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73 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Functions of the Digestive System
a. Mechanical Processing and Motility
b. Secretion
c. Digestion
d. Absorption
e. Elimination
Where does digestion begin?
in the mouth
How many teeth do children have?
20 teeth
How many teeth does a normal adult have?
32 teeth
shear food
tear food
Premolars and Molars
grind and crush food
made of calcium deposits, hardest substance in the body
Where is Saliva produced?
In the salivary glands
Where are the salivary glands located?
at the back of the mouth and under the tongue
What does saliva have in it?
a. Salivary amylase
b. Bicarbonate (buffer)
c. Mucins
d. Water
Salivary Amylase
digests starch
maintains pH in the mouth while eating acidic foods, is a buffer,
proteins that bind food into bolus
complex reflex, tongue muscle ctx's move food into pharynx, epiglottis and vocal cords close off trachea (breathing), bolus moves into the esophagus and then through the esophageal sphincter into the stomach
ring of smooth muscle in or at end of tube, contraction close lumen of tube
controls digestion, has a mesh of nerves
faces lumen, inner layer of glandular epithelium
What do gastric glands secrete?
mucus, HCl, and pepsinogen called gastric fluid
How much gastric fluid is made daily?
about 1 to 2 liters per day, mostly after eating
What does the acid in the stomach do?
it kills some pathogens, helps unfold some proteins in food and converts pepsinogen to pepsin
semiliquid mass of partially digested food, and it is released into the duodenum a little bit at a time
What are the three regions of the small intestine?
a. duodenum
b. jejunum
c. ileum
What moves chyme through the small intestine?
peristaltic waves
Pyloric Sphincter
controls movement into the duodenum
How much does the small intestine receive daily?
9 liters of fluid per day and about 95% is absorbed
What does the duodenum receive?
it receives secretions from pancreas, liver and gallbladder, and it continues process of digestion
Where are most nutrients absorbed in?
jejunum and ileum
What are the three intestinal secretions?
a. disacchidases
b. peptidases
c. nucleases
digest dissaccharides to monosaccharides
break protein fragments down to amino acids
digest nucleotides down to nucleic acids and monosaccharides
Where are pancreatic enzymes secreted into?
into the duodenum
What are the pancreatic enzymes?
a. Pancreatic amylase
b. Trypsin and chymotrypsin
c. Carboxypeptidase
d. Lipase
Pancreatic Amylase
breaks down polysaccharides
Trypsin and Chymotrypsin
breakdown proteins
breaks down peptides to component amino acids
breaks down triglycerides to free fatty acids and monosaccharides, requires bile
What does the liver produce?
Where is bile stored?
in the gallbladder
What is bile made up of?
a. water
b. bile salts
c. pigments
d. cholesterol
e. lecithin
Where is bile secreted to?
What is the main function of bile?
to emulsify fats, intestinal contractions break fat into droplets
What do the bile salts do?
they coat droplets and prevent them from reattaching to one another
What is Emulsion?
droplets remain suspended in fluid
What is the hepatic portal system?
it carries nutrient rich blood directly from digestive system to liver via hepatic portal vein then blood goes to general circulation
What does the liver convert?
ammonia to urea
What fat soluble vitamins does the liver store?
A, D, E, K
What is stored in the liver that is in the form of glycogen?
What does the liver also make other than bile?
some lipids, plasma proteins
What does the liver destroy?
it destroys worn out RBCs
What do the walls of the small intestine do?
projections in the intestinal lumen increase the surface area available for absorption
Where does absorption mainly happen?
in the jejunum and ileum
small droplet of bile salts and lecithin
What does the large intestine store?
it is a mixture of water, bacteria, and undigested/unabsorbed material
hormone that affects appetite and metabolic rate
Functions of the Urinary System
a. Regulates body water levels
b. Regulates nitrogenous and other solute waste
Where are nephrons located?
in the cortex and medulla
What do nephrons make?
Where is urine collected?
renal pelvis
How many liters of fluid from blood/day is removed from blood?
180 liters
What are the two major divisions of the nephron?
Tubular and Vascular
Where does plasma fluid filter out to?
to the glomerulus and into the capsular space
What are the four regions of the tubular portion of the nephron?
1. Proximal Tubule
2. Loop of Henle
3. Distal Tubule
4. Collecting Duct
Afferent Arteriole
directed toward enters glomerular capsule and divides to make the glomerulus, where fluid and solutes are filtered from blood
Efferent Arteriole
carries filtered blood from glomerulus
What does the efferent arteriole divide into?
a. Peritubular Capillaries
b. Vasa Recta
Peritubular Capillaries
reabsorb water, ions, and nutrients in proximal and distal tubules
Vasa Recta
capillaries in medulla that supply the Loop of Henle and collecting ducts
increases permeability of collecting duct to water
What vitamin does the kidneys activate?
vitamin D
hormone secreted by kidneys, released in response to a fall in available oxygen , stimulates bone marrow to produce more RBCs