controversy
Belief that individual differences stem from innate qualities in the individual, not personal experiences
Belief that individual differences come from personal experience and are not innate
A research design in which the same participants are observed repeatedly, sometimes over many years.
longitudinal design
Intensive observation of a particular individual or small group of individuals
case study research
A method of observation that involves observing subjects in their natural habitats without interfering
naturalistic observation
A research method in which groups of participants of different chronological ages are observed and compared at a given time.
cross-sectional Research
Any group of individuals who are linked in some way or who have experienced the same significant life event within a given period
A study in which subjects who presently have a certain condition and/or receive a particular treatment are followed over time and compared with another group who are not affected by the condition under investigation
cohort study
What type of study solves the problem of the confounding cohort in cross-sectional studies?
longitudinal design
Paiget's stages of cognitive development
1. Sensorimotor
2. Pre-operational
3. Concrete operational
4. Formal operational
The undersanding that objects continue to exist even when their presence can't be sensed
object permanence
Inability to consider another's viewpoint
Tendency to focus on one detail in a situation to the neglect of other important features
The understanding that some quantitative aspects of an object don't change just because the appearance of the object has been transformed
State that a child enters when they have an experience that does not fit into their understanding of how the world works
Piaget's term for cognitive structures that develop as infants and young children learn to interpret the world and adapt to their environment
combining and integrating simple schemas
What is accommodation in terms of Paiget's theory?
The process of restructuring or modifying cognitive structures so that new information can fit into them more easily
In Paiget's model, what is assimilation?
The process whereby new cognitive elements are fitted in with old elements or modified to fit more easily
What developmental stage is not always reached?
formal operational stage
Theory that social interaction plays a fundamental role in cognitive develoment
Vygotsky's sociocultural theory of cognitive development
Self-esteem, self-worth, self-regulation, and self-confidence form this
a child's self-concept
Successive developmental stages that focus on an individual's orientation toward the self and others; incorporating both the sexual and social aspects of a person's development and the social conflicts that arise from the interaction between the individual and the social environment
Erikson's Psychosocial Stages
What is the assumption of a stage theory?
That everyone moves through the stages sequentially, without skipping any of them
What are the three levels of Kohlberg's Stages of Moral Development?
1 - Pre-conventional Morality
2 - Conventional Morality
3 - Post-conventional Morality
Moral reasoning and behavior based on rules and fear of punishment and nonempathetic self-interest
pre-conventional morality (Kohlberg's level 1)
Morality based on conformity and helping others and obeying the law and keeping order
conventional morality (Kohlberg's level 2)
Morality based on accepting the relative and changeable nature of rules and laws and conscience-directed concern with human rights
post-conventional morality (Kohlberg's level 3)
Feelings that contribute to the internalization of morality
empathy, shame, and guilt
Age when children first experience shame
Around age 2
Age when children typically develop an understanding of guilt
Ages 3-4
What are the stages of Pre-conventional Morality in Kohlberg's theory?
Stage 1: Punishment Orientation
Stage 2: Instrumental Reward Orientation
What are the stages of Conventional Morality in Kohlberg's theory?
Stage 3: Good Boy-Good Girl Orientation
Stage 4: Authority Orientation
What are the stages of Post-conventional Morality in Kohlberg's theory?
Stage 5: Social Contract Orientation
Stage 6: Morality of Individual Principles Orientation
Criticisms of Kohlberg's Theory of morality
That it favors educated individuals who are verbally sophisticated, and that it is focused on a male model of morality
Carol Gilligan's theory of differences between female and male moral development
female morality is based on compassion while male morality is based on justice
Levels of religious development
1 - Pre-conventional Morality
2 - Conventional Morality
3 - Post-conventional Morality
Fundamentalistic black-or-white and egocentric thinking based on religious laws and rules
pre-conventional religious development (level 1)
Conformity to accepted religious traditions and standards
conventional religious development (level 2)
Relativistic gray thinking; the acknowledgment of religious contradictions, human interpretations, and the changeable nature of rules
post-conventional religious development (level 3)
A strategy for successful aging in which one makes the most of gains while minimizing the impact of losses that accompany normal aging
Selective optimization with compensation
The view that suggests that, as people age, they become more selective in choosing social partners who satisfy their emotional needs
Selective social interaction theory
What did Klein believe the inner core of personality stems from?
a person's early relationship with their mother
Theory that a child's fundamental human drive is to be in relationships with others, and the first relationship the child establishes is usually with the mother
Melanie Klein's object-relations theory
Abilities deveoped by the psychologically healthy child in object-relations theory.
separating good and bad, and self and object
Gender that psychosocially adjusts better, according to object-relations theory
girls, because they don't have to separate from their mother in the same way as boys
Successive developmental stages that focus on an individual's orientation toward the self and others; incorporating both the sexual and social aspects of a person's development and the social conflicts that arise from the interaction between the individual and the social environment
Erikson's Psychosocial Stages
Freud's five stages of psychosexual development
1. Oral
2. Anal
3. Phallic
4. Latency
5. Genital
What is each stage of Frued's psychosexual development theory based on?
Whatever gives the child the most physical pleasure at that time--which will also inevitably involve conflict
What Freud believed a child develops when he cannot get certain needs met
How did Freud label people who put off getting pleasure until the last moment and like to have everything in its proper place, and why?
anal retentive, due to too much conflict during the anal stage of psychosexual development
How did Freud label people who are messy and rebellious, and what did he thing was the reason?
anal expulsive, due to too much or too little tension during the anal stage of psychosexual development
What is castration anxiety?
conflict resulting from Oedipus complex or Oedipal conflict
How did Freud believe children resolve the phallic stage?
by identifying with their same-sex parent and adopting his/her values
What did Freud think girls experienced during the phallic stage of psychosexual development?
Desire for their father and penis envy
What did Freud propose happens during latency, from ages 6-12?
Sexual feelings are repressed while the child builds social contacts beyond the immediate family
Close relationships with others and those factors that contribute to a relationship being formed
interpersonal attraction
Three factors important in determining who will become friends
proximity or propinquity
Phenomenon where increased exposure leads to increased attraction
mere exposure effect
How does physical attractiveness play a factor in friendship?
people tend to like attractive people
Phenomenon where people tend to fall in love with people whose attractiveness matches their own
matching hypothesis
Components of Robert Sterberg's triangular theory of love
intimacy, passion, and decision/commitment
Sterberg's term for love based on passion and commitment, which he defines as short-lived
fatuous love
Four basic parenting styles
authoritative parents
authoritarian parents
permissive parents
indifferent parents
Factors in parenting style
parental control and parental warmth
The degree to which parents are restrictive in their use of parenting techniques
parental control
The degree to which parents are loving, affectionate, and approving in their use of parenting techniques
parental warmth
Type of parent that demonstrates appropriate levels of parental control and parental warmth
authoritative parents
In the 1970s, research seemed to support that first-born children had this difference over their siblings
They were more intelligent
Melvin Kohn found that working-class parents tend to stress this quality in their children
outward conformity
Melvin Kohn found that middle-class parents tend to stress this quality in their children
self-expression, motivation, and curiosity
The 3 major trends impacting developing families over the last 30 years
increase in divorce, single-parent families, and working mothers
5 factors affecting the develoment of a child dealing with divorce
Levels of stress & amount of support at the time
gender of the child
age of the child
amount of time since the change
parents' response to the change
Trends found in children from single-parent households caused by divorce
Less acceptance and general bitterness towards the opposite sex of the parent with custody
One's characteristic mood and activity level
Study that followed 140 chidren from birth to adolescence, investigating temperament
New York Longitudinal Study by Stella Chase, Alexander Thomas, and Herbert Birch
Qualities of easy infants (40% of those in the New York Longitudinal Study)
adaptable to new situation, predictable in their rhythmicity, positive in their mood
Qualities of difficult infants (10% of those in the New York Longitudinal Study)
intense in their reactions, not very adapatable to new situations, slightly negative mood, irregular body rhythms
Qualities of "slow-to-warm-up" infants (15% of those in the New York Longitudinal Study)
initially withdraw when approached but may ater "warm up", slow to adapt to new situations
What percent of infants in the New York Longitudinal Study did not fall into the defined temperament categories
An environment where an infant's temperament matches the opportunities, expectations, and demands the infant encounters
goodness of fit
How day care affects social skills
Children in day care tend to be more cooperative, confident, better able to take the perspective of another, as well as aggressive and noncompliant
Day care's effect on children's intelligence
Children who attend day care score higher on intelligence tests, though their counterparts catch up in kindergarten and elementary school
What does Paiget's theory help teachers do?
Provide students with developmentally-appropriate instruction
According to Paiget's theory, what kind of conversations are a key component to cognitive development in children?
conversational interactions with adults
Theory that like the computer, the human mind is a system that processes information through the application of logical rules and strategies, and has a limited capacity for the amount and nature of the information it can process
information processing theory
What does information processing theory focus on?
how the learner arrives at a response or answer (process)
This theory puts for the idea that intelligent thinking can be taught
information processing theory
What students should be able to do as a result of instruction
instructional objectives
Tasks or assignments that students can perform as a result of achieving the instructional objectives
instructional outcomes
Mental processes requird to perform instructional outcomes
cognitive skills
Determining what students already know
Evaluating whether or not sudents have achieved expected outcomes and whether or not teachers achieved the instructional objectives
What idea do childhood intervention programs support?
environment is an important factor in the determination of intelligence
Governmental intervention program designed to give underprivileged children experience with the toys, books, and games they'd encounter in first grade
Project Headstart
Results of Project Headstart
Children made immediate gains in IQ but went back to their original IQ when the program ended
Key failing point of Project Headstart
It didn't play an important enough role in the children's lives and was isolated from their family experience
Current philosophy of childhood intervention
involve the mothers of the children in the programs so that mothers learn to be effective teachers
Secondary benefits of involving the mothers in childhood intervention
The mother's self esteem is raised, her cooperation increases, she becomes closer to her child and she can share what she learns with other mothers
What negative effects of poverty areas are not addressed by intervention programs
inadequate pre-natal care, insufficient nutrition, low self-respect
What idea do childhood intervention programs support?
environment is an important factor in the determination of intelligence
What did Vygotsky feel impacted the development of a child's cognitive and mental structures?
social feedback and interactions within the child's environment
Difference between a child's potential and his or her real-life behaviors, which are the product of the child's environment
zone of proximal development (ZPD)
Educational method where a chid must give closed-ended reponses to specific questions, without assistance or feedback from the examiner
static assessment approach
Vygotsky's idea that an examiner should provide a child with guided hints during problem-solving activities and assess the child's ability to use this feedback, make changes in problem-solving behaviors to reach a correct solution
dynamic assessment perspective
Best known instrument that uses the dynamic assessment perspective to evaluate a child's cognitive characteristics
Learning Potential Assessment Device
A method that emphasizes parents' roles in enhancing their children's learning
mediated learning experiences (MLE)
Peers working together to solve problems
collaborative learning
What is believed as the best way to end the cycle of poor parenting?
parental retraining
Teaching involving actions, verbal instruction, and demonstration, with hands-on activities to add with learning future skills is suited to this stage in Paiget's model
preoperative stage
Teaching involving hands-on earning, short instruction with oncrete examples, and time for practice is suited to this stage in Paiget's model
concrete operations stage
Teaching students broad concepts and giving students open-ended projects to explore is appropriate in Paiget's model at this stage of cognitive deveopment
formal operational stage
Period of development from conception to birth
Basic stages of development in utero
zygote --> embryo --> fetus
2nd week prenatal development
implantation on uterine wall
3rd-4th week prenatal development
heart begins to pump
4th week prenatal development
digestive system and eyes begins to form
5th week prenatal development
ears begin to form
6th week prenatal development
arms and legs start to appear
7th-8th week prenatal development
fingers and male sex organs form
8th week prenatal development
bones and toes begin to form; arms and legs move
10-11th week prenatal development
female sex organs form
12th week prenatal development
fingerprints form; fetal movement can occur
20th week prenatal development
mother feels movement; fetus begins sucking, swallowing, and hiccuping; nails, sweat glands, and soft hair develop
27th week prenatal development
fetus weighs about 2 pounds
38th week prenatal development
fetus weighs about 7 pounds
40th week prenatal development
full-term baby born
Any agents that may cross the placental barrier from the mother to the embryo/fetus, causing abnormalities
Common teratogens
Alcohol, tobacco, drugs
Condition where a fetus is deprived of oxygen
intrauterine hypoxia
One of the most preventable causes of intrauterine hypoxia
Symptoms of fetal alcohol syndrome
short nose, thin upper lip, widely spaced eyes, small head, and mental retardation
Most vulnerable period in prenatal development
embryo stage
Any time during development when a process must occur if it is ever going to happen
critical period
Test for fetal abnormalities done between weeks 9-14
Chorionic villi sampling
Test for fetal abnormalities done after week 15
amniocentesis test
Injury that occurs during birth
birth trauma
Inherited metabolic disorder that, if not treated in the first 3-6 weeks of life, will result in mental retardation
Percentage of babies that die in the first year of life
infant mortality
Sudden and unexplained death of an apparently healthy infant
sudden infant death (SIDS)
Stage of childbirth where mother-infant bonding takes place
Source of psychosocial tension for an infant
Are others reliable?
Psychosocial developmental stage of an infant
Trust vs Mistrust
What do infant's need for proper development, according to Erikson?
Maximum comfort with minimal uncertainty, to trust himself/herself, others, and the environment
If this is fault, a child may never develop the trust, self-control, or emotional reasoning necessary to function effectively in the world
social and emotional bonding between infant and family
First 4 weeks of life
neonatal period
Low birthweight
below 5-1/2 pounds
Infants who arrive before their due date
Infants delivered more than two weeks after their due date
Part of the brain to develop first
brain stem and spinal cord
Part of the brain least developed at birth
Based on delivery date, which babies are more at risk for complications such as sickness, brain damage, or death?
both premature and postmature babies
Sense developed before birth
Sense of taste usually prefered by infants
Extension of arms when an infant feels a loss of support
moro reflex
Hand grasping in an infant
palmar reflex
When an infant turns toward an object brushing his/her cheek and attempts to suck
Sense that is poor at birth
visual acuity
Geneticaly programmed biological plan of deveopment that is relatively independent of experience
Center-outward direction of motor development
proximodistal principle of development
Head-to-foot direction of motor development
cephalocaudal principle of development
Definitions of the average age at which children display various abilities
developmental norms
Expected motor development at 1 month
Can lift head when on stomach
Expected motor development at 2 months
Can hold chest up when prone and can roll from side to back
Expected motor development at 3 months
Can roll over and will reach out for objects
Expected motor development at 6-7 months
sits without support and stands holding onto objects
Expected motor development at 8-10 months
Expected motor development at 8-12 months
pulls self up to stand
Expected motor development at 11-12 months
walks by holding onto objects
Expected motor development at 12-18 months
walks alone
In terms of cognitive development, where would Paiget place a child 2 years or younger?
sensorimotor stage
What cognitive skills are associated with the sensorimotor stage?
Knowing what to do with what he/she senses, and lacking the concept of object permanence
Type of learning that babies under 3 months of age don't respond well to
classical conditioning
Type of play that infants engage in, involving the manipulation of objects
sensorimotor play
Type of play, beginning at infancy, where children play side-by-side but do not interact
parallel play
Process where one seeks nearness to another individual
Psychologist who suggested that infants are born preprogrammed for certain behaviors that guarantee bonding with their caregivers
John Bowlby
Behavior from a caregiver that supports healthy bonding with an infant
eye-contact, touch, and timely feedings
A condition that can result from a failure to form normal attachments to primary care-giving figures in early childhood
attachment disorder
When an infant cries or becomes otherwise distressed when a preferred caregiver leaves the room
separation anxiety
Distress in the presence of unfamiliar people
stranger anxiety
Age when separation anxiety usually peaks
18 months
Children who lack this are more likely to suffer from separation anxiety and stranger anxiety
multiple attachments
Bowlby's three stages of separation (when a child is separated from their parent)
protest, despair, detachment
Absense of attachment
social deprivation
Long-term effects of social deprivation
depression, withdrawal, apathy, and anxiety
Type of attachment demonstrated by a infant who becomes upset if a parent leaves the room but is glad to see the parent when he/she returns
secure attachment
Synchronous back-and-forth interaction between a child and his/her caregiver, that predicts secure attachment
What did Mary Ainsworth's "strange situation" evaluate?
the attachment relationship that a child had developed with his/her caregiver
Type of attachment demonstrated by a infant who clings to a parent, becomes very upset when the parent leaves, and appears angry or more upset when the parent returns
anxious-ambivalent attachment
Type of attachment demonstrated by a infant who seeks little contact with a parent, is not concerned when the parent lives, and avoids interaction when the parent returns
avoidant attachment
A collective community in Israel, based on a concept that started as a utopian example of socialism and zionism
What did Scharf's research on children raised a communal environment within a kibbutz show?
Less ability in coping with imagined situations of separation than those who were brought up with their families
Experiential knowledge and understanding of society and the rules of social behavior
social cognition
Assumptions about the nature of social relationships, processes, and others' feelings
social inferences
Three types of play that children engage in
sensorimotor play
imaginative play
parallel or cooperative play
What did Sutton-Smith call play a mechanism for?
socialization of novelty
What happens for children whose play is restricted?
They are less likely to respond in unfamiliar situations
Psychosocial developmental stage of toddler
Autonomy vs Shame and Doubt
Source of psychosocial tension for an toddler
Can I exercise self-control?
Psychosocial developmental stage of preschooler
Initiative vs Guilt
What is the toddler attempting to accomplish in his or her developmental stage, according to Erikson?
Mastering his or her physical environment while maintaining self-esteem
Source of psychosocial tension for an preschooler
Can I exercise self-control?
According to Erikson, how does the preschooler distinguish his/her developmental stage?
By intiating instead of imitating activities, and by deveoping conscience and sexual identity
Early childhood
ages 2-6
Age when first friendships are usually created
3 years
Which brain hemisphere develops more fully in early childhood?
left hemisphere
Handedness develops in this stage of childhood
early childhood
What aspects of brain cells develop the most in the first few years of childhood?
glial cells and myelin sheaths
Paiget's pre-operational stage of cognitive development starts around what age?
age 2
What stage of development is marked by nonlogical, nonreversable thinking?
pre-operational stage
What cognitive skills does a 2-6 year old child have, in Paiget's model?
Understand object permanence; thinks symbolically and uses language; very egocentric; logic is intuitive and dominated by perception; rigid thought; can't conserve
Imaginative play where a child substitutes one object for another
symbolic play
What a toddler develops as he/she begins to understand that symbols can represent objects
representational thought
An awareness and understanding of others' states of mind and accompanying actions, which children acquire around age 5
theory of mind
Play where children act out fanatasies together
cooperative play
When does quarrelling during play arise?
between the ages of 3 and 4
What does quarrelling during play signify?
the beginning of competitiveness
According to Paiget, what cognitive stage is a 7-11 year old child in?
concrete operational stage
When did Paiget believe ego-centric thinking starts to diminish in a child's development?
7 to 11 years - the concrete operational stage
At 7-11 years, what cognitive skills do children have?
Can understand transformations, group items into categories, make inferences about reality & engage in inductive reasoning
Conditions under which a child in the concrete operations stage of deveopment can manipulate symbols
if they are given concrete examples with which to work
Psychosocial developmental stage of school-age child
Industry vs Inferiority
Source of psychosocial tension for a school-age child
Am I praised for what I accomplished and taught?
How does Erikson's model show school-age children as developing a sense of self-worth?
by refining skills
Middle childhood
ages 7-11
What brain development in middle childhood allows children to engage in increasingly difficult cognitive tasks?
further development of pre-frontal lobes
When does the right hemisphere of the brain develop most fully?
middle childhood
Percentage of school-age children who are obese (currently)
Late childhood: ages 10-11
Beyond the age of 12, what cognitive skills develop?
Scientific thinking; thinking hypothetically about abstractions
Development returns to egocentric thought early in what stage?
formal operational stage (adolescence)
Developmental period between childhood and adulthood
Rapid physical growth that occurs with hormonal changes that brings sexual maturity
Psychosocial developmental stage of an adolescent
Identity vs Role Confusion
Source of psychosocial tension for an adolescent
Am I able to find my identity and integrate my roles?
What is the adolescent's challenge, according to Erikson's model?
Integrating many roles (child, sibling, student, athlete, worker) into a self-image under role models and peer pressure
Love that involves passion, but not intimacy or commitment
Persons who evidence subnormal intellectual functioning and social skills beginning before age 18
developmentally disabled
Positive adult development, directionless change, stasis, and decline
four major forms of adult development
Six components of positive adult development
hierarchical complexity, knowledge, experience, expertise, wisdom, and spirituality
What does Levinson's theory of positive adult development suggest?
that development continues past adolescence, throughout adulthood
Two main phases of Levinson's theory of adult development
novice phase (17-33) and culminating phase (33-45)
What percentage of adults, according to studies, reach Paiget's stage of formal operations?
Lowest period of death rates in the entire human lifespan
young adulthood
According to Erikson, young adult development is characterized by what?
Learning to make personal commitment to another as spouse, parent or partner
Developmental period between 20 and 40 years of age
early adulthood
When do reaction time and muscle strength peak for humans?
Erikson's psychosocial developmental stage of a young adult
Intimacy vs Isolation
Source of psychosocial tension for a young adult
Can I commit to intimacy with another outside my family?
Levinson's "early adult transition"
Leaving home to attend college or take a job in another city
Levinson's stage of adulthood when relationships take center stage, from ages 22-28
entering the adult world
Average age of first-time marriage in the U.S.
women - 24; men - 26
Loving relationships characterized by intimacy, but not passion or commitment
Focus of Levinson's "age-30" transition (ages 28-33)
estabilshing a career
Levinson's stage at ages 33-45
culminating phase of early adulthood
Ages of Levinson's "settling down" stage of adulthood
ages 33-40
Ages of Levinson's "midlife transition" stage of adulthood
ages 40-45
Developmental period between 40-65 years of age
middle adulthood
People in middle adulthood who are caught between the needs of their chldren and their own aging parents
sandwich generation
When studying middle age, what have most studies failed to find?
evidence of mid-life crisis
A commitment beyond one's self and one's partner to family, work, society, and future generations; typically, a crucial step in development in one's 30s and 40s
What marks middle-age in Erikson's developmental model?
Seeking satisfaction through productivity in career, family, and civic interests
Erikson's psychosocial developmental stage of a middle-age adult
Generativity vs Stagnation
Erikson's source of psychosocial tension for a middle-aged adult
Will I share my wisdom and experience with others or stagnate with despair?
Male menopause
male climacteric
Average age of menopause
response to stress
On which type of intelligence do middle-age adults score higher than younger adults?
crystallized intelligence
Thinking characterized by the objective use of practical common sense to deal with unclear problems
postformal thinking
Positive events that can be just as stressful as negative ones
Farsightedness or difficulty reading, more common in middle age
Difficulty hearing high-pitched sounds, an age-related condition
By middle age, what percentage of Americans will have married at east once?
More than 90%
Median duration of U.S. marriages that end in divorce
7 years
If a couple with children stay together until the last child leaves home, how much longer will they probably stay together?
at least another 20 years
Adult love consisting of passion, intimacy, and commitment
consummate love
Love that is committed and intimate, but not passionate
companionate love
A sense of aloneness felt by a parent when all children have left home
empty-nest syndrome
Psychosocial developmental stage of an older adult
Integrity vs Despair
The Eriksonian conflict between integrity and despair in older age happens as the adult does what?
Reviews life accomplishments, deals with loss, and prepares for death
A theory that views aging as a process of mutual withdrawal in which older adults voluntarily slow down by retiring, as expected by society
disengagement theory
Theory that the more active elderly people are, the more likely they are to be satisfied with life
activity theory
Neglect, physical abuse, or emotional abuse of dependent elderly persons
elder abuse
Study of death and dying
The concept of searching for meaning in life through death is one of the foundations of this branch of psychology
existential psychology
Denial of death leads to this
existential anxiety
This psychologist believes that individuals must accept the inevitability of their own deaths and the deaths of loved ones; otherwise, they cannot fully embrace or find true meaning in life
Rollo May
By what age do children understand death as a permanent state that all beings eventually experience
ages 5 - 7
What 5 stages of grief did Kubler-Ross define?
1 - Denial
2 - Anger
3 - Bargaining
4 - Depression
5 - Acceptance
What process can help people examine the significance of their life and prepare for death?
the life review
What percentage of men and women over age 75 are widowed?
25% of men, 66% of women
Women who are widowed are more likely to experience this
financial struggles
When men are widowed, they are more likey (than women) to have these struggles
depression and suicidal ideation
Deliberate termination of life to eliminate pain
active euthanasia
Deliberate withdrawal or withdrawal of life-sustaining treatment that may otherwise prolong the life of a dying person
passive euthanasia
A developmental disorder marked by the co-existence of attentional problems and hyperactivity, with each behavior occurring infrequently alone
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder
3 types of ADHD
Predominantly hyperactive-impulsive
Predominantly inattentive
Combined hyperactive-impulsive and inattentive
A disorder of neural development characterized by impaired social interaction and communication, and by restricted and repetitive behavior
Autism spectrum disorders
When do signs of autism show in a child?
By age 3
Screening Tool for Autism in Toddlers and Young Children
Learning disability related to writing
Learning disability related to math
Learning disability related to handwriting
Learning disorders related to a person’s ability to use the information that they take in through their senses – seeing, hearing, tasting, smelling, and touching
information processing disorders
Cause of learning disabilities
Differences in brain structure that are present at birth and are often hereditary
Key difference between a learning disability and intellectual and developmental disabilities
Learning disabilities do not affect intelligence or social functioning; just the ability to perform a particular task
Disorder characterized by proliferation of plaques and tangles (abnormalities in cerebral cortex that destroy brain functioning)
Alzheimer’s Disease
Irreversible loss of intellectual functioning caused by organic brain disease