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100 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
  • 3rd side (hint)

Freud’s stages are psychosexual while Erik Erikson’s stages are:

d. psychosocial

Let’s begin with an easy one. Only one choice fits the bill here.
The Freudian stages (oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital) emphasize sexuality. Erik Erikson’s eight stages (e.g., trust vs. mistrust or integrity vs. despair) focus on social relationships and thus are described as psychosocial. To mention the other answer choices is to dispose of them. Psychometric simply refers to mental testing or measurement. Psychodiagnostic pertains to the study of personality through interpretation of behavior or nonverbal cues. In counseling, per se, it also can mean that the counselor uses the aforementioned factors or tests to label the client in a diagnostic category. Psychopharmacology studies the effects that drugs have on psychological functions.

a. psychometric.
b. psychodiagnostic.
c. psychopharmacological.
d. psychosocial.
In Freudian theory instincts are emphasized. Erik Erikson is an ego psychologist. Ego psychologists:
c. believe in man’s powers of reasoning to control behavior.

To say that the id is the bad boy of Freudian theory is to put it
mildly! The id is the seat of sex and aggression. It is not rational
or logical, and it is void of time orientation. The id is chaotic and
concerned only with the body, not with the outside world. Freud
emphasized the importance of the id, while Erikson stressed ego
functions. The ego is logical, rational, and utilizes the power of
reasoning and control to keep impulses in check. Simply put, ego
psychologists, unlike the strict Freudians, accent the ego and the
power of control. The term superego in choice “b” refers to the
moralistic and idealistic portion of the personality. The behaviorists,
mentioned in choice “d,” do not believe in concepts like
the id, the ego, and the superego. In fact, radical behaviorists do
not believe in mental constructs such as “the mind” nor do they
believe in consciousness. The behaviorist generally feels that if it can’t be measured then it doesn’t exist.
a. emphasize id processes.
b. refute the concept of the superego.
c. believe in man’s powers of reasoning to control behavior.
d. are sometimes known as radical behaviorists.
The only psychoanalyst who created a developmental theory
which encompasses the entire life span was:
a. Erik Erikson.

In Freudian theory, the final stage (i.e., the genital stage) begins
at age 12 and is said to continue throughout one’s life span.

Many scholars do not feel that Freud’s theory truly covers
the entire life span. They find it difficult to believe that
a crisis at age 12 remains the central issue until senility sets in!
Erikson, also a psychoanalyst and a disciple of Freud’s, created
a theory with eight stages in which each stage represents a psychosocial
crisis or a turning point. Since the final stage does not
even begin until age 60, most personality theorists believe that
his theory actually covers the entire life of an individual. As for
the other choices, Brill is analytic and will be discussed in the
section on career theory. Milton H. Erickson, not to be confused
with Erik Erikson, has a “c” in his name and is generally associated
with brief psychotherapy and innovative techniques in
hypnosis. Piaget is the leading name in cognitive development in
a. Erik Erikson.
b. Milton H. Erickson.
c. A. A. Brill.
d. Jean Piaget.
The statement, “the ego is dependent on the id,” would most
likely reflect the work of:
b. Sigmund Freud.

In Freudian theory the id is also called the pleasure principle
and houses the animalistic instincts. The ego, which is known
as the reality principle, is pressured by the id to succumb to
pleasure or gratification regardless of consequences. Erikson, an
ego psychologist, would not emphasize the role of the id, but
rather the power of control or the ego. Jay Haley is known for
his work in strategic and problem solving therapy, often utilizing
the technique of paradox. He claims to have acquired a wealth
of information by studying the work of Milton H. Erickson, who
is mentioned in the previous question. Arnold Lazarus is considered
a pioneer in the behavior therapy movement, especially
in regard to the use of systematic desensitization, a technique
which helps clients cope with phobias. Today his name is associated
with multimodal therapy. Perry is known for his ideas
related to adult cognitive development; especially college students.
Exam hint: Throughout this text I will be giving you a
wealth of exam hints. In fact, this edition contains considerably
more exam hints than any earlier edition. These hints will often
espouse concepts that go beyond merely answering the question
because I have this uncanny notion that the extra information
can boost your exam score. On occasion, I will repeat myself
(often using a different explanation) because the concept is a
tad fuzzy to grasp or just to make certain it won’t appear to be a
foreign language if the material is presented in a unique manner
on the exam. Okay, enough filibustering, time for the first hint.
Perry is known for his ideas related to adult cognitive development;
especially regarding college students. For exam purposes
I would commit to memory the fact that Perry stresses a concept
known as dualistic thinking common to teens in which things
are conceptualized as good or bad or right and wrong. Dualism
has also been referred to as black and white thinking with virtually
no ambiguity. Noted counseling author Ed Neukrug shares
the fact that students in this stage assume that a professor has
“the answer.” As they enter adulthood and move into relativistic
thinking the individual now has the ability to perceive that
not everything is right or wrong, but an answer can exist relative
to a specific situation. In essence there is more than one way
to view the world. Finally, Robert Kegan is another well-known
figure in the area of adult cognitive development. Kegan’s model
stresses interpersonal development. Kegan’s theory is billed as a
“constructive model of development, meaning that individuals
construct reality throughout the lifespan.”
a. Erik Erikson.
b. Sigmund Freud.
c. Jay Haley.
d. Arnold Lazarus, William Perry, and Robert Kegan.
Jean Piaget’s theory has four stages. The correct order from stage
1 to stage 4 is:
c. sensorimotor, preoperations, concrete operations, formal

Piaget was adamant that the order of the stages remains
the same for any culture, although the age of the individual
could vary. It is time for your first memory device. It would
make sense that Piaget’s first stage emphasizes the senses and
the child’s motoric skills, hence the name sensorimotor stage. I
can remember the last stage by reminding myself that people
seem to be more formal as they get older. The final stage is of
course formal operations. As for the other two stages, the stage
with “pre” (i.e., preoperations) must come before the remaining
stage which is concrete operations. Do not automatically assume
that my memory devices will be the best ones for you.
Instead, experiment with different ideas. The memory strategies
presented here are simply ones which my students and I have
found helpful.
a. formal operations, concrete operations, preoperations,

b. formal operations, preoperations, concrete operations,

c. sensorimotor, preoperations, concrete operations, formal

d. concrete operations, sensorimotor, preoperations, formal operations.
Some behavioral scientists have been critical of the Swiss child
psychologist Jean Piaget’s developmental research inasmuch as:
d. his findings were often derived from observing his own

Piaget was trained as a biologist and then worked with Alfred
Binet in France. Binet created the first intelligence test. Piaget’s
research methods, though very innovative, could be classified
as informal ones. He sometimes utilized games and interviews.
Who were his subjects? Well, often they were Lucienne, Laurent,
and Jaqueline: his own children. Some researchers have
been critical of his methods. Answer choice “a” is incorrect, as a
t test is a parametric statistical test used in formal experiments to
determine whether there is a significant difference between two
groups. The “t” in t test should be written with a lower case t and
is technically utilized to ascertain if the means of the groups are
significantly different from each other. When using the t test the
groups must be normally distributed. Some books will refer to
the t test as the Student’s t. Choice “b” will be discussed in much
greater detail in the section on research and evaluation. This
choice is incorrect inasmuch as Piaget generally did not rely on
statistical experiments that would be impacted by type 1 or alpha
a. he utilized the t test too frequently.

b. he failed to check for type 1 or alpha errors.

c. he worked primarily with minority children.

d. his findings were often derived from observing his own
A tall skinny pitcher of water is emptied into a small squatty
pitcher. A child indicates that she feels the small pitcher has less
water. The child has not yet mastered:
b. conservation.

This is a must-know principle for any major test in counseling!
In Piaget’s theory the term conservation refers to the notion that
a substance’s weight, mass, and volume remain the same even if
it changes shape. According to Piaget, the child masters conservation
and the concept of reversibility during the concrete operations
stage (ages 7 to 11 years). Now here is a super memory
device. Both conservation and the ability to count mentally (i.e.,
without matching something up to something else physically)
both occur in the concrete operational thought stage. Fortunately,
conservation, counting, and concrete operations all start
with a “c.” How convenient! And you thought memorizing these
principles was going to be difficult. The other answer choices are
ridiculous, and that’s putting it mildly. In Piaget’s theory, symbolic
schema is a cognitive structure that grows with life experience.
A schema is merely a system which permits the child to test out
things in the physical world. Choice “c,” androgynous, is a term
which implies that humans have characteristics of both sexes.
(The Greek word andros means man while the Greek word for
women is gyne.) And, of course, by now you know that trust vs.
mistrust is Erikson’s first psychosocial stage.
a. symbolic schema.

b. conservation.

c. androgynous psychosocial issues.

d. trust versus mistrust.
In Piagetian literature, conservation would most likely refer to:
a. volume or mass.

If you missed this question go back to square one! The answer
given for question 7 clearly explains this principle. Again, a child
who has not mastered conservation does not think in a very
flexible manner. A child, for example, is shown a pie cut into 2
pieces. Next, the same pie is cut into 10 pieces. If the child has
not mastered conservation he or she will say that the pie that is
now cut into 10 pieces is bigger than when it was cut into just
2 pieces. You can’t fool a child who has mastered conservation,
however. This child will know that the pie has not changed in
volume and mass. In general, the statistical research of David
Elkind supports Piaget’s notions regarding conservation. Piaget
and Elkind report that mass is the first and most easily understood
concept. The mastery of weight is next, and finally the notion
of volume can be comprehended. (A good memory device
might be MV, such as in most valuable player. The “M,” or mass,
will come first and the “V,” or volume, will be the final letter. The
“W,” or weight, can be squeezed in-between.)
a. volume or mass.

b. defenses of the ego.

c. the sensorimotor intelligence stage.

d. a specific psychosexual stage of life.
A child masters conservation in the Piagetian stage known as:
b. concrete operations—ages 7 to 11.

Remember your memory device: conservation begins with a “c”
and so does concrete operations. The other three stages proposed
by Jean Piaget do not begin with a “c.”
a. formal operations—12 years and older.

b. concrete operations—ages 7 to 11.

c. preoperations—ages 2 to 7.

d. sensorimotor intelligence—birth to 2 years.
_______ expanded on Piaget’s conceptualization of moral development.
c. Lawrence Kohlberg

Choice “b” provides another key name. Vygotsky disagreed
with Piaget’s notion that developmental stages take place
naturally. Vygotsky insisted that the stages unfold due to
educational intervention. Kohlberg, the correct answer, is
perhaps the leading theorist in moral development. Kohlberg’s,
Erikson’s, and Maslow’s theories are said to be epigenetic in nature. Epigenetic is a biological term borrowed from embryology.
This principle states that each stage emerges from the one
before it. The process follows a given order and is systematic.
John B. Watson, mentioned in choice “d,” is the father of American
behaviorism and coined the term behaviorism in 1912.
a. Erik Erikson

b. The Russian psychologist Lev Vygotsky

c. Lawrence Kohlberg

d. John B. Watson
According to Piaget, a child masters the concept of reversibility in the third stage, known as concrete operations or concrete operational thought. This notion suggests:
d. one can undo an action, hence an object can return to its
initial shape.

Choice “d” is the definition of reversibility. The word ambidextrous,
utilized in choice “b,” refers to an individual’s ability to use
both hands equally well to perform tasks.
a. that heavier objects are more difficult for a child to lift.

b. the child is ambidextrous.

c. the child is more cognizant of mass than weight.

d. one can undo an action, hence an object can return to its
initial shape.
During a thunderstorm, a 6-year-old child in Piaget’s stage of
preoperational thought (stage 2) says, “The rain is following me.” This is an example of:
a. egocentrism.

Expect to see a question on the test like this one and you can’t
go wrong. This is the typical or prototype question you will come
across in order to ascertain whether you are familiar with the
Piagetian concept of egocentrism. By egocentrism, Piaget was
not really implying the child is self-centered. Instead, egocentrism conveys the fact that the child cannot view the world from the vantage point of someone else. Choice of “d” mentions abstract thought, which does not occur until Piaget’s final or fourth
stage known as formal operations.
a. egocentrism.

b. conservation.

c. centration.

d. abstract thought.
Lawrence Kohlberg suggested:
c. three levels of morality.

Kohlberg’s theory has three levels of moral development: the
Preconventional, Conventional, and Postconventional level
which is referred to in some texts as the Personal Integrity or
Morality of Self-Accepted Principles level. Each level can be
broken down further into two stages.
a. a single level of morality.

b. two levels of morality.

c. three levels of morality.

d. preoperational thought as the basis for all morality.
The Heinz story is to Kohlberg’s theory as:
d. a typing test is to the level of typing skill mastered.

This is your first chance to wrestle with an analogy type question.
The Heinz Story is one method used by Kohlberg to assess the
level and stage of moral development in an individual. The story
goes like this:
A woman in Europe was dying of cancer. Only one drug (a form
of radium) could save her. It was discovered by a local druggist.
The druggist was charging $2,000, which was ten times his cost
to make the drug. The woman’s husband, Heinz, could not raise
the money and even if he borrowed from his friends, he could
only come up with approximately half the sum. He asked the
druggist to reduce the price or let him pay the bill later since
his wife was dying but the druggist said, “No.” The husband
was thus desperate and broke into the store to steal the drug.
Should the husband have done that? Why?
The individual’s reason for the decision (rather than the decision
itself) allowed Kohlberg to evaluate the person’s stage of moral
development. In short, the reasoning utilized to solve a moral
dilemma such as the Heinz story could be used to assess moral
development. Kohlberg’s stages and levels are said to apply to
all persons and not merely to those living in the United States.
Thus, it is evident that the Heinz Story is most like choice “d,” a
typing test. C. G. Jung, mentioned in choice “b,” is the father of
analytic psychology. Freud is the father of psychoanalysis. And
lastly, the Menninger Clinic in Kansas is a traditional psychoanalytic
foothold as well as the site of landmark work in the area of
biofeedback, which is a technique utilized to help individuals
learn to control bodily processes more effectively. And, oh yes,
before you go out and have a good cry, let me emphasize that the
story of Heinz is fictional and simply used as a research tool.
a. a brick is to a house.

b. Freud is to Jung.

c. the Menninger Clinic is to biofeedback.

d. a typing test is to the level of typing skill mastered.
The term identity crisis comes from the work of:
b. Erikson.

Let’s deal with choice “a” first, although it is incorrect. RS in our
field means religious and spiritual. Addressing RS issues
in counseling has increased in the last several years. In
fact, the number of counselors who consider themselves
spiritual (though not necessarily religious) is also climbing.
RS factors are often examined by counselors who are
attempting to integrate the practice of “positive psychology”
into their work. Positive psychology is hot right now
and I suspect you could see a question about it on your
exam. The term, coined by Abraham Maslow and popularized
by learned helplessness syndrome pioneer Martin
Seligman, refers to the study of human strengths such as
joy, wisdom, altruism, the ability to love, happiness, and
wisdom. Keep in mind that I use the correct as well as
correct answers to teach you key material. Now back to
the correct answer for this question: Erikson felt that, in an attempt
to find out who they really are, adolescents will experiment
with various roles. Choice “c” refers to another name you
should know, Alfred Adler, the founder of individual psychology,
which stresses the inferiority complex.
a. counselors who stress RS involvement issues with clients.

b. Erikson.

c. Adler.

d. Jung.
Kohlberg’s three levels of morality are:
a. preconventional, conventional, postconventional.

In the preconventional level the child responds to consequences.
In this stage reward and punishment greatly influence the behavior.
In the conventional level the individual wants to meet the
standards of the family, society, and even the nation. Kohlberg
felt that many people never reach the final level of postconventional
or self-accepted morality. A person who reaches this level
is concerned with universal, ethical principles of justice, dignity,
and equality of human rights. Kohlberg’s research indicated
that under 40% of his middle-class urban males had reached
the postconventional level. Ghandi, Socrates, and Martin Luther
King Jr. have been cited as examples of individuals who have
reached this level, in which the common good of society is a key
a. preconventional, conventional, postconventional.

b. formal, preformal, self-accepted.

c. self-accepted, other directed, authority directed.

d. preconventional, formal, authority directed.
Trust versus mistrust is:
b. Erik Erikson’s first stage of psychosocial development.

Erikson proposed eight stages and this is the first. This stage
corresponds to Freud’s initial oral-sensory stage (birth to approximately 1 year). Each of Erikson’s stages is described using bipolar or opposing tendencies. Although Piaget and Erikson are
the most prominent stage theorists, you should also become familiar with the work of Harry Stack Sullivan, who postulated the
stages of infancy, childhood, the juvenile era, preadolescence,
early adolescence, and late adolescence. Sullivan’s theory, known as the psychiatry of interpersonal relations, is similar to Erikson’s theory in that biological determination is seen as less important than interpersonal issues and the sociocultural demands of society.
a. an Adlerian notion of morality.

b. Erik Erikson’s first stage of psychosocial development.

c. essentially equivalent to Piaget’s concept of egocentrism.

d. the basis of morality according to Kohlberg.
A person who has successfully mastered Erikson’s first seven
stages would be ready to enter Erikson’s final or eighth stage,
d. integrity versus despair.

Each stage is seen as a psychosocial crisis or a turning point.
Erikson did not imply that the person either totally succeeds or
fails. Instead, he says that the individual leans toward a given
alternative (e.g., integrity or despair). The final stage begins at
about age 60. An individual who has successfully mastered all
the stages feels a sense of integrity in the sense that his or her life has been worthwhile.
a. generativity versus stagnation.
b. initiative versus guilt.
c. identity crisis of the later years.
d. integrity versus despair.
In Kohlberg’s first or preconventional level, the individual’s moral behavior is guided by:
b. consequences.

In the consequences stage (called premoral), an M&M or a slap
on the behind is more important than societal expectations and
the law. In choice “c” the term fugue state refers to an individual
who experiences memory loss (amnesia) and leaves home, often
with the intention of changing his or her job and identity.
What does this have to do with answering the question regarding
Kohlberg, you ask? Nothing, that’s decidedly why it’s the wrong
answer! In choice “d” you are confronted with the word counterconditioning.
This is a behavioristic technique in which the goal
is to weaken or eliminate a learned response by pairing it with
a stronger or desirable response. Systematic desensitization is a
good example, but more on that later.
a. psychosexual urges.

b. consequences.

c. periodic fugue states.

d. counterconditioning.
Kohlberg’s second level of morality is known as conventional morality.
This level is characterized by:
d. b and c.

At the conventional level the individual wishes to conform to
the roles in society so that authority and social order can prevail.
Kohlberg felt that attempts to upgrade the morals of our youth
have failed and he has referred to some character-building education programs as “Mickey Mouse stuff!”
a. psychosexual urges.

b. a desire to live up to society’s expectations.

c. a desire to conform.

d. b and c.
Kohlberg’s highest level of morality is termed postconventional morality. Here the individual:
c. has self-imposed morals and ethics.

Only one answer is correct here, folks. Choice “a” reflects the
Freudian theory, while choice “b” is stage 3 of Kohlberg’s theory,
which occurs at the conventional level. In the “good boy/good
girl orientation” the person is concerned with approbation and
the ability to please others in order to achieve recognition.
a. must truly contend with psychosexual urges.

b. has the so-called “good boy/good girl” orientation.

c. has self-imposed morals and ethics.

d. a and b.
According to Kohlberg, level 3, which is postconventional or self-accepted moral principles,
d. is the highest level of morality. However, some people
never reach this level.

Hedonism mentioned in choice “a” occurs in stage 2 of the preconventional
level. Here the child says to himself, “If I’m nice
others will be nice to me and I’ll get what I want.” Choice “b” actually
refers to the first stage of the preconventional level which
is the punishment versus obedience orientation.
a. refers to the Naive Hedonism stage.

b. operates on the premise that rewards guide morals.

c. a and b.

d. is the highest level of morality. However, some people
never reach this level.
The zone of proximal development:
a. was pioneered by Lev Vygotsky.

The zone of proximal development describes the difference
between a child’s performance without a teacher
versus that which he or she is capable of with an instructor.
In choice “c” the concept of organ inferiority is mentioned.
This term is primarily associated with the work of Alfred Adler,
who created individual psychology.
a. was pioneered by Lev Vygotsky.

b. was pioneered by Piaget and Kohlberg.

c. emphasized organ inferiority.

d. a, b, and c.
Freud and Erikson:
b. could be classified as maturationists.

In the behavioral sciences, the concept of the maturation hypothesis
(also known as the maturation theory) suggests that
behavior is guided exclusively via hereditary factors, but that certain
behaviors will not manifest themselves until the necessary
stimuli are present in the environment. In addition, the theory
suggests that the individual’s neural development must be at a
certain level of maturity for the behavior to unfold. A counselor
who believes in this concept strives to unleash inborn abilities,
instincts, and drives. The client’s childhood and the past are seen
as important therapeutic topics.
a. could be classified as behaviorists.

b. could be classified as maturationists.

c. agreed that developmental stages are psychosexual.

d. were prime movers in the biofeedback movement.
John Bowlby’s name is most closely associated with:
c. bonding and attachment.

Arnold Gesell was a pioneer in terms of using a one-way
mirror for observing children. Maturationists such as Gesell
feel that development is primarily determined via
genetics/heredity. Hence, a child must be ready before
he or she can accept a certain level of education (e.g.,
kindergarten). Bowlby’s name starts with a “B,” as does the
word bonding. Aren’t memory devices wonderful? John Bowlby
saw bonding and attachment as having survival value, or what is
often called adaptive significance. Bowlby insisted that in order
to lead a normal social life the child must bond with an adult
before the age of 3. If the bond is severed at an early age, it is
known as “object loss,” and this is said to be the breeding ground
for abnormal behavior, or what is often called psychopathology.
Mahler calls the child’s absolute dependence on the female
caretaker “symbiosis.” Difficulties in the symbiotic relationship
can result in adult psychosis.
a. the work of psychologist and pediatrician, Arnold Gesell,
a maturationist.

b. developmental stage theories.

c. bonding and attachment.

d. the unconscious mind.
In which Eriksonian stage does the midlife crisis occur?
a. generativity versus stagnation

Most theorists believe that the midlife crisis occurs between
ages 35 and 45 for men and about five years earlier for women,
when the individual realizes his or her life is half over. Persons
often need to face the fact that they have not achieved their
goals or aspirations. Incidentally, the word generativity refers to
the ability to be productive and happy by looking outside one’s
self and being concerned with other people. Some exams may
refer to this stage as “generativity versus self-absorption.” Daniel
Levinson, who wrote Seasons of a Man’s Life and Seasons
of a Woman’s Life, viewed the midlife crisis as somewhat positive,
pointing out that individuals who do not face it may indeed
stagnate or become stale during their fifties. In other words,
avoiding or bypassing the crisis can lead to lack of vitality in later
a. generativity versus stagnation

b. integrity versus despair

c. a and b

d. Erikson’s stages do not address midlife issues
The researcher who is well known for his work with maternal
deprivation and isolation in rhesus monkeys is:
a. Harry Harlow.

Harlow’s work is now well-known in the social sciences. Harlow
believed that attachment was an innate tendency and not
one which is learned. Monkeys placed in isolation developed
autistic abnormal behavior. When these monkeys were placed
in cages with normally reared monkeys some remission of the
dysfunctional behavior was noted. Evidence that this is true in
man comes from the work of René Spitz, who noted that children
reared in impersonal institutions (and hence experienced
maternal deprivation between the sixth and eighth month of
life) cried more, experienced difficulty sleeping, and had more
health-related difficulties. Spitz called this “anaclitic depression.”
These infants would ultimately experience great difficulty
forming close relationships.
a. Harry Harlow.

b. John Bowlby.

c. Lawrence Kohlberg.

d. all of the above.
The statement: “Males are better than females when performing
mathematical calculations” is:
d. true according to research by Maccoby and Jacklin.

Maccoby and Jacklin reviewed the literature and found very few
differences that could be attributed to genetics and biological
factors. The superiority of males in the area of mathematics,
however, was not significant until high school or perhaps college.
Girls who excelled in science and math often identified
with their fathers and were encouraged to value initiative and
were given independence. Thus, the major impetus for sex-role
differences may come from child-rearing patterns rather than
bodily chemistry.
a. false.

b. true due to a genetic fl aw commonly found in women.

c. true only in middle-aged men.

d. true according to research by
The Eriksonian stage that focuses heavily on sharing your life
with another person is:
c. intimacy versus isolation—ages 23 to 34.

If you didn’t know the answer, did you guess? Yes, of course I’m
being serious. Remember no penalty is assessed for guessing on
the NCE/CPCE. An educated guess based on the fact that intimacy
implies sharing one’s life would have landed you a correct
answer here. Counselors need to be aware that an individual
who fails to do well in this stage may conclude that he or she can
depend on no one but the self.
a. actually the major theme in all of Erikson’s eight stages.

b. generativity versus stagnation—ages 35 to 60.

c. intimacy versus isolation—ages 23 to 34.

d. a critical factor Erikson fails to mention.
We often refer to individuals as conformists. Which of these individuals would most likely conform to his or her peers?
d. a 13-year-old male middle school student.

Conformity seems to peak in the early teens.
a. a 19-year-old male college student.

b. 23-year-old male drummer in a rock band.

c. a 57-year old female stockbroker.

d. a 13-year-old male middle school student.
In Harry Harlow’s experiments with baby monkeys:
b. the baby monkey was more likely to cling to a terry cloth
mother surrogate than a wire surrogate mother.

Infant monkeys preferred the terry cloth mothers to wire mothers even though the wire mothers were equipped to dispense milk. Harlow concluded “contact comfort” is important in the development of the infant’s attachment to his or her mother. A
165-day experiment revealed that the monkeys were spending
an average of 1ó hours per day with the wire mother and 16
hours with the terry cloth mother. Bowlby, mentioned previously,
would say that in humans the parents act as a “releaser stimulus” to elicit relief from hunger and tension through holding.
a. a wire mother was favored by most young monkeys over a
terry cloth version.

b. the baby monkey was more likely to cling to a terry cloth
mother surrogate than a wire surrogate mother.

c. female monkeys had a tendency to drink large quantities
of alcohol.

d. male monkeys had a tendency to drink large quantities of
Freud postulated psychosexual stages:
b. oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital.

Choice “a” depicts Freud’s structural theory of the mind as being composed of the id, the ego, and the superego. In choice
“c” the word eros refers to the Freudian concept of the life instinct while thanatos refers to the self-destructive death instinct.
Analysis is just brimming with verbiage borrowed from Greek
mythology. The term regression is used to describe clients who
return to an earlier stage of development. In choice “d” you
should familiarize yourself with the terms manifest and latent,
which in psychoanalysis refer to the nature of a dream. Manifest
content describes the dream material as it is presented to the
dreamer. Latent content (which is seen as far more important by
the Freudians) refers to the hidden meaning of the dream.
a. id, ego, and superego.

b. oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital.

c. eros, thanatos, regression, and superego.

d. manifest, latent, oral, and phallic.
In adolescence:
d. males commit suicide more often than females, but females
attempt suicide more often.

Males commit suicide more often than females. This answer
would apply not just to adolescence but to nearly all
age brackets. One theory is that males are more successful in
killing themselves because they use firearms whereas females
rely on less lethal methods. Choice “b” is false inasmuch as suicide
is generally the 11th or 12th leading cause of death in this
country as well as the second or third leading killer of teens each
year. And as far as choice “c” is concerned, a counselor should always
take it seriously when a client of any age threatens suicide.
The truth is that the vast majority of those who have killed themselves
have communicated the intent to do so in some manner.

So take clients’ suicide threats seriously. Have I made myself
a. females commit suicide more than males.

b. suicide is a concern but statistically very rare.

c. the teens who talk about suicide are not serious.

d. males commit suicide more often than females, but females
attempt suicide more often.
In the general population:
c. suicide rates tend to increase with age.

Choice “b” is way off the mark. Suicidal clients often make attempts after the depression begins to lift! Official statistics indicate about 30,000 suicides each year in the United States. Suicidologists (and yes there is such a word!) believe that the actual number may be closer to 75,000 due to complications in accurately coding the cases. Choice “a” reflects the approximate suicide rate in black females. The overall suicide rate in the United States in any given year is about 11/100,000. Interestingly enough, personality measures such as the MMPI-2 and the Rorschach are not good predictors of suicide or for that matter of suicide attempts. In essence, test profiles of suicidal individuals generally are not distinguishable from those of persons who are not suicidal.
a. the suicide rate is 2/100,000.
b. suicide occurs at the beginning of a depressive episode,
but rarely after the depression lifts.
c. suicide rates tend to increase with age.
d. b and c.
The fear of death:
a. is greatest during middle age.

In Erikson’s stages the individual would accept the finality of life
better during the final state than in the middle age years.
a. is greatest during middle age.

b. is an almost exclusively male phenomenon.

c. is the number one psychiatric problem in the geriatric

d. surprisingly enough occurs in the teen years.
In Freudian theory, attachment is a major factor:
c. which evolves primarily during the oral age.

This would make sense from a logical standpoint, because the
oral stage is the first Freudian psychosexual stage and occurs
while the child is still an infant (i.e., the stage goes from birth to
one year). As mentioned earlier, attachments in human as well
as animal studies indicate that the bonding process takes place
early in life.
a. in the preconscious mind.

b. in the mind of the child in latency.

c. which evolves primarily during the oral age.

d. a and b.
When comparing girls to boys, it could be noted that:
d. all of the above.

Boys on the other hand are more physically active and aggressive,
probably due to androgen hormones. Boys also seem to
possess better visual–perceptual skills.
a. girls grow up to smile more.

b. girls are using more feeling words by age 2.

c. girls are better able to read people without verbal cues at
any age.

d. all of the above.
The Freudian developmental stage which “least” emphasizes sexuality is:
d. latency.

Here’s an easy one. Remember how I mentioned in question 32
that the word latent refers to the hidden meaning of the dream?
Well in the developmental stages the sexual drive seems hidden
(or at least not very prominent) during latency. Sexual interests
are replaced by social interests like sports, learning, and hobbies.
Now this is very important: Latency is the only Freudian
developmental stage which is not primarily psychosexual in nature.
It occurs roughly between ages 6 and 12.
a. oral.

b. anal.

c. phallic.

d. latency.
In terms of parenting young children:
a. boys are punished more than girls.

Hint: Before you sit for the NCE/CPCE or written or oral boards,
take a moment to review the major theories and research related
to child rearing. Stanley Coopersmith, for example, found that
child-rearing methods seem to have a tremendous impact on
self-esteem. A study he conducted indicated that, surprisingly
enough, children with high self-esteem were punished just as
often as kids with low self-esteem. The children with high selfesteem,
however, were provided with a clear understanding of
what was morally right and wrong. This was not usually the case
in children with low self-esteem. The children with high self-esteem
actually had more rules than the kids with low self-esteem.
When the child with high self-esteem was punished the emphasis
was on the behavior being bad and not the child. Parents
of children with high self-esteem were more democratic in the
sense that they would listen to the child’s arguments and then
explain the purpose of the rules. The Coopersmith study utilized
middle-class boys, ages 10 to 12. Choice “d” stands incorrect
since girls routinely display more caregiver behavior.
a. boys are punished more than girls.

b. girls are punished more than boys.

c. boys and girls are treated in a similar fashion.

d. boys show more caregiver behavior.
When developmental theorists speak of nature or nurture they
really mean:
a. how much heredity or environment interact to influence

In this question the word nature refers to heredity and genetic
makeup, while nurture refers to the environment. The age-old
argument is whether heredity or environment has the greatest
impact on the person’s development. Today theorists shy away from an extremist position and admit that both factors play a major role. Just for the record, choice “d” mentioned B. F. Skinner,
who was the prime mover in the behavioristic psychology movement.
Behaviorists, like Skinner, tend to emphasize the power of
a. how much heredity or environment interact to influence

b. the focus is skewed in favor of biological attributes.

c. a and b.

d. a theory proposed by Skinner’s colleagues.
Stage theorists assume:
a. qualitative changes between stages occur.

Choice “b” is incorrect inasmuch as differences can often be
measured. Just ask any behaviorist! Choice “c” makes no sense
because analysts (who are not considered humanistic) such as
Freud and Erikson have supported the stage theory viewpoint.
a. qualitative changes between stages occur.

b. differences surely exist but usually can’t be measured.

c. that humanistic psychology is the only model which truly
supports the stage viewpoint.

d. b and c.
c. is a continuous process which begins at conception.

Developmental psychologists are fond of looking at prenatal influences (i.e., smoking or alcohol consumption) that affect the
fetus before birth.
a. begins at birth.

b. begins during the first trimester of pregnancy.

c. is a continuous process which begins at conception.

d. a and c.
Development is cephalocaudal, which means:
b. head to foot.

The head of the fetus develops earlier than the legs. Cephalocaudal simply refers to bodily proportions between the head and tail.
a. foot to head.

b. head to foot.

c. limbs receive the highest level of nourishment.

d. b and c.
d. all of the above.

Here is a vest pocket definition of heredity. You should also be
familiar with the term heritability, which is the portion of a trait
that can be explained via genetic factors.
a. assumes the normal person has 23 pairs of chromosomes.
b. assumes that heredity characteristics are transmitted by
c. assumes genes composed of DNA hold a genetic code.
Piaget’s final stage is known as the formal operational stage. In this stage:
c. a and b.

Again, unfortunately, Piaget felt a large number of individuals
never really reach this stage; hence, the difficulty of subjects like
algebra, physics, and geometry. Another characteristic of the
formal operations stage is that the child can think in terms of
multiple hypotheses. If you ask a child to answer a question such
as, “Why did someone shoot the president?,” a child who has
mastered formal operations (approximately age 11 and beyond)
will give several hypotheses while a child in the previous stages
would most likely be satisfied with one explanation. For exam
purposes, remember that abstract concepts of time (e.g., What
was life like 500 years ago?) or distance (e.g., How far is 600
miles?) can only be comprehended via abstract thinking, which
occurs in this stage. Answer “d” is incorrect inasmuch as Piaget
felt that when the child finally reached the final stage he or she
would be ready for adulthood and would not experience childlike
feelings of helplessness,
a. abstract thinking emerges.

b. problems can be solved using deduction.

c. a and b.

d. the child has mastered abstract thinking but still feels
Kohlberg lists _______ stages of moral development which fall
into _______ levels.
a. 6, 3

Here is a vest-pocket review of the stages and levels. Preconventional
Level with Stage 1, Punishment/Obedience Orientation, and Stage 2, Naive Hedonism (also called instrumental or egotistic) Orientation. The entire first level is sometimes called the “premoral level.” Conventional Level with Stage 3, Good Boy/Good Girl Orientation, and Stage 4, Authority, Law, and Order Orientation. This entire level is often known as “morality of conventional rules and conformity.” Postconventional Level with Stage 5, Democratically Accepted Law or “Social Contract”
and Stage 6, Principles of Self-Conscience and Universal Ethics.
The last level is sometimes termed the “morality of self-accepted
principles level.”
a. 6, 3

b. 6, 6

c. 3, 6

d. 3, 3
A person who lives by his or her individual conscience and universal
ethical principles:
d. a and c.

Still confused? Review answer given in question 46.
a. has, according to Kohlberg, reached the highest stage of
moral development.

b. is in the preconventional level.

c. is in the postconventional level of self-accepted moral

d. a and c.
Freud’s Oedipus Complex:
c. a and b.

The Oedipus complex is the most controversial part of Freud’s
theory and choices “a” and “b” roughly describe it. The Oedipus
complex, the boy’s secret wish to marry his mother, paired with
rage toward his father, is said to occur between ages 3 and 5.
Looking for a good memory device? Well here it is. The Oedipus
complex occurs during the phallic stage and both words conveniently
contain the letter “p.” Some tests may actually refer to
this stage as the phallic–oedipal stage. Freud chose the name
based on the Greek myth in which Oedipus, the mythical king of
Thebes, unknowingly killed his father and married his mother.
a. is the stage in which fantasies of sexual relations with the
opposite-sex parent occurs.

b. occurs during the phallic stage.

c. a and b.

d. is a concept Freud ultimately eliminated from his theory.
In girls the Oedipus complex may be referred to as:
d. the Electra complex.

In the Oedipus complex in boys and the Electra complex in girls
(also grounded in Greek myth), the female child fantasizes about
sexual relations with the parent of the opposite sex. This creates
tension since this is generally not possible. Hence the child is
said to have a fantasy in which he or she wishes to kill the parent
of the opposite sex. Freud went on to hypothesize that eventually
the child identifies with the parent of the same sex. This leads
to internalization of parental values, and thus the conscience or
superego is born. As for choices “a,” “b,” and “c,” they are all
behavioral terms and hence incorrect. The term covert in choice
“b” refers to any psychological process which cannot be directly
observed, while in choice “c” I introduce you to “in vivo” which
means the client is exposed to an actual situation which might
prove frightful or difficult. The word desensitization refers to
behavior therapy techniques that help to ameliorate anxiety reactions.
a. systematic desensitization.

b. covert desensitization.

c. in vivo desensitization.

d. the Electra complex.
The correct order of the Freudian psychosexual stages is:
a. oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital.

Freud is the father of psychoanalysis, which is the most comprehensive theory of personality and therapy ever devised.
a. oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital.

b. oral, anal, genital, phallic, and latency.

c. oral, phallic, latency, genital, and anal.

d. phallic, genital, latency, oral, and anal.
Gibson researched the matter of depth perception in children by utilizing:
d. a visual cliff.

It seems no child development book is complete without a picture
of an infant crawling toward an experimenter on a visual
cliff. The visual cliff is a device which utilizes a glass sheet which
simulates a drop-off. Interestingly enough, infants will not attempt
to cross the drop-off, thus indicating that depth perception
in humans is inherent (i.e., an inborn or so-called innate
trait). By approximately eight months of age the child begins to
show stranger anxiety, meaning that he or she can discriminate a
familiar person from a person who is unknown.
a. Piaget’s concept of conservation.

b. Erik Erikson’s trust versus mistrust paradigm.

c. Piaget’s formal operations.

d. a visual cliff.
Theorists who believe that development merely consists of quantitative changes are referred to as:
c. empiricists.

Empiricism grew out of the philosophy of John Locke in the
1600s and is sometimes referred to as associationism. According
to this theory scientists can learn only from objective facts. The
word empiricism comes from the Greek word meaning experience. This philosophy adheres to the principle that experience is
the source for acquiring knowledge. Remember that empiricism
is often said to be the forerunner of behaviorism and you could
pick up a point on the test you’ll be taking. Choice “a” mentions
the organismic viewpoint, which is slanted toward qualitative
rather than quantitative factors that can be measured empirically.
Strictly speaking, organismic psychologists do not believe in a
mind-body distinction. Since empiricists believe developmental
changes can be measured and the organicists feel that change
can be internal, the two views are sometimes said to be opposing
a. organismic theorists.
b. statistical developmentalists.
c. empiricists.
d. all of the above.
An empiricist view of development would be:
b. behavioristic.

Here again, the empiricist view is behavioristic. Using a little
logic you can see that answer “c” is false inasmuch as some behaviorists
have literally gone on record as saying, “if you can’t
measure it then it doesn’t exist!” In case I still haven’t made myself
clear, behavioristic empiricist researchers value statistical
studies and emphasize the role of the environment. Organismic
supporters feel the individual’s actions are more important than
the environment in terms of one’s development.
a. psychometric.

b. behavioristic.

c. against the use of formal statistical testing.

d. a and c.
In the famous experiment by Harlow, frightened monkeys raised via cloth and wire mothers:
d. ran over and clung to the cloth and wire surrogate mothers.

When given the choice of two cloth-covered mothers—one that
provided milk and one that did not—the infant monkeys chose
the one that gave milk. In a later experiment, Harlow and a colleague discovered that a warm mother and a mother who rocked
were superior to a cool mother or a mother who did not rock.
a. showed marked borderline personality traits.

b. surprisingly enough became quite friendly.

c. demonstrated a distinct lack of emotion.

d. ran over and clung to the cloth and wire surrogate mothers.
A theorist who views developmental changes as quantitative is said to be an empiricist. The antithesis of this position holds that developmental strides are qualitative. What is the name given to this position?
b. organicism

The term organismic also has been used to describe Gestalt
psychologists, such as Kurt Goldstein, who emphasize a holistic model.
a. behaviorism

b. organicism

c. statistical developmentalism

d. all of the above
In Piaget’s developmental theory, reflexes play the greatest role
in the:
a. sensorimotor stage.

It would make sense that the child would use reflexes in the first
stage, which is termed sensorimotor intelligence. Piaget has said that the term practical intelligence captures the gist of this stage.

Piaget emphasized the concept of “object permanence” here. A
child who is beyond approximately 8 months of age will search for an object that is no longer in sight (e.g., hidden behind a parent’s back or under a blanket). The child learns that objects have an existence even when the child is not interacting with them.
a. sensorimotor stage.

b. formal operational stage.

c. preoperational stage.

d. acquisition of conservation.
A mother hides a toy behind her back and a young child does not
believe the toy exists anymore. The child has not mastered:
d. a and c.

The child who has not mastered object permanence is still a victim
of “out of sight, out of mind.” The child, needless to say,
needs representational thought to master object permanence,
which is also called object constancy. During this initial stage the child learns the concept of time (i.e., that one event takes place before or after another) and causality (e.g., that a hand can move an object).
a. object permanence.

b. reflexive response.

c. representational thought.

d. a and c.
The schema of permanency and constancy of objects occurs in
a. sensorimotor stage—birth to 2 years.

If you missed this question take a break; you’ve probably been
studying too long! After a little rest and relaxation, review questions
56 and 57. Incidentally, around the second month of age
the child begins to smile in response to a face or a mask that
resembles a face.
a. sensorimotor stage—birth to 2 years.

b. preoperational stage—2 to 7 years.

c. concrete operational stage—7 to 12 years.

d. formal operational stage—12 years and beyond.
John Bowlby has asserted that:
d. conduct disorders and other forms of psychopathology
can result from inadequate attachment and bonding in
early childhood.

Remember, Bowlby starts with a “b” and so does bonding. Bowlby,
a British psychoanalyst, felt that mothers should be the primary
caretakers, while the father’s role is to support the mother
emotionally rather than nurturing the child himself. Although
this view was well accepted when it was proposed in the early
1950s, most counselors probably would not agree with it today.
a. attachment is not instinctual.

b. attachment is best explained via Skinnerian principle.

c. a and b.

d. conduct disorders and other forms of psychopathology
can result from inadequate attachment and bonding in
early childhood.
The Harlow experiments utilizing monkeys demonstrated that
animals placed in isolation during the first few months of life:
c. appeared to be abnormal and autistic.

The word autistic means extremely withdrawn and isolated.
a. still developed in a normal fashion.

b. still related very well with animals reared normally.

c. appeared to be abnormal and autistic.

d. were fixated in concrete operational thought patterns.
According to the Freudians, if a child is severely traumatized,
he or she may _______ a given psychosexual stage.
b. become fixated at

Here is a must-know term for any major exam. In psychoanalytic
theory the word fixation implies that the individual is unable to
go from one developmental stage to the next. The person literally
becomes stuck (or fixated) in a stage where he or she feels
safe. Therefore, when life becomes too traumatic, emotional development
can come to a screeching halt, although physical and
cognitive processes may continue at a normal pace.
a. skip

b. become fixated at

c. ignore

d. a and c
An expert who has reviewed the literature on TV and violence
would conclude that:
a. watching violence tends to make children more aggressive.

Experiments have demonstrated that even nursery school age
children display more violent behavior after observing violence.
Other researchers emphasize that the more we see, hear, and
read about violence, the less it bothers us; ergo, we behave in a
more violent manner.
a. watching violence tends to make children more aggressive.

b. watching violence tends to make children less aggressive.

c. in reality TV has no impact on a child’s behavior.

d. what adults see as violent, children perceive as caring.
A counselor who utilizes the term instinctual technically means:
d. behavior that manifests itself in all normal members of a
given species.

Instincts are innate behaviors that do not need to be practiced or
learned. Instincts are not learned behavioral responses.
a. behavior results from unconscious aggression.

b. women will show the behavior to a higher degree than

c. a and b.

d. behavior that manifests itself in all normal members of a
given species.
The word ethology, which is often associated with the work of
Konrad Lorenz, refers to:
b. the study of animals’ behavior in their natural environment.

The study of ethology was developed by European zoologists
who tried to explain behavior using Darwinian theory. Today,
when counselors refer to ethology, it concerns field research utilizing
animals (e.g., birds or fish). The term comparative psychology
refers to laboratory research using animals and attempts to
generalize the findings to humans. Konrad Lorenz is best known
for his work on the process of imprinting, an instinctual behavior
in goslings and other animals in which the infant instinctively
follows the first moving object it encounters, which is usually
the mother. Lorenz used himself as the first moving object, and
the newborn geese followed him around instead of following the
real mother! This illustrates the principle of “critical periods,”
which states that certain behaviors must be learned at an early
time in the animal’s development. Otherwise, the behaviors will
never be learned at all. Just for the record, choice “c” mentions
Burrhus Frederic Skinner’s air crib, which was a relatively bacteria-
free, covered crib that Skinner relied on to help raise his
daughter! Skinner is famous for his operant conditioning model.
It will be examined in greater depth in future questions.
a. Piaget’s famous case study methodology.

b. the study of animals’ behavior in their natural environment.

c. studies on monkeys raised in Skinnerian air cribs.

d. all of the above.
A child who focuses exclusively on a clown’s red nose but ignores
his or her other features would be illustrating the Piagetian concept
b. centration.

Centration occurs in the preoperational stage and is characterized by focusing on a key feature of a given object while not
noticing the rest of it. Egocentrism in choice “a” refers to the
preoperational child’s inability to see the world from anyone else’s vantage point. Piaget and Inhelder showed children a model mountain from all sides. The children then sat in front of the model and were asked to pick a picture that best described what the experimenter was seeing. The experimenter was sitting in a different location. Children continually picked pictures of their own view. The abstract reasoning in choice “c” takes place
in the final formal operational stage. Deductive thinking processes in choice “d” allow an individual to apply general reasoning to specific situations.
a. egocentrism.

b. centration.

c. formal abstract reasoning.

d. deductive processes.
Piaget felt:
d. teachers should lecture less, as children in concrete operations
learn best via their own actions and experimentation.

The only correct answer is “d” inasmuch as Piaget felt that before
the final stage (i.e., formal operations, which begins at age
11 or 12) a child learns best from his or her own actions, not
lectures, and his or her interactions and communications with
peers rather than adults. Piaget, nevertheless, was quick to point
out that he did not consider himself an educator but rather a
genetic epistemologist. Epistemology is a branch of philosophy
that attempts to examine how we know what we know. William
Glasser in choice “b” is the Father of reality therapy.
a. homework depresses the elementary child’s IQ.

b. strongly that the implementation of Glasser’s concepts in Schools Without Failure should be made mandatory in all elementary settings.

c. that teachers should lecture a minimum of four hours

d. teachers should lecture less, as children in concrete operations
learn best via their own actions and experimentation.
Piaget’s preoperational stage:
c. includes the acquisition of a symbolic schema.

Symbolic mental processes allow language and symbolism in
play to occur. A milk carton can easily become a spaceship or a
pie plate can become the steering wheel of an automobile. The
preoperational stage occurs from age 2 to 7. If you erroneously
felt any of the other choices were correct review all the previous
questions related to Piagetian theory.
a. is the final stage, which includes abstract reasoning.

b. includes mastering conservation.

c. includes the acquisition of a symbolic schema.

d. all of the above.
Sigmund Freud and Erik Erikson agreed that:
a. each developmental stage needed to be resolved before
an individual could move on to the next stage.

Freud felt the stages were psychosexual and his disciple Erikson felt they were psychosocial, yet both agreed that individuals must resolve one stage before forging on to the next. Another well-known figure in developmental processes is R. J. Havinghurst, who proposed developmental tasks for infancy and early childhood (e.g., learning to walk or eat solid foods); tasks
for middle childhood, ages 6 to 12 years (e.g., learning to get along with peers or developing a conscience); tasks of adolescence,
ages 12 to 18 years (e.g., preparing for marriage and an economic career); tasks of early adulthood ages, 19 to 30 years (e.g., selecting a mate and starting a family); tasks of middle age ages, 30 to 60 years (e.g., assisting teenage children to become responsible adults and developing leisure time activities); and tasks of later maturity, age 60 and beyond (e.g., dealing with the death of a spouse and adjusting to retirement). Another popular stage theorist is Jane Loevinger,
who focused on ego development via seven stages and two transitions, the highest level being “integrated” (being similar to
Maslow’s self-actualized individual or Kohlberg’s self-accepted universal principles stage).
a. each developmental stage needed to be resolved before
an individual could move on to the next stage.

b. developmental stages are primarily psychosexual.

c. developmental stages are primarily psychosocial.

d. a person can proceed to a higher stage even if a lower
stage is unsolved.
69. The tendency for adult females in the United States to wear high
heels is best explained by:
b. sex role socialization.

In the past the belief was that the differences between men
and women were the result of biological factors. However, most
counselors today feel that the child “learns” gender identity and
male/female roles. Sandra Bem has spoken out against gender
stereotyping (e.g., a woman’s place is in the home), and feels
when males and females are not guided by traditional sex roles
individuals can be more androgynous and hence more productive.
Choice “a,” negative reinforcement, is a behavioristic term.
Negative reinforcement occurs when the removal of a stimulus
increases the probability that an antecedent behavior will occur.
Never forget: All reinforcers—positive and negative—increase
the probability that a behavior will occur. In positive
reinforcement the addition of a stimulus strengthens or increases
a behavior. If you still don’t understand, relax, there’s plenty
more in the “Helping Relationships” section of this guide.
a. the principle of negative reinforcement.

b. sex role socialization.

c. Konrad Lorenz’s studies on imprinting.

d. ethological data.
The sequence of object loss, which goes from protest to despair to detachment, best describes the work of:
d. Bowlby.

In psychoanalysis the term object describes the target of one’s
love. Bowlby felt that if the child was unable to bond with an
adult by age 3 he or she would be incapable of having normal
social relationships as an adult.
a. Freud.

b. Adler on birth order.

c. Erikson.

d. Bowlby.
A counselor who is seeing a 15-year-old boy who is not doing well in public speaking class would need to keep in mind that:
d. b and c.

The correct response is “d,” since choices “b” and “c” are both
accurate according to research of Maccoby and Jacklin. Although I previously stated that most sex-role differences are the result
of learning, not biological factors, the tendency for boys to be more aggressive is probably one of the behavioral differences which can be attributed to androgen hormone. Actually, this is a very tricky question indeed. Assuming you could separate fact from male/female fiction, you still might have marked choice “b” feeling that choice “c” was irrelevant in terms of counseling the client. My feeling is that “c” nevertheless is relevant since you might wish to emphasize positive qualities that the client possesses.

Thus, if you marked choice “b,” give yourself a grade of A-, or convince yourself that I’m just plain wrong. After all, that’s what makes baseball games, political elections, oral and written boards, or even licensing and certification exams. Of course, since you’re dealing with your perfectionism in a rational manner, it really won’t matter now, will it?
a. in general, boys have better verbal skills than girls.

b. in general, girls possess better verbal skills than boys.

c. in general, boys possess better visual–perceptual skills
and are more active and aggressive than girls.

d. b and c.
Two brothers begin screaming at each other during a family
counseling session. The term that best describes the phenomenon
c. sibling rivalry.

In counseling, sibling rivalry refers to competition between siblings
(i.e., a brother and a brother, a brother and a sister, or a sister and a sister). The “primal scene” noted in choice “a” is a psychoanalytic concept that suggests that a young child witnesses his parents having sexual intercourse or is seduced by a parent. The incident, whether real or imagined, is said to provide
impetus for later neuroses. Choice “b” is also an analytic term and is known as the “foreconscious” in some textbooks.

The preconscious mind is deeper than the conscious but not
as deep as the unconscious. Preconscious material is not conscious but can be recalled without the use of special psychoanalytic techniques. This will be examined in more detail in the “Helping Relationship” section. The final choice, BASIC-ID, is an acronym posited by behaviorist Arnold Lazarus who feels his approach to counseling is multimodal, relying on a variety of
therapeutic techniques. BASIC-ID stands for: Behavior, Affective
Responses, Sensations, Imagery, Cognitions, Interpersonal Relationships, and Drugs.
a. the primal scene.

b. preconscious psychic processes.

c. sibling rivalry.

A preschool child’s concept of causality is said to be animistic.
This means the child attributes human characteristics to inanimate
objects. Thus, the child may fantasize that an automobile
or a rock is talking to him. This concept is best related to:
c. Piaget’s preoperational period, age 2 to 7 years.

Animism occurs when a child acts as if nonliving objects have lifelike abilities and tendencies. Choice "a” mentions two concepts of the Swiss psychiatrist C. G. Jung, the father of analytic psychology. The anima represents the female characteristics of the personality while the animus represents the male characteristics.

(Two super memory devices are that men generally have muscles [“animus”] and ma means mother, who is female [“anima”].) Jung calls the anima and the animus “archetypes,” which are inherited unconscious factors. Choice “b,” wish fulfillment, is a Freudian notion that dreams and slips of the tongue are actually wish fulfillments. The term ego identity, used in choice “d,” is most often associated with Erikson’s fifth stage:

identity versus role confusion. When an adolescent is able to
integrate all his or her previous roles into a single self-concept,
the person has achieved ego identity. An inability to accomplish
this task results in role confusion, which is known as an identity
a. Carl Jung’s concepts of anima, animus.

b. Freud’s wish fulfillment.

c. Piaget’s preoperational period, age 2 to 7 years.

d. ego identity.
Elementary school counseling and guidance services:
c. are a fairly new development which did not begin to gain
momentum until the 1960s.

Choice “a” would be true for secondary school counseling and
guidance fueled by the work of Frank Parsons. Secondary school
counseling services increased rapidly in the 1960s. Now let’s
turn our attention to elementary school counseling. Three key
reasons have been cited for the slow development of elementary
school counseling. First, the majority of people
believed that schoolteachers could double as counselors.
Second, counseling was conceptualized as focusing
on vocational issues. This would not be a primary issue
in the elementary years. Finally, secondary schools utilized
social workers and psychologists who would intervene
if emotional problems were still an issue as the child
got older. In the 1980s some state departments of education
made elementary school counselors mandatory and needless
to say the number of jobs in this area flourished. Surprisingly,
middle-school/junior high counseling is an even more recent
phenomenon than elementary school counseling. Except for the
fact that these children (ages 10 to 14, also known as bubblegummers!)
experience more anxiety than their elementary or high
school counterparts, we know less about this population than
any other in the K-12 system. There are over 100,000 school
counselors in the United States.
a. have been popular since the early 1900s.
b. became popular during World War II.
c. are a fairly new development which did not begin to gain
momentum until the 1960s.
d. none of the above.
Research related to elementary school counselors indicates that:
b. these counselors are effective, do make a difference in
children’s lives, and more counselors should be employed.

In reference to choice “c” elementary counselors do indeed perform a host of useful consultation services with teachers and other professionals. Elementary school counseling has been defined as the only organized profession to work with individuals from a purely preventive and developmental standpoint. Let’s hear it for all those wonderful elementary school counselors out there!
a. counselors of this ilk work hard, but just don’t seem to
have an impact on youngsters’ lives.

b. these counselors are effective, do make a difference in
children’s lives, and more counselors should be employed.

c. counselors of this ilk could be helpful if they would engage
in more consultation work.

d. should be used primarily as disciplinarians, but this is not
happening in most districts.
According to the Yale research by Daniel J. Levinson:
d. b and c.

Levinson and his colleagues were surprised to discover that adult developmental transitions in white-collar and blue-collar men seemed to be relatively universal. Sheehy has pointed out that both men and women tend to experience typical crises, or
so-called “passages,” and each passage can be utilized to reach
one’s potential.
a. Erikson’s generativity versus stagnation stage simply
doesn’t exist.

b. Eighty percent of the men in the study experienced moderate
to severe midlife crises.

c. an “age 30 crisis” occurs in men when they feel it will soon
be too late to make later changes.

d. b and c.
Erikson’s middle age stage (ages 35–60) is known as generativity
versus stagnation. Generativity refers to:
d. all of the above.

Choice “d” gives you a thumbnail sketch of Erikson’s seventh, or
second-to-last, stage. A person who does not master this stage
well becomes self-centered; hence, you also will see the stage
termed “generativity versus self-absorption.” A nice memory
device here is that “generativity” sounds like “generation” and a
successful individual in this stage plans for the next generation.
Havinghurst, mentioned earlier, would refer to this stage as the
middle adult years (he also mentions young adult and old adult
periods). Havinghurst feels that the middle adult should achieve
civic responsibility, maintain a home, guide adolescents, develop
leisure, adjust to bodily changes, and learn to relate to a spouse.
Good advice, but if it seems a little dated, it is; 1952 vintage. The
1950s were the golden years for developmental psychology.
a. the ability to do creative work or raise a family.

b. the opposite of stagnation.

c. the productive ability to create a career, family, and leisure

d. all of the above.
A person who can look back on his or her life with few regrets
b. ego-integrity in Erikson’s integrity versus despair stage.

According to Erikson, successful resolution of this stage results
in the belief that one’s life served a purpose. Choice “a” introduces the term senile psychosis, which is decidedly incorrect but a relevant term nevertheless. The word psychosis refers to a break from reality which can include hallucinations, delusions,
and thought disorders. In senile psychosis this condition is brought on via old age. At times, the term will be used in a looser sense to imply a loss of memory. Choice “d” throws out two other “must-know” new terms. In counseling, anxiety (or generalized anxiety) refers to fear, dread, or apprehension without
being able to pinpoint the exact reason for the feeling. Anxiety
is in contrast to a phobia, in which the client can pinpoint the cause or source of fear (e.g., riding an elevator). The DSM is a manual used to classify and label mental disorders so that
all mental health practitioners will mean roughly the same thing
(i.e., regarding symptomatology, etc.) when they classify a client.
The branch of medicine which concerns itself with the classification of disease is known as “nosology.” Thus counselors use the DSM as their primary nosological guide.
a. the burden of senile psychosis.

b. ego-integrity in Erikson’s integrity versus despair stage.

c. despair, which is the sense that he or she has wasted life’s
precious opportunities.

d. the burden of generalized anxiety as described in the Diagnostic
and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, published
by the American Psychiatric Association (DSM).
Sensorimotor is to Piaget as oral is to Freud, and as _______ is
to Erikson.
c. trust versus mistrust

This is the analogy question mentioned earlier, and identifying
the correct answer is actually quite simple. The question matches Piaget’s name to his first stage (i.e., sensorimotor) and Freud’s name to his first stage (i.e., oral). Thus you will match Erikson’s name to his first stage, which is trust versus mistrust. Play therapy choice “d” and art therapy is often preferable to
traditional counseling and therapy because cultural differences
have less impact on these types of intervention.
a. integrity versus despair

b. Kohlberg

c. trust versus mistrust

d. play therapy
80. Which theorist was most concerned with maternal deprivation?
b. H. Harlow

Harry Harlow was born in 1905 and died in 1981. He is best
known for his work with rhesus monkeys at the University of
Wisconsin. Choice “c” mentions Joseph Wolpe, who pioneered
the technique of systematic desensitization, a behavioristic technique
used to ameliorate phobic reactions. Albert Ellis (Choice
“d”) is a New York clinical psychologist who developed a form
of treatment known as Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy
(REBT), which teaches clients to think in a more scientific and
logical manner. Ellis was originally trained as an analyst and is a
very prolific writer.
a. A. Lazarus

b. H. Harlow

c. J. Wolpe

d. A. Ellis
When development comes to a halt, counselors say that the client:
c. suffers from fixation.

This is primarily an analytic concept. Freud felt that frustration
and anxiety are normal when passing through a developmental
stage, but when they become too powerful emotional growth will
literally stop and the person becomes stuck (fixated) in the current
stage. Learned helplessness in choice “a” connotes a pattern
in which a person is exposed to situations that he or she is truly
powerless to change and then begins to believe he or she has no
control over the environment. Such a person can become easily
depressed. This concept is generally associated with the work
of Martin E. P. Seligman, who experimentally induced learned
helplessness in dogs via giving them electric shocks while placed
in a harness. These dogs—unlike untrained dogs—did not even
try to escape the painful shocks when the harnesses were removed.
Choice “b” is phobia, which is a known fear, such as a
fear of furry animals or flying in an airplane. Key exam hint: In
counseling, a phobia is often distinguished from anxiety.
In an anxiety reaction, the client is unaware of the source
of the fear. The final choice, risky shift phenomenon, describes the fact that a group decision is typically more liberal than the
average decision of an individual group member prior to participation
in the group. Simply put, the individual’s initial stance will
generally be more conservative than the group’s decision.
a. has “learned helplessness” syndrome.

b. suffers from a phobia.

c. suffers from fixation.

d. is displaying the risky shift phenomenon.
Kohlberg proposed three levels of morality. Freud, on the other hand, felt morality developed from the:
a. superego.

Eric Berne, the father of Transactional Analysis, put Freudian
lingo in everyday language and spoke of the Parent ego state,
which is roughly equivalent to the superego. The Parent ego
state is filled with the shoulds, oughts, and musts which often
guide our morality.
a. superego.

b. ego.

c. id.

d. eros.
Which theorist would be most likely to say that aggression is an inborn tendency?
d. Konrad Lorenz

Bad news, folks; Konrad Lorenz compared us to the wolf or the baboon and claimed that we are naturally aggressive. According
to Lorenz, aggressiveness is part of our evolution and was necessary for survival. The solution according to Lorenz is
for us to utilize catharsis and get our anger out, using methods
such as competitive sports.

Choices “a” and “c” cite two of the
most influential names in the history of counseling. Carl Ransom
Rogers created nondirective counseling, later called client-centered counseling, and more recently, person-centered counseling.

Frank Parsons has been called the father of guidance.

In the early 1900s Parsons set up centers to help individuals in
search of work.
a. Carl Rogers

b. B. F. Skinner

c. Frank Parsons, the Father of Guidance

d. Konrad Lorenz
The statement, “Bad behavior is punished, good behavior is not,”
is most closely associated with:
a. Kohlberg’s premoral stage at the preconventional level.

In the initial stage, morality is guided by a fear of punishment.
Choice “d” is concerned with the Piagetian conceptualization of moral development. Piaget suggested two major stages: the
heteronomous stage and the autonomous stage, which begins at approximately age 10. Heteronomous morality occurs between ages 4 and 7, when the child views rules as absolutes that result in punishment. Autonomous morality is characterized by the child’s perception that rules are relative and can be altered or changed.
a. Kohlberg’s premoral stage at the preconventional level.

b. Kohlberg’s conventional level.

c. the work of Carl Jung.

d. Piaget’s autonomous stage, which begins at about age 8.
A critical period:
d. a and c.

A critical period is a time when an organism is susceptible to a
specific developmental process. A critical period marks the importance of heredity and environment on development. In humans, for example, language acquisition is thought to begin at
around age 2 and ends at about age 14.
a. makes imprinting possible.
b. emphasizes manifest dream content.
c. signifies a special time when a behavior must be learned
or the behavior won’t be learned at all.
d. a and c.
Imprinting is an instinct in which a newborn will follow a moving
object. The primary work in this area was done by:
c. Konrad Lorenz.

Some behavioral scientists refer to instinctual behavior as “species-
specific,” meaning that the behavioral trait occurs in every
member of the species. The behavior is unlearned and universal.
a. Erik Erikson.

b. Milton H. Erickson.

c. Konrad Lorenz.

d. Harry Harlow.
Marital satisfaction:
b. often decreases with parenthood and is lowest prior to a child leaving home.

Despite a divorce rate of nearly 50% in the United States, most Americans still desire to marry.
a. is usually highest when a child is old enough to leave

b. often decreases with parenthood and is lowest prior to a child leaving home.

c. correlates high with performance IQ.

d. is highest among couples who have seven or more college-
educated children.
Maslow, a humanistic psychologist, is famous for his “hierarchy of needs,” which postulates:
a. lower-order physiological and safety needs and higher-order
needs, such as self-actualization.

Answers “b,” “c,” and “d” are necessarily incorrect inasmuch as
Abraham Maslow rejected both analytic psychology and behaviorism; he felt they dehumanized men and women. Maslow’s theory has been dubbed “humanistic psychology,” or a “third force” psychology. Maslow felt the person first needs to satisfy immediate or basic needs such as food and water. Next, safety and security must be dealt with. Next, a need for love, affection, and belonging emerges. The highest level is termed self-actualization, meaning the person becomes all he or she can be. A
word to the wise: Some tests may refer to higher-order needs
(i.e., any need which is not physiological) as “metaneeds.”
a. lower-order physiological and safety needs and higher-order
needs, such as self-actualization.

b. that psychopathology rests within the id.

c. that unconscious drives control self-actualization.

d. that stimulus-response psychology dictates behavioral attributes.
To research the dilemma of self-actualization, Maslow:
d. interviewed the best people he could find who escaped “the psychology of the average.”

You didn’t mark choice “a,” did you? Imagine trying to learn about self-actualization from studying baby goslings!

No, Maslow didn’t utilize goslings, nor did he turn to persons with severe psychological problems. Maslow said if you research the “psychopathology of the average” you will have a sick theory of human behavior!

The answer: work with those who have transcended the so-called average or normal existence.
a. used goslings as did Konrad Lorenz.

b. psychoanalyzed over 400 neurotics.

c. worked exclusively with schizophrenics in residential settings.

d. interviewed the best people he could find who escaped “the psychology of the average.”
Piaget is:
c. a structuralist who believes stage changes are qualitative.

According to the structuralist viewpoint, each stage is a way of
making sense out of the world. Choice “d,” cognitive-behavioral,
generally applies to counselors who emphasize thought processes
in terms of their impact on emotions as well as behavioristic
strategies (e.g., reinforcement or homework assignments).
a. a maturationist.

b. a behaviorist.

c. a structuralist who believes stage changes are qualitative.

d. cognitive-behavioral.
_______ factors cause Down syndrome, which produces mental
b. Genetic

Persons with Down syndrome have a rather fl at face, a thick
tongue, and slanted eyes. Down syndrome, which is the result of a chromosomal abnormality (an additional chromosome or two),
causes brain damage which results in an IQ of 50 or less (100
is normal). Down syndrome also has been called “mongolism,”
which was inspired by the slanted, almost Asiatic eyes. Other genetic
or hereditary conditions include: Phenylketonuria (PKU), which is an amino acid metabolic difficulty that causes retardation unless the baby is placed on a special diet; Klinefelter’s syndrome, in which a male shows no masculinity at puberty; and Turner’s syndrome, where a female has no gonads or sex hormones.
a. Environmental

b. Genetic

c. Chemical dependency

d. Unconscious
Piaget referred to the act of taking in new information as assimilation.
This results in accommodation, which is a modification of the child’s cognitive structures (schemas) to deal with the new information. In Piagetian nomenclature, the balance between assimilation and accommodation is called:
b. equilibration.

Choice “a” refers to an experimental process in which a researcher varies the order of conditions to eliminate irrelevant
variables. Choice “c,” balance theory, suggests that individuals
avoid inconsistent or incompatible beliefs. In other words, people
prefer consistent beliefs. This is sometimes known as the tendency to maintain “cognitive consistency.”
ABA design, noted in choice “d,” is experimental and research lingo. The A stands for the baseline, which is the behavior before an experimental or treatment procedure is introduced. B is the treatment. After the treatment is implemented the occurrence of A (the behavior in question) is measured to see if a change is evident.
a. counterbalancing.

b. equilibration.

c. balance theory.

d. ABA design.
There are behavioral, structural, and maturational theories of
development. The maturational viewpoint utilizes the plant
growth analogy, in which the mind is seen as being driven by instincts while the environment provides nourishment, thus placing limits on development. Counselors who are maturationists
d. allow clients to work through early conflicts.

Counselors of this persuasion allow the client to work through the old painful material. Theoretically, the counselor acts almost like a perfect nonjudgmental parent. And thus the client can explore the situation in a safe, therapeutic relationship. Psychoanalysts and psychodynamic therapists fall into this category.
a. conduct therapy in the here-and-now.

b. focus primarily on nonverbal behavior.

c. believe group work is most effective.

d. allow clients to work through early conflicts.
Ritualistic behaviors, which are common to all members of a
species, are known as
c. fixed-action patterns elicited by sign stimuli.

Theoretically, a fixed-action pattern (abbreviated FAP) will result whenever a releaser in the environment is present. The action, or sequence of behavior, will not vary.
In choice “a” the word hysteria is presented. Hysteria is said to occur when an individual displays an organic symptom (e.g., blindness, paralysis, or deafness), yet no physiological causes are evident.
Choice “b,” pica, is a condition in which a person wishes to eat items that are not food (i.e., the item has no nutritional value), such as consuming a pencil or perhaps a watch band. Just in case you’re wondering, fast-food consumption is not considered a sign of pica in our society—yet!
a. hysteria.

b. pica.

c. fixed-action patterns elicited by sign stimuli.

d. dysfunctional repetition.
Robert Kegan speaks of a “holding environment” in counseling in which:
c. the client can make meaning in the face of a crisis and can find new direction.

Choice “d” is necessarily incorrect inasmuch as Kegan encourages
“meaning making.” Kegan suggests six stages of life span
development: incorporative, impulsive, imperial, interpersonal,
institutional, and interindividual.
a. the client is urged to relive a traumatic experience in an
encounter group.

b. biofeedback training is highly recommended.

c. the client can make meaning in the face of a crisis and can find new direction.

d. the activity of meaning making is discouraged.
Most experts in the field of counseling agree that:
a. no one theory completely explains developmental processes; thus, counselors ought to be familiar with all the
major theories.

Since each theorist’s work has a slant to it (e.g.,
Freud—psychosexual factors;
Kohlberg—moral factors;
Piaget—intellectual/ cognitive factors, etc.),

a well-rounded counselor will necessarily need a basic knowledge of all the popular theories.
a. no one theory completely explains developmental processes; thus, counselors ought to be familiar with all the
major theories.

b. Eriksonian theory should be used by counselors practicing
virtually any modality.

c. a counselor who incorporates Piaget’s stages into his or her thinking would not necessarily need knowledge of rival therapeutic viewpoints.

d. a realistic counselor needs to pick one developmental theory in the same manner he or she picks a psychotherapeutic persuasion.
Equilibration is:
d. the balance between what one takes in (assimilation) and
that which is changed (accommodation).

In case you haven’t caught on, I’m banking on the fact that repetition
can do wonders for your exam review. So one more time, just for the record: equilibration (or equilibrium) occurs when the child achieves a balance.

When new information is presented, which the child’s current cognitive structures, known as “schemas” cannot process, a condition referred to as “disequilibrium” sets in.

The child therefore changes the schemas to accommodate the novel information, and equilibration or equilibrium is
a. a term which emphasizes the equality between the sexes.

b. performed via the id according to the Freudians.

c. a synonym for concrete operational thought.

d. the balance between what one takes in (assimilation) and
that which is changed (accommodation).
98. A counselor is working with a family who just lost everything in
a fire. The counselor will ideally focus on:
c. Maslow’s lower-order needs, such as physiological and
safety needs.

Maslow, a pioneer in third force or humanistic psychology, suggested
the following hierarchy of needs: survival, security, safety, love, self-esteem, and self-actualization.

The assumption is that lower-order needs must be fulfilled before the individual can be
concerned with higher-order needs.
a. Maslow’s higher-order needs, such as self-actualization.

b. building accurate empathy of family members.

c. Maslow’s lower-order needs, such as physiological and
safety needs.

d. The identified patient.
The anal retentive personality is:
b. stingy.

To put it bluntly, the anal retentive character is said to be cheap!
a. charitable.

b. stingy.

c. kind.

d. thinks very little about money matters.
From a Freudian perspective, a client who has a problem with
alcoholism and excessive smoking would be:
a. considered an oral character.

Here is where good old common sense comes in handy. The oral
region of the body (i.e., the mouth) would be the portion of the body most closely related to smoking and alcoholism.
a. considered an oral character.

b. considered an anal character.

c. considered a genital character.

d. fixated at the latency stage.