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35 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Describe the sexual identity influences in adolescence.
Freudian ideology states that puberty is a reawakened sense of conflicts from suppressed sexual urges.

Peter Blos derived a "second individuation process" from Freud's theory.

Both had been criticised as having too much emphasis on sexual urges, and being outdated instinct models.
Who came up with the revision of Freud's adolescence theory?
Erik Erikson
What differences were made to Freud's theory of adolescence in it's revision?
A larger role given to cultural influences.

A stronger focus upon the psychosocial concepts: Erikson's 8 stages.

Identity vs. Identity confusion.

Identity used as a state to strive towards. Adolescence is a state of identity crisis.

A stable identity is one whereby aspects of your self image are in agreement with each other.

Psychosocial moratorism = trying out different persona and different aspects of identity.
What are the reasons for changes to identity in adolescence?
Physical --> body image
--> sense of physical self
Who attempted to assess identity stats and how?
James Marcia produced a test for individuals to take in order to devise whether they were in a state of : diffuson, foreclosure, moratorium and acheivement of identity.
What did James Marcia assess individuals on?
Occupation, Religion, Politics and Attitudes toward sex.
What is the state of diffusion?
confusion, no strong attitude
What is the state of foreclosure?
commitment without crisis or considering alternatives
What is the state of moratorium?
crisis, still considering alternatives
What is the state of Acheivement of identity?
A resolution of thoughts upon a subject
What was one of the results of James Marcia's tests?
That sex differences are not marked except in the sexual attitudes.
What are the problems with Erikson's theory?
That people change throughout their lifespans, and that different areas of their lifes are developed at different times.
What is the impact of sex role identity?
cross-sex behaviour is more tolerated in girls than it is in boys. The role of society in providing these standards is huge.

Androgyny is the presence of both male and female roles in one individual. By many researchers, this is considered to create a healthier mind.
How is adolescence impacted by culture?
those who are proud of their cultural identity, but feel discriminated in their society are more likely to do well. CHevous and Associates (2003)

Different cultures hold different values and this therefore alters the path of the adolescent and their identity.
How does gender role impact the development of formal operations?
innate traits vs. psychologicl variables. e.g. CAsey's study of mathematics differences between girls and boys.
Describe adolescents "egocentrism"
Egocentrism is the exageration of material fact. There are two divisions of egocentrism that ought to be considered:

Imaginary audience:

feel as though they are on centre stage for the world to see.

Personal fable: exaggeration of self in a mythical ideology.
Which parts of the brain are predominantly used to consider different situations by adolescents and adults?
Adolescents: amygdala
Adults: Prefrontal cortex
Who put forth the idea of egocentrism?
Elkind (1979)
What was Kohlberg's first name?
What stages belonged to the Preconventional Class?
Punishment and Obedience and the Naive instrumental behaviourism "what's in it for me?"
Which stages belong to the Conventional class?
Seeking of approval of others

Law and order
What are the stages belonging to the Post-conventional class?
An individual makes decisions legalistically or contractually.

An informed conscience defines what is right, regardless of feelings of anger, and fear etc...
What are the Biological reasons for gender development?
6th prenatal --> gonads are formed and hormones released

there is also limited evidence for the different developments of the brain, but there does appear to be some difference in cerebro development. Also, women may think using both of the hemispheres simultaneously.
What are the aspects of the social learning theory for gender development?
Parents influence the child by providing gender appropriate toys, and providing models of what they believe is gender appropriate behaviour. They choose the most appropriate behaviour that their boy/ girl should present.

Also, the influences of Media and teaching opinions etc... in the years of school.
What are the aspects of cognitive development that effect gender development?
This is derived from Kohlberg's speculations.

Children construct their own world and build concepts of maleness and femaleness. They form a schema that is influenced by the environment.
What is the Psychoanalytical aspect of gender devlopment?
It is a Freudian ideology of identifying with the same sex parent. There is a fear of outcasting from this parent if the child does not comply with gender specific activities.
At what age can the child recognise their own and other's genders?
2-3 yrs
At what age does a child realise that gender is a constant?
4 yrs
An aspect of psychoanlytical theory is that the parents treat the child in a way that promotes gender specific behaviours. Describe aspects of this.
Parents treat boys and girls differently. Girls' misbehaviour is treated more seriously than boys. They are also expected to be more self regulated. Toys, behavioiour and general expectations vary drastically between boys and girls.

Vygotsky thought that imaginary situations provide........ which is produced as a ....... scaffolding system. Provide an example
ZPD zone of proximal development.

children almost always play as characters or versions of themselves that are older, and in quite different situations than they are usually exposed to.
What is a basic advantage of play?
exercise, and the improvement of motor skills
There are three kinds of games that are indicative of cognitive development. What are they?
Practice games: development of motor skills period. Early infancy

Symbolic games: pretending to be asleep/ washing hands etc... 18-24 months Piaget's beliefs were that this extended the real world.

Games with rules 7-11 is a typical age for these types of games being predominant.
There is also social development through play. At three years there is a preference of ......., which is also slightly stronger in ...... At the age of ......, this is stronger in.......


4 years

Self esteem is based upon:
scholastic competence
athletic competence
likeability by peers
physical appearance
behavioural conduct
The more a child values a particular aspect, the .....that this affect their self esteem