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38 Cards in this Set

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What is the mode of analysis in geography?

Spatial perspective

What is the Structural definition for a cultural landscape?

Focus on human imprint on physical landscape, aka "built environment" which is shaped by cultural values and traditions

What is the Post-Structural definition for a cultural landscape?

Cultural landscape is a space or stage upon which human struggles and discourse are carried out, shaped by gender, class, age, power

Name the 5 unifying themes in geography


Place and Space

Nature/Society Relations



Name the kinds of location

Absolute- on a map, like latitude and longitude

Relative- relative to another location

Describe expansion diffusion

Hierarchical- idea moves slowly via word-of-mouth

Contagious- an idea becomes known to many people in a short amount of time



Define regions

Regions are a bounded segment of homogeneity in earth space, human constructions

What is an instituted region?

Instituted regions are created by an authority (eg government/business).They are usually are accepted by everyone, clearly demarcated, and consist of nested hierarchies (city-county-state)

What is a denoted region?

Created by academics to reduce the complexity of the real world via classification

Formal: homogeneous, not open to debate

Functional: places in region are tied to one central place by movement of people, ideas, things

What is a perceptual region?

Created informally. Boundaries are perceived, continuously changing because they are subjectively defined by perceptions

What are the characteristics of a mini-system?

Small geographic area and population

Many in history (tribes)

Use barter system (reciprocal lineage)

What are the characteristics of a world-empire?

Larger geographic area and population

Few in history

Defined by feudalism (re distributive-tributary)

What are the characteristics of a world-economy?

Huge in size and population

Only one in history

Defined by capitalism (money exchange)

What are the features of capitalist world-economy?

Single world market operating within capitalist logic (goal of ceaseless accumulation)

World market is split into state systems which creates competition

Three-tiered structure of stratification (core, semiperiphery, periphery)

What are the characteristics of core states?

-High income and standard of living

-Low population growth

-Stable government and large military

-Most work in service sector

Standard of Living

Pop. Growth



What are the characteristics of semiperipheral states?

-Middle standard of living and income

-Economies focused on industry and manufacturing

-Small but growing service sector (mostly outsourcing from core)

-Intense class struggles

-Major players in globalization

-Globalization upsetting traditional ways of life

Standard of Living

Pop. Growth



Ways of life

What are the characteristics of peripheral states?

-Low income and standard of living

-Economies focused on agriculture, mostly subsistence farming and exports to core

-Usually weak, ineffectual, often corrupt governments

-High population growth

Standard of Living

Pop. Growth



What is the Neolithic Revolution?

Agriculture, domestication of plants and animals

How, When, and Why did the Neolithic Revolution occur?

How- independent invention of agriculture in different areas of the world

When- 8000-12000 BC

Why- Unknown stressor (climate change, overpopulation)

What changes did the Neolithic Revolution bring about?

-City-state as the basic political unit

-Eventually created feudalism

-Written language, calendars

-Organized military and labor force

-Significant population increase

What is the Merchant-Capitalist Revolution

Capitalist production and trade heavily based on long-distant sea trade of agricultural products (coffee, sugar)from tropical areas

How, When, and Why did the Merchant-Capitalist Revolution occur?

How- Innovative new sailing technology

When- Appx. 1400

Why- The Black Death caused feudalism to become nonviable. Labor became scarce, peasants became powerful, eventually forming a middle class

What changes did the Merchant-Capitalist Revolution bring about?

-Emergence of middle class

-Rapid technological innovation

-Increased use of inanimate sources of energy (coal, water, wind)

-Creation of European-centered world-economy, Europe as core state

-Brought era of colonialism

What is the Industrial Revolution?

Rise of economies focused on heavy industry and manufacturing

How and When did the Industrial Revolution occur?

-Technological innovation

-Started in England in the mid-18th century

What changes did the Industrial Revolution bring about?

-Labor-saving production modes, increasing productivity

-Urban-centered, low-wage, low-skilled proletariat

-Assembly line production

-Increased wealth of core states

What is the Postmodern Revolution?

Today's world of internet and computers

How and When, did the Postmodern Revolution occur?

-Invention of personal computers


What changes is the Postmodern Revolution bringing about?


-Highly specialized jobs, decentralized production

-Rapid technological innovation

-Restructuring of economy- place-based division of labor

Name some major themes of Postmodern expression.


-No absolute truths

-Rejection of order

What is the traditional definition of culture?

Distinctive way of life that distinguishes one group of people from another, like language, beliefs, institutions, technology, traditions

What is the post-structural definition of culture?

A process that shapes values and traditions, which differs from person to person based on age, gender, ethnicity, etc.

What are the characteristics of a folk culture?

-Small, Rural

-Homogeneous in customs and traditions

-Conservative, based heavily on tradition

-Weak social stratification

-Nonmaterial traits (stories, religions) are more important than material traits (technology, institutions)

-Economies based on subsistence farming

What are the characteristics of a popular culture?

-Large, heterogeneous population

-Constantly changing, influenced by fads, mass communication

-Goods are mass produced

-Secular institutions (governments, corporations) control fads more than anything else

-More standardized

What are hip hop music's origins

-DJing- origins from Jamaican street parties

-MCing- rapping during drum breaks- Jamaican

-Break dancing- refers to dancing during drum breaks- Jamaican

Name the characteristics of Old School Hip Hop


-largely apolitical

-simple rapping techniques

-sampling- using popular hooks from funk and disco

-mainly east coast

Name the characteristics of the Golden Age of Hip Hop


-Much more political

-Often combined with other genres

-Afrocentric themes

-Emergence of new zones of hip hop- East coast/West coast feud

Name the characteristics of Postmodern Hip Hop

-International phenomenon

-Postmodernist themes- collage, deconstruction

-Increased use of traditional African American genres- blues, rock, gospel, jazz

-Further politicization