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86 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
During the first two years, what are the 2 related aspects of personalty development?
Close ties to others and a sense of self
Erikson believed that a healthy outcome during infancy depends on the quality of what?
Relieving discomfort, waiting patiently until baby has had enough milk, and weaning when the infants shows less interest in breast or bottle.
Care giving
In Erikson's theory, the psychological conflict of infancy, which is resolved positively when the balance of care is sympathetic and loving
Basic trust vs mistrust
Explains an infant who expects the world to be good and gratifying, so he feels confident about venturing and exploring
Trusting infant
Explains an infant who cannot count on the kindness and compassion of others, so she protects herself by withdrawing from people and things around her
Basic mistrust
In Erikson's theory, the psychological conflict of toddlerhood, which is resolved favorably when parents provide young children with suitable guidance and reasonable choices
Autonomy vs Shame and doubt
Basic trust and autonomy grow out of warm, sensitive parenting and reasonable expectations for impulse control starting when?
In the second year
How will an infants outcome be if a parent is over- or undercontrolling?
The child will feel forced and shamed or will doubt his ability to control his impulses and act competently on his own
Happiness, interest, surprise, fear, anger, sadness, and disgust.
Universal in humans and other primates and have a long evolutionary history of promoting survival
Basic emotions
Expressed first in blissful smiles and later through exuberant laughter
Between 6 and 10 weeks, parents communication evokes this broad grin
The social smile
When does laughter appear?
3-4 months
Expressions of what (responses to pain, removal of object, brief separation) are less frequent than anger
What is condition that impairs all aspects of development?
When caregiver- infant communication is seriously damaged
What two basic emotions rise during the second half of the first year?
Anger and fear
The most frequent expression of fear.
A response to unfamiliar adults
Stranger anxiety
A point from which to explore, venturing into the environment and then returning for emotional support.
Babies use their familiar caregiver
Secure base
Encounters with strangers lead to 2 conflicting tendencies. What are they?
Approach ( indicated by interest and friendliness) and
Avoidance (indicated by fear)
Feeling happy or sad when babies sense these emotions in others.
Fairly automatic.
Emotional contagion
According to emotional contagion, infants start to view others as this.
An awareness belived to lay the foundation for understanding others' thought and feelings
"like me"
Begins at 8-10 months.
When infants actively seek emotional info from a trusted person in and uncertain situation.
Helps young children move beyond simply reacting to others' emotional messages
Social referencing
Humans are capable of a second, higher order set of feelings.
These include guilt, shame, embarrassment, envy, and pride.
Each involves injury to or enhancement of our sense of self
Self-conscious emotions
When do self- conscious emotions appear?
end of second year- 18-24 months
Besides self- awareness, self- conscious emotions require an additional ingredient. what is it?
Adult interaction in when to feel proud, ashamed, or guilty
Refers to the strategies we use to adjust our emotional state to a comfortable level of intensity so we can accomplish our goals.
Emotional self- regulation
Requires voluntary, effortful management of emotions.
Emotional self-regulation
What is the outcome when parents respond angrily or wait to intervene until the infant has become extremely agitated?
They reinforce the baby's rapid rise to intense distress and may result in an anxious,reactive child with a reduced capacity for regulating emotion
When parents are emotionally sympathetic but set limits (don't give in to temper tantrums), and suggest better ways to handle refusals, children acquire what in their preschool years?
More effective anger regulation strategies and social skills
Early appearing, stable individual differences in reactivity and self-regulation
Refers to the quickness and intensity of emotional arousal, attention, and motor activity
Refers to strategies that modify a reactivity
When describing someone as cheerful and up-beat, or active and energetic, or calm, cautious, and prone to anger, we are describing what?
What to researchers' nine dimensions served as the first influential model of temperament?
Thomas and Chess's
What are the three types of children?
Easy child, difficult child, and slow to warm up child
A child that is quickly to establish regular routines in infancy, is generally cheerful, and adapts easily to new experiences is said to be what kind of child?
Includes 40% of children
Easy child
When a child has irregular routines, is slow to accept new experiences, and tends to react negatively and intensely, is said to be what kind of child?
Includes 10% of children
Difficult child
When a child is inactive, shows mild, low key reactions to environmental stimuli, has a negative mood, and adjusts slowly to new experiences, is said to be what kind of child?
Includes 15% of children
Slow to warm up child
How many children did not fit into any of the types of children categories?
They showed unique blends of temperamental characteristics
The capacity to voluntarily suppress a dominant response in order to plan and execute a more adaptive response.
The self regulatory dimension of temperament
Effortful control
Children who react negatively to and withdraw from novel stimuli
Inhibited, shy, children
Children who display positive emotion to and approach novel stimuli
Uninhibited, sociable, children
At what age do children improve substantially on tasks requiring effortful control?
2.5-3 years
What type of children (inhibited/uninhibited) experience high heart rates, stress hormones, and stress symptoms?
They also have higher right hemisphere frontal cortex activity
Inhibited, shy children
What type of children (inhibited/uninhibited) experience lower heart rates, stress hormones, and stress symptoms?
They also have higher left hemisphere frontal cortex activity.
Uninhibited, sociable children
How does temperament develop and after what age is it a better indicator?
Develops with age, after age 3
On average, how many individual differences have been attributed to differences in genetic make up?
Which sex is more active and daring, more irritable when frustrate, and more impulsive?
Nutrition, care giving, cultural variations, gender stereotyping, and role of siblings are all examples of what?
Environmental influences on temperament
Describes how temperament and environment together can produce favorable outcomes.
Involves creating child rearing environments that recognize each child's temperament while encouraging more adaptive functioning
Goodness-of-fit model
The strong affectionate tie we have with special people in our lives that leads us to feel pleasure when we interact with them and to be comforted by their nearness in times of stress.
In Erikson's theory,which perspective regards feeding as the primary contexts in which caregivers and babies build attachment?
Psychoanalytic Perspective
A theory that recognizes the infant's emotional tie to the caregiver as an evolved response that promotes survival.
The most widely accepted view
Ethological theory of attachment
What are the four phases of attachment?
Preattahcment phase
Attachment-in-the-making phase
Clear- cut attachment
Formation of a reciprocal relationship
An attachment phase from birth to 6 weeks.
Includes built in signals, like grasping, smiling, crying, and gazing into the adult's eyes.
Helps being newborn babies into close contact with other humans, who comfort them
Preattachment Phase
A phase of attachment from 6 weeks to 6-8 months.
Infants respond differently to a familiar caregiver than to a stranger.
Infants will learn that their own actions affect the behavior of those around them, they begin to develop a sense of trust but they still do not protest when separated from her.
Attachment-in-the-making Phase
The expectation that the caregiver will respond when signaled
Sense of trust
Attachment phase from 6-8 months to 18 months.
Babies display separation anxiety depending of infant temperament and current situation.
Clear-cute attachment Phase
When babies become upset when their trusted caregiver leaves.
Increases between 6-15 months.
Separation anxiety
Phase of attachment from 18 months-2 years and on.
Rapid growth in representation and language permits toddlers to understand some of the factors that influence the parent's coming and going to predict her return.
Formation of reciprocal relationship
A set of expectations about the availability of attachment figures and the likelihood of providing support during times of stress.
Becomes a vital part of personalty serving as a guide for all future close relationships
Internal working model
A lab procedure designed by Mary Ainsworth,that assesses attachment between 1 and 2 years of age.
It takes the baby through 8 short episodes in which brief situations from and reunions with the parent occur in an unfamiliar playroom
Strange Situations
These infants use the parent as a secure base. When separated, they may or may not cry, but if they do, it's because the parent is absent and they prefer her over the stranger. When parent returns, that seek contact, and crying is reduced.
About 65% of infants
Secure Attachment
These infants seem unresponsive to the parent when she is present. When she leaves, they usually aren't distressed and they react to the stranger in same way as to parent. During reunion, they avoid or are sloe to greet parent.
About 20% of infants
Avoidant Attachment
These infants seek closeness to the parent before separation and often fail to explore. When parent leaves, that are distressed and on return they combine clinginess with angry, resistive behavior (hitting behavior).
About10% of infants
Resistant Attachment
This pattern of attachment reflects the greatest insecurity. At reunion, these infants show confused, contradictory behaviors ( looking away while parent holding them or approaching parent with flat emotion).
About 5% of infants
Disorganized/ disorientated Attachment
What is the most common attachment quality in all societies studies?
Secured Attachment
Opportunity for attachment, quality of care giving, infant characteristic's, and parents' internal working models are all factors that may influence what?
Attachment security
Responding promptly, consistently, and appropriately to infants and holding them tenderly and carefully.
Sensitive caregiving
What type of characteristics are only weakly related to attachment quality because many child attributes can lead to secure attachment?
Infant characteristics
Described as reconstructed memories affected by many factors, including relationship experiences over the life course, personality, and current life satisfaction.
Internal working models
Early rearing experiences do not destine us to become sensitive or insensitive parents, what does?
The way we view our childhoods
Who are some other attachments that infants can have?
Fathers, siblings, grandparents, and/or professional caregivers
How to mothers and fathers play differently with their infant?
Mothers more often provide toys, talk to infants, and gently play games (pat a cake) and fathers tend to engage in highly arousal physical play with bursts of excitement
Secure attachment is related to positive attachment where?
Later years, preschool, middle childhood
What type of caregiving determines whether attachment security is linked to later development?
Continuity of caregiving
What does a secure attachment in infancy launch in the parent-child relationship?
On a positive path
Perception that combines information from more than one modality, or sensory system, resulting in an integrated whole
Intermodal perception
Self development key that starts from birth.
Aided by intermodal perception
Identification of the self as a physically unique being-as well established.
Around age 2.
Children point to themselves and refer to themselves by name
The ability to understand another's emotional state and feel with that person, or respond emotionally in a similar way.
Aided by self-awareness and self-conscious emotions.
Begins to develop at 18-30 months.
They classify themselves and others on the basis of age (baby,boy,man), sex (boy, girl), physical characteristics( big, strong), and even goodness vs badness (good girl, tommy mean).
Used to organize behavior
Categorical self
Self awareness contributes to this.
Inhibiting impulses, managing negative emotions, and behaving acceptably.
Effortful control
To behave in this way child need:
Awareness of self as separate and autonomous,
confidence in directing owns actions,
and memory for instructions
Effortful control
Between 12-18 months.
Toddlers show clear awareness of caregivers' wishes and expectations and can obey simple request and commands.
What increases compliance?
Warm, sensitive care giving.
Waiting for an appropriate time and place to engage in a tempting act
Delay of gratification