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95 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

What age range is known as "The School Years"?

Ages 7-11

What are the stats of a healthy 11 year old?

4 to 4.5 feet tall, 60-75lbs

What are the average gains in a healthy 7-11 year old?

Gains about 2 inches in height and 5lbs per year.

Tend to be agile and neither too heavy or too thin.

What are some health problems that occur?


Many eat too much, exercise too little,and become overweight or obese.

What is the hygiene hypothesis?

States that germ phobia leads to an unhealthy immune system.

What is the Body Mass Index (BMI)?

Measures the ratio of weight to height.

What is the BMI of an overweight adult?

BMI of 25-29

What is the BMI of an overweight child?

BMI above the 85th percentile

What is the BMI of an obese adult?

BMI of 30 or more

What is the BMI of an obese child?

BMI above the 95th percentile

What is the percentage of adults with a BMI over 25?


What are the percentages of obese and overweight adults in America?

30% are obese and 5% are morbidly obese

What was the percentage of obese kids in 1964 and in 2004

Went from 5% to 20% (quadrupled)

What are the lifetime benefits of physical activity?

Better overall health

Less chance of asthma

Less obesity

Appreciation of cooperation and fair-play

Improve problem solving ability

Respect for teammates and opponents of many ethnicities or nationalities.

What are some hazards of physical activity?

Loss of self-esteem b/c of critical teammates or coaches.

Injuries (such as little league elbow)

Prejudices (especially against the opposite sex)

Increases in stress (evidenced by altered hormone levels, insomnia).

What is concrete operational thought?

Piaget's 3rd stage of development regarding the ability to reason logically about direct experiences and perceptions (e.g. telling time).

What is classification (aka-categorization)?

Things can be organized into groups according to some characteristics they have in common.

What is transitive inference?

The ability to figure out the unspoken link b/w one fact and another.

What is Seriation?

Things can be arranged in a series (e.g.- number sequence).

Vgotsky believes that other people are crucial in this?

Guiding each child through his or her zone of proximal development.

Why does Vgotsky think language is important?

It serves as a mediator, a vehicle for understanding and learning.

What is information processing theory?

A perspective that compares human thinking processes, by analogy,l to computer analysis.

What is selective attention?

Concentrate on some stimuli while ignoring others.

What is automatization?

Repetition of a sequence of thoughts and actions that makes the sequence routine, so it no longer requires conscious thought.

What is reaction time?

The time it takes to respond to a stimulus, either physcially (reflex, eye blink) or cognitively (thought).

What is sensory memory?

Incoming stimulus information is stored for a split second to allow it to be processed (sensory register).

What are the three types of sensory memory?

Haptic memory

Iconic memory (lightning flash)

Coic memory (auditory)

What is a working memory?

Current, conscious mental activity (short term memory).

What is long-term memory?

Virtually limitless amounts of information can be stored indefinitely.

What is metacognition?

"Thinking about thinking". To evaluate a cognitive task in order to determine how best to accomplish it, then to monitor and adjust one's performance on that task (your opinion of how you perform). This is your judgement or estimation.

What is metamemory?

To understand how memory works in order to use it well. Your impression.

When is religion an element in education?

In the US for private schools (10%) and home schooled children (2%)

What is hidden curriculum?

The unofficial, unstated, or implicit rules and priorities that influence the academic curriculum and every other aspect of learning in school.

What are the pragmatics of language?

The ability to switch from one manner of speaking, or language code to another.

How are language codes different?

Tone, pronunciation, gesture, sentence length, idiom, grammar, and vocabulary.

What is 3rd code?

Using an abbreviated form of language such as in text messaging and use of emoticions (lol, 411, :) )

At what age do children know basic vocals and grammar of their first language and even possess the ability to speak a 2nd or 3rd language?

Age 6

What is an English Language Learner (ELL)?

A Child who is learning English as a second langauge.

How many languages do kids from South America typically speak? Asia?

2. 3

What is bilingual education?

Teaching in two languages

What is ESL?

English as a second language instruction.

What is Immersion?

Children are taught exclusively in a language that is not spoken at home.

What is phonics approach?

Teaching reading by first teaching the sounds of each letter and of various letter combinations.

What is whole language approach?

Teaching reading by encouraging early use of all language skills-talking and listening, reading and writing.

What are the Math Wars?

Math was previously taught by memorization. Idea that memorization should be stopped and knowledge should be learned by applying math to real world situations.

What is the No Child Left Behind Act?

A U.S. law enacted in 2001 that was intended to increase accountability in education by requiring states to qualify for federal educational funding by administering tests to measure school achievement.

What is National Assessment of Educational Progess (NAEP)?

An ongoing and nationally representative measure of US children's achievement in reading, mathematics, and other subject over time; nicknamed "the nation's report card".

What is Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS)?

Inaugurated in 2001, a planned 5 year cycle of international trend studies in the reading ability of 4th graders.

What is Trends in Math and Science Study (TIMSS)?

An international assessment of the match and science skills of 4th and 8th graders. Although it is very useful, different countries' scores are not always comparable because sample selection, test administration, and content validity are hard to keep uniform.

What is STEM?

Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematicsa

What percentage of Americans have a college degree?


What is aptitude?

The potential to master a specific skills or to learn a certain body of knowledge (what you could know).

What is an IQ test?

A test designed to measure intellectual aptitude, or ability to learn in school

What is an Intelligence Test Quotient?

Mental Age divided by Chronological Age times 100.

What is the IQ of an average person?


What IQ is considered bright?

Above 115

What IQ is considered dull?

Below 85

What IQ is considered Slow Thinking, Intellectually Disabled or Mentally Retarded?

Below 70

What is an achievement test?

A measure of mastery or proficiency in reading, mathematics, writing, science, or some other subject.

What is Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children?

An IQ test designed for school age children. The test assesses potential in many areas, including vocabulary, general knowledge, memory, and spatial comprehension.

What is the Flynn effect?

The rise in average IQ scores that has occurred over the decades in many nations.

What is mental retardation?

Literally, slow, or late, thinking. In practice, people are considered mentally retarded if they score below 70 on an IQ test and if they are markedly behind peers in the ability to meet the basic requirements of daily life.

What is Robert Sternberg's 3 types of intelligence?

Academic, measured by IQ and achievement tests

Creative, evidenced by imaginative endeavors

Practical, seen in everyday problem solving.

What is Howard Gardner's multiple-intelligence theory?

1. Linguistic

2. Logical-mathematical

3. Musical

4. Spatial

5. Bodily-kinesthetic (movement)

6. Interpersonal (social understanding)

7. Intrapersonal (self-understanding)

8. Naturalistic (understanding of nature)

9. Existential (asking questions about life and death).

What is developmental psychopathology?

The field that uses insights into typical development to understand and remediate developmental disorders, and vice versa.

What can be learned from developmental psychopathology?

1. Abnormality is normal

2. Disability changes year by year

3. Adulthood may be better or worse than childhood

4. Diagnosis depends on the social context.

What is the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DISM-IV-TR)?

The American Psychiatric Association's official guide to the diagnosis (not treatment of mental disorders). IV=4th edition, TR=Text Revision.

What is attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)?

A condition in which a person is inattentive, impulsive, and overactive and thus has great difficulty concentrating for more than a few moments.

What is comorbidity?

The presence of two or more unrelated disease conditions at the same time in the same person.

What is a learning disability?

A marked delay in a particular area of learning that is not caused by an apparent physical disability, by mental retardation, or by an unusually stressful home environment.

What is dyslexia?

Unusual difficulty with reading, thought to be the result of some neurological underdevelopment.

What is autistic spectrum disorder?

Any of several disorders characterized by impaired communication, inadequate social skills, and unusual patterns of play.

What is autism?

A developmental disorder marked by an inability to relate to other people normally, extreme self-absorption, and an inability to acquire normal speech.

What is Asperger syndrome?

An autistic spectrum disorder characterized by extreme attention to details and deficient social understanding.

What is culture of children?

The particular habits, styles, and values that reflect the set of rules and rituals that characterize children as distinct from adult society.

What is social cognition?

The ability to understand social interactions, including the causes and consequences of human behavior.

What are aggressive-rejected children?

Children who are disliked by peers because of antagonistic,confrontational behavior.

What are withdrawn rejected children?

Children who are disliked by peers because of their timid, withdrawn and anxious behavior.

What is bullying?

Repeated, systematic efforts to inflict harm through physical, verbal, or social attack on a weaker person.

What is bully-victim?

Someone who attacks others and who is attacked as well. (Also called a provocative victim because he or she does things that elicit bullying, such as stealing a bully's pencil).

Friendship and acceptance help with this?

Psychosocial development.

What is effortful control?

Ability to regulate one's emotions and actions through effort.

What is Industry vs. inferiority?

The 4th of Erickson's 8 psycho social stages where children attempt to master many skills, developing a sense of being industrious or inferior, competent or incompetent.

What is latency?

Freud's theory that says emotional drives are quite and unconscious, sexual conflicts are submerged and sexual energy is channeled into social concerns.

What is social comparison?

Tendency to assess one's abilities, achievements, social status, and other attributes by measuring them against those of other. Confidence plummets and inhabition rises.

What is resilience?

The capacity to adapt well despite significant adversity and to overcome serious stress in a dynamic way.

How often do genes affect the variance of traits?

Over 1/2 or more.

What is an example of how the influence of shared environments differs?

Children raised in the same household by the same parents DO NOT necessarily share the same home environment.

Changes within the family affects each member differently.

Most parents respond to each child differently.

What is family function?

The way a family works to meet the needs of it's members.

What are the 5 basic family functions?

1. Provide basic needs

2. Encourage learning

3. Instill self respect

4. Nurture peer relationships

5. Ensure harmony and stability

What is family structure?

The legal and genetic relationships among relatives living in the same home; includes nuclear family, extended family, stepfamily, and so on.

What are Lawrence Kohlberg's 3 levels of moral reasoning?

1. Preconventional

2. Conventional

3. Postconventional

What is Preconventional Moral Reasoning?

Emphasizes rewards and punishment.

What is Conventional Moral Reasoning?

Emphasizes social rules.

What is Postconventional Moral Reasoning?

Emphasizing moral principles. You must live thought this stage.