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69 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Evolution of populations within a species.

Microevolution
(Compare to Macroevolution)
Name three mechanisms of microevolution that cause populations to change through time.
1. natural selection
2. mutation
3. genetic drift
Name the three things that microevolution in a population affects.
1. morphology
2. physiology
3. behavior of a particular species in a particular environment
Type of evolution that refers to how new species and higher taxa are created.
Macroevolution
(Compare to microevolution)
What type of evolution is responsible for variation in the size and shape of the beaks of medium ground finches on Daphne Major.
Microevolutionary Processes
What type of theory tells how new species, genera, families and higher groupings come into existence?
Evolutionary Theory


(Chapter 4, p. 86)
T or F:
Biologists disagree on how to define a species, however, species can usually be distinguished by their behavior and morphology.
True


(Chapter 4, p.86)
A group of organisms classified together at the lowest level of the taxonomic hierarchy.
species


(Chapter 4, p. 86)
Individual organisms that belong to a _________ are similar to each other and are usually quite distinct from the members of other _________.
species, species


(Chapter 4, p. 86)
Name two widely held points of view or concepts on how species should be defined.

1. The biological species concept
2. The ecological species concept


(Chapter 4, p. 87)

The ________ ________ concept defines a species as a group of interbreeding organisms that are reproductively isolated from other organisms.
biological species


(Chapter 4, p. 87)
T or F:
Most zoologists believe in the biological species concept.
True


(Chapter 4, p. 87)
________ _________ means that members of a given group of organisms do not mate successfully with organisms outside the group.
Reproductive isolation


(Chapter 4, p. 87)
What is the term for the movement of genetic material within parts of a population or from one population to another, that tends to maintain similarities among members of the same species?
gene flow


(Chapter 4, p. 87)
T or F:
Reproductive isolation prevents species from genetically blending.
True


(Chapter 4, p. 87)
What concept emphasizes the role of natural selection in in creating and maintaining species?
Ecological species concept


(Chapter 4, p.88)
Name some criticisms of the biological species concept.

Gene flow is neither necessary nor sufficient to maintain species boundaries in every case:
- species boundaries are often maintained even when there are substantial amounts of gene flow between species.

- a number of species have maintained their coherence with no gene flow between isolated subpopulations

- asexual organisms provide additional evidence species can be maintained without gene flow

(Chapter 4, p. 89-90)

Why is speciation difficult to study empirically?
New species usually evolve too slowly for any single individual to study the entire process and speciation usually occurs much too rapidly to to be detected in the fossil record.

(Chapter 4, p. 91)
T or F:
If geographic or environmental barriers isolate part of a population, and selection favors different phenotypes in these regions, then a new species may evolve.
True


(Chapter 4, p. 91)
This type of speciation occurs when a population is divided by some type of barrier and different parts of the population adapt to different environments.
Allopatric speciation


(Chapter 4, p. 91)
Name three processes that may increase the degree of reproductive isolation and facilitate the formation of a new species.
- hybrids may have reduced viability, either because genetic incompatabilities have arisen during isolation or because hybrid bird are unable to compete for food.

- character displacement

- reinforcement

(Chapter 4, p. 92-93)
This process may increase the degree of reproductive isolation and facilitate the formation of a new species if competition over food, mates, or other resources increases the morphological differences between the immigrants and the residents.
character displacement


(Chapter 4, p. 93)
The process in which selection acts against the likelihood of hybrids occurring between members of two phenotypically distinctive populations, leading to the evolution of mechanisms that prevent interbreeding.
reinforcement


(Chapter 4, p. 93)
________ speciation requires a physical barrier that initially isolates part of a population, interrupts gene flow, and allows the isolated subpopulation to diverge from the original population under the influence of natural selection.
allopatric speciation

(compare to parapatric speciation and sympatric speciation)


(Chapter 4, p. 94)
T or F:
New species may form if there is strong selection that favors two different phenotypes.
True


(Chapter 4, p. 95)
This type of speciation holds that selection alone is not sufficient to produce a new species, but new species can be formed if selection is combined with partial genetic isolation.
parapatric speciation

(compare to allopatric speciation and sympatric speciation)

(Chapter 4, p. 95)
_________ _________ is a two-step process of speciation in which (1) selection causes the differentiation of geographically separate, partially isolated populations of a species and (2) subsequently the populations become reproductively isolated as a result of reinforcement.
parapatric speciation

(compare to allopatric speciation and sympatric speciation)

(Chapter 4, p. 95)
At habitat boundaries, animals that come from different habitats and have different characteristics may mate and create a ________ ________.
hybrid zone


(Chapter 4, p. 95)
T or F:
Study of hybrid zones in a wide variety of species suggests that hybrids are usually less fit than nonhybrids.
True


(Chapter 4, p. 95)
This type of speciation contends that strong selection favoring different phenotypes can lead to speciation even when there is no geographic separation, and therefore initially there is extensive gene flow among individuals in the population.
sympatric speciation

(compare to allopatric speciation and parapatric speciation)

(Chapter 4, p. 95)
________ _________ is a hypothesis that speciation can result from selective pressures favoring different phenotypes within a population, without positing geographic isolation as a factor.
sympatric speciation

(compare to allopatric speciation and parapatric speciation)

(Chapter 4, p. 95)
T or F:
Adaptive radiation occurs when all niches are filled.
False
Adaptive Radiation occurs when there are many empty niches.

(Chapter 4, p. 96)
T or F:
Adaptive radiation occurs when all niches are filled.
False
Adaptive Radiation occurs when there are many empty niches.

(Chapter 4, p. 96)
When a single kind of animal or plant diversifies to fill many available niches, the process is called _______ _______.
adaptive radiation


(Chapter 4, p. 96)
When a single kind of animal or plant diversifies to fill many available niches, the process is called _______ _______.
adaptive radiation


(Chapter 4, p. 96)
T or F:
Adaptive radiation occurs when all niches are filled.
False
Adaptive Radiation occurs when there are many empty niches.

(Chapter 4, p. 96)
T or F:
One consequence of all three models of speciation (allopatric, parpatric and sympatric) is that the rate of speciation depends on the number of available ecological niches.
True


(Chapter 4, p. 96)
T or F:
One consequence of all three models of speciation (allopatric, parpatric and sympatric) is that the rate of speciation depends on the number of available ecological niches.
True


(Chapter 4, p. 96)
When a single kind of animal or plant diversifies to fill many available niches, the process is called _______ _______.
adaptive radiation


(Chapter 4, p. 96)
T or F:
One consequence of all three models of speciation (allopatric, parapatric and sympatric) is that the rate of speciation depends on the number of available ecological niches.
True


(Chapter 4, p. 96)
______ is the way of life, or "way of making a living" of a particular species -- what foods it eats and how the food is acquired.
niche


(Chapter 4, p. 96)
______ is the way of life, or "way of making a living" of a particular species -- what foods it eats and how the food is aquired.
niche


(Chapter 4, p. 96)
_______ explains why organisms can be classified hierarchially.
speciation


(Chapter 4, p. 97)
_______ explains why organisms can be classified hierarchially.
speciation


(Chapter 4, p. 97)
______ is the way of life, or "way of making a living" of a particular species -- what foods it eats and how the food is required.
niche


(Chapter 4, p. 96)
_______ explains why organisms can be classified hierarchially.
speciation


(Chapter 4, p. 97)
T or F:
Adaptive radiation occurs when all niches are filled.
False
Adaptive Radiation occurs when there are many empty niches.

(Chapter 4, p. 96)
When a single kind of animal or plant diversifies to fill many available niches, the process is called _______ _______.
adaptive radiation


(Chapter 4, p. 96)
T or F:
One consequence of all three models of speciation (allopatric, parpatric and sympatric) is that the rate of speciation depends on the number of available ecological niches.
True


(Chapter 4, p. 96)
______ is the way of life, or "way of making a living" of a particular species -- what foods it eats and how the food is required.
niche


(Chapter 4, p. 96)
_______ explains why organisms can be classified hierarchially.
speciation


(Chapter 4, p. 97)
T or F:
The fact that new species derive from existing species accounts for the existence of the patterns of nonadaptive similarity that allow organisms to be classified hierarchically.
True


(Chapter 4, p. 97)
________ is the evolutionary relationships among a group of species, usually diagrammed as a "family tree."
phylogeny


(Chapter 4, p.98)
________ is the evolutionary relationships among a group of species, usually diagrammed as a "family tree."
phylogeny


(Chapter 4, p.98)
________ are the evolutionary relationships among a group of species, usually diagrammed as a "family tree."
phylogeny


(Chapter 4, p.98)
________ are the evolutionary relationships among a group of species, usually diagrammed as a "family tree."
phylogeny


(Chapter 4, p.98)
________ are the evolutionary relationships among a group of species, usually diagrammed as a "family tree."
phylogeny


(Chapter 4, p.98)
________ are the evolutionary relationships among a group of species, usually diagrammed as a "family tree."
phylogeny


(Chapter 4, p.98)
________ are the evolutionary relationships among a group of species, usually diagrammed as a "family tree."
phylogeny


(Chapter 4, p.98)
________ are the evolutionary relationships among a group of species, usually diagrammed as a "family tree."
phylogeny


(Chapter 4, p.98)
________ are the evolutionary relationships among a group of species, usually diagrammed as a "family tree."
phylogeny


(Chapter 4, p.98)
________ is the superfamily that includes apes and humans.
hominoids


(Chapter 4, p.98)
T or F:
It is important to realize that when two daughter species diverge from each other, they don't differ in all phenotypic details.
True
A few traits may differ while most others retain their original form.

(Chapter 4, p.98)
T or F:
We expect to see the greatest divergence in those traits that are related to making a living in different habitats and to choosing mates.
True


(Chapter 4, p.99)
T or F:
Each time one species splits to become two, the new daughter species will differ in some way and the two lineages will evolve independently.
True


(Chapter 4, p. 99)
T or F:
In general, species that have recently diverged will have more characteristics in common with one another than with species that diverged in the more distant past.
True


(Chapter 4, p. 99)
Name three ways reconstructing phylogenies plays an important role in the study of evolution.
1. Phylogenies is the basis for the identification and classification of organisms.

2. Knowing phylogenetic reationships often helps explain why a species evolved certain adaptations and not others.

3. We can deduce the function of morphological features or behaviors by comparing the traits of different species.

(Chapter 4, p. 100)
________ is the use of phylogenetic relationships to name organisms and arrange them into hierarchies.
taxonomy

(Chapter 4, p. 100)
T or F:
Natural selection creates new species by modifying existing body structures to perform new functions.
True


(Chapter 4, p. 100)