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33 Cards in this Set

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a single sperm cell penetrates the outer coating of the egg and fuses to form one fertilized cell.

Germinal Stage

first two weeks, zygote.

Embryonic Stage

second to eighth week, embryo.

Fetal Stage

eighth week to birth, fetus.


potential harmful influences (e.g., rubella, deafness; x-rays, cognitive abnormality; STD, mental illness; cigarette, miscarriage, premature, underweight; alcohol consumption, birth defects, FAS; drugs, impaired cognitive and language ability.

Primitive Reflexes

reflexes that aid in survival.

Rooting Reflex

turns head towards gentle touch.

Sucking Reflex

instinctively sucks on anything that touches the roof of their mouth.

Moro Reflex

startle reaction or embrace reflex.

Infantile Amnesia

the earliest age of conscious memory is around three and a half years old.

Sensorimotor Stage

0 - 2 yrs; infants learn about the world through senses and actions; taste and touch; object permanence; stranger anxiety.

Object Permanence

the knowledge that an object does not disappear into thin air when it's hidden (peek-a-boo).

Stranger Anxiety

infants start to distinguish between family and strangers.

Preoperational Stage

2 - 6~7 yrs; memory and language develop in leaps and bounces, rely primarily on intuition rather than logic; pretend play; egocentric; lacks ability of conservation.


cannot take the perspective of another person.


the knowledge that properties (mass, volume, number) remain the same despite changes in form or shape.

Concrete Operational

7 - 11 yrs; understand logic and reason; identity; acquire ability of conservation, comparison, and categorization; mathematical transformation.

Formal Operational

12 yrs & up; reasoning ability expands from concrete thinking to abstract thinking; use of symbols and imagined realities to reason.

Harlow (1971)

monkey experiment; infants bond with surrogate mothers because of bodily contact, not nourishment.

Secure Attachment

explore environment happily in the presence of their mothers, but when left alone, distress.

Insecure Attachment

cling to mothers / caregivers and are less likely to explore environment.

Deprivation of Attachment

children become withdrawn, frightened, and / or difficulty to develop speech.

Prolonged Deprivation

at risk for physical, psychological, and social problems, including alterations in brain serotonin levels. (e.g., the Romanian orphans)


impose rules and expect obedience (e.g., mom and dad).


submit to children's desires, few demands and little punishment.


both demanding and responsive; set enforced rules but explain reasoning; open discussions.


life between childhood and adulthood.


sexual maturation; females (11 yrs), males (13 years); female height increases before.

Primary Sexual Characteristics

reproductive organs and external genitalia, develop rapidly.

Secondary Sexual Characteristics

non-reproductive traits (e.g., boobs and hips [f], facial hair and deepened voice [m], pubic and pit hair [both]).

Longitudinal Studies

suggest that intelligence remains relatively stable as we age. fluid intelligence declines with age but not crystallized intelligence.

Fluid Intelligence

ability to reason speedily.

Crystallized Intelligence

accumulated knowledge and skills.