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223 Cards in this Set

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Word derived from two Greek words meaning "a cutting up"

Anatomy

Correct sequence of level of organization

chemical, cellular, tissue, organ

T/F: A transverse section divides the body into upper and lower parts

True

T/F: Anterior and proximal are opposite terms

False

T/F: Superior means toward the head

True

Intercalated disks are found in

cardiac muscle

Moving a part of the body away from the midline is called

Abdcution

The hand is in what position when in anatomical position?

supination

Muscle attachments to the more stationary bone?

Origin

Three types of muscle tissue

Skeletal/straited, cardiac, smooth

Smooth/nonstriated muscle found where?

Walls of hollow viscera, blood vessels, uterus (INVOLUNTARY)

Attachment to bone that moves during contraction

Insertion

Attach muscle to bone

Tendons

Small, synovial-lined sacs located between some tendons and bones

Bursae

Explains the mechanism of contraction - thick and thin myofilaments slide past each other as muscle contracts

Sliding filament model - requires ATP and calcium

Sacromere

basic functional contractional unit

Supination and Pronation

Movements of rotation of the forearm

Supine = palms up (anatomical position)


Pronate = palms down



Dorsiflexion and Plantar flexion

Movements of the ankle


Dorsi = toes point up


Plantar = toes point down (standing on toes)

Movement around a longitudinal axis

Rotation

Nervous system made up of brain and spinal chord

Central Nervous System (CNS)

Nervous system comprised of all nerves

Peripheral (PNS)

Subdivision of the Peripheral system - involuntary nerve complex

Autonomic (ANS)

2 primary cells of nervous systems

Neurons and glia

Part of neuron that conducts impulse away from body

Axon

Part of neuron that conducts impulse towards body

Dendrites

3 Types of glia

Astrocytes (star), microglia, oligodendroglia

Nerve tissue composed mostly of myelinated axons

White matter

Nerve tissue composed mostly of cell bodies and unmyelinated fibers

Grey matter

3 types of nerve coverings

Endoneurium: surrounds individual fibers


Perineurium: surrounds group of fibers


Epineurium: surrounds entire nerve

3 parts of brainstem

Medulla oblongata, pons, midbrain

3 meninges

dura mater, pia mater, arachnoid mater

Cells acted on by hormones

Target cells

Amounts of hormone secretion controlled by?

Homeostatic feedback

A mechanism that reverses the direction of a physiological change

Negative feedback loop


- temperature

A mechanism that amplifies physiological change

Positive feedback loop (UNCOMMON)


- contractions during labor

Hormones of anterior pituitary gland

TSH


ACTH


FSH


LH


MSH


GH


prolactin

Hormones of posterior pituitary gland

ADH


Oxytocin

Hormones of parathyroid glands

PTH - increase blood calcium

Hormones of thyroid gland

T3 - increase metabolism


T4 - increase metabolism


Calcitonin - decreases blood calcium

Hormones of hypothalamus

PRODUCES ADH and oxytocin for posterior pituitary

Hormones of pancreatic islets

Glucagon (alpha cells) - increase blood glucose


Insulin (beta cells) - decrease blood glucose

Hormones of ovaries

Estrogen (ovarian follicles and corpus luteum)

Hormones of testes

Testosterone

Hormones of thymus

Thymosin (immune)

Hormones of placenta

Gonadotropins


Estrogen


Progesterone

Hormones of pinneal gland

Melatonin


- becomes calcified with age

Hormones of adrenal medulla

Epinephrine (adrenaline) -stress


Norepinephrine - stress

Hormones of adrenal cortex

Glucocorticoids (GCs) - cortisol & hydrocortisone


Mineralocorticoids (MCs) - aldosterone


Sex hormones - androgens

Microscopic tubes in tissue spaces made of one layer of epithelium

Lymph capillaries

Drains lymph from upper right body and head

Right lymphatic duct

Largest lymphatic duct, draining 3/4 of body

Thoracic duct

Enlarged pouch near the thoracic duct

Cisterna chyli

2 primary functions of lymph nodes

WBC formation and defense

Very small organ producing T-cells

Thymus - secretes thymosin


involution = lymph tissue replaced with fat

3 types of tonsils

Palatine, pharyngeal, lingual

Largest lymph organ in the body

Spleen - blood reservoir and phagocytosis of RBCs

Protein compounds with specific combining sites that attach to antigens

Anti-bodies

Kill cells by allowing water to flood through the plasma membrane

Complement proteins

2 primary cells of immune system

Phagocytes and lymphocytes

Ingest and destroy harmful substances/cells

Phagocytes

3 types of phagocytes

Neutrophils, monocytes, macrophages

Macrophages in the liver


Macrophages in the lungs

Kuppfer's cells


Dust cells

B cells activated by..


Turn into..

Contact with antigen


Plasma cells

Kill invading cells with poison and chemicals

T cells

4 valves of the heart

Bicuspid/mitral (L), tricuspid, pulmonary (R) semilunar valve (R), aortic semilunar valve (L)

Right vs Left Heart

Right: goes to lungs (oxygen rich)


- vena cavae > r atrium > r ventricle > pulmonary semilunar valve > pulmonary artery > lungs >


Left: goes to rest of body (oxygen poor)


- l atrium > l ventricle > aortic semilunar valve > aorta > body

Complete heartbeat

Cardiac cycle

Average heart cycle?

72 beats per minute; each beat = 0.8 sec

Volume of blood ejected from one ventricle with each beat

Stroke volume

Amount of blood one ventricle can pump each minute (~ 5mL)

Cardiac output

Electrical connectors that join cardiac muscle fibers to receive impulses and contract together

Intercalated disks

Heart conduction system

Sinoatrial node (SA) > Atrioventricular node (AV) > AV bundles and Purkinje fibers

Vessels that carry blood away from the heart

Arteries - high pressure, thicker layers

Vessels that carry blood to the heart

Veins - low pressure, valves, thinner layers

Vessels that carry blood from arterioles to venules

Capillaries - made of one layer of epithelium (tunica intima)

3 tissue layers of vessels

Tunica adventitia (outer), tunica media (middle), tunica intima (inner)

Systemic circulation

Through body: l ventricle > aorta > arteries > arterioles > capillaries |gas exchange|> venules > veins > vena cava > r atrium

Pulmonary circulation

To lungs: r ventricle > pulmonary artery > lungs > pulmonary veins > l atrium

Hepatic portal circulation

Blood route through liver

Fetal circulation

Before birth; bypass lungs

Factors of blood pressure

Blood viscosity, heart beat strength, blood volume

Blood minus its cells

Blood plasma - 55% of whole blood

Cells with no nuclei, transport O2 and CO2, contain hemoglobin

RBCs (erythrocytes) - 90% of formed elements

Cells for defense

WBCs (leukocytes)


- neutrophils and monocytes = phagocytosis


- eosinophils = allergies/parasites


- basophils = clotting

T/F: Rh antibodies are naturally present in blood

False

Formation of clot

Injury site: clotting factors release > prothrombin activator + calcium = thrombin > triggers fibrin > RBCs clump to clot

Respiratory tree

Trachea > bronchi > bronchioles > alveolar sacs > alveoli > covered in capillaries

Normal breathing

Eupnea

Rapid deep respiration

Hyperventilation

Slow, shallow respiration

Hypoventilation

Labored or difficult respirations

Dysapnea

Stopped respirations

Apnea

T/F: Alveoli flattened out would cover half a tennis court

True

Accessory organs of male reproductive system

ducts, sex glands, external genitals


- prostate, Cowper's, penis, vas deferens

Functions of testosterone

Masculinizes, promotes development of accessory sex organs, stimulates protein anabolism (strength/muscles)

Mixtures of semen

Seminal vesicles: 60%


Prostate: 30%


Cowper's: <5%

Tightly coiled tube on and around testicles, sperm mature and learn to swim

Epididymis

3 columns of erectile tissue

Corpora cavernosa (2)


Corpus spongiosum (1)

2 primary functions of ovaries

oogenesis (production of eggs)


secretion of estrogen and progesterone

3 female reproductive ducts

Fallopian tubes, uterus, vagina

3 male reproductive ducts

Epididymis, vas deferens, ejaculatory duct

Which kidney is lower than the other?

Right

4 functions of kidneys

Excrete toxins and waste


Regulate chemical levels in blood


Control water volume


Regulate blood pressure (rennin)

Filtration (kidneys)

Continuous process in renal corpuscles


- pressure in glomeruli push water/substances into Bowman's => glomerular filtrate

Reabsorption (kidneys)

Movement of substances out of renal tubes into blood capillaries


- substances reabsorbed (osmosis) unless at renal threshold (too much) => urine

Secretion (kidneys)

Substances move to urine forming in tubules

External opening of urethra

Urinary meatus

Passing of urine, or voiding

Micturition

4 layers of digestive tract wall

Mucosa - epithelium
Submucosa - connective tissue


Muscularis - muscle


Serosa - folds = mesenteries

Teeth

Inscisor, cuspids, bicuspids, tricuspids


First set (20) begin eruption at 6 months, finish = 2 yrs


Adult set (32) begin at 6 yrs, finish at 17-23 yrs

3 pairs of salivary glands

Parotid, submandibular/submaxillar, sublingual

Divisions of small intestine

(20 ft)


Duodenum


Jejunum


Ileum

Gallbladder function

Stores bile from liver > cystic duct connects

Largest gland

Liver, creates bile > hepatic duct drains

Common bile duct

Drains bile from cystic or hepatic ducts into duodenum

2 functions of pancreas

Secretes pancreatic juice and hormones

Divisions of large intestine

Cecum > ascending colon > transverse colon > descending colon > rectum > anal canal

Carbohydrate digestion

Mostly in small intestine - amylase


==> monosaccharides

Protein digestion

Starts in stomach - pepsin


==> amino acids

Fat digestion

Mostly in small intestine - lipase


==> fatty acids + glycerol

5 functions of skeletal system

Supports body


Protects internal organs


Movement


Stores calcium


Hemopoiesis (blood cell formation)

Soft spots on babies head that have not ossified

Fontanels

4 bone types

Long bones (humerus)


Short bones (carpals)


Flat bones (skull)


Irregular bones (vertebrae)

Axial skeleton

Skull, spine, thorax, hyoid

Appendicular skeleton

Upper and lower extremities

Male vs Female skeleton (4)

Size and shape of pelvis, size of pelvic inlet, pubic angle

3 joint types

Synarthroses (connective tissue holds - skull)


Amphiarthroses (cartilage connects - vertebrae)


Diarthroses (freely movable - ball & socket, hinge, saddle, etc)

2 body membranes

Epithelial and connective tissue

Skin layers

Epidermis: outer, stratified squamous


Dermis: deeper, connective tissue

3 primary parts of cells

Plasma membrane, cytoplasm, nucleus




Passive transport process - particles move from high to low concentration

Diffusion

Diffusion of water through selectively permeable membrane in the presence of an impermeable solute

Osmosis

Passive transport caused by hydrostatic pressure on one side of membrane

Filtration

Process in cell division that distributes identical chromosomes to each new cell when one divides

Mitosis

2 primary types of skin glands; 2 sub types

Sweat/sudoriferous


- eccrine: small, numerous


- apocrine: armpit/genitals; large, smelly


Sebaceous: secrete oil for hair/skin

3 types of epithelial membranes

Cutaneous, serous, mucous

Soft fine hair of a newborn

Lanugo

Rule of nines

Divides body into 11 sections of 9% each. 1% is genital area

4 phases of menstrual cycle

Menses: bleeding, shed lining


Proliferative phase: lining thickens


Ovulation: ovum released; highest estrogen


Secretory phase: lining thickest; highest progesterone

Most important muscle of inspiration

Diaphragm


(external intercostals b/w ribs)

Muscles of expiration

Internal intercostals

Abdominal muscles



Exchange of gases in between lungs and blood by diffusion

External respiration

Exchange of gases between blood and cells

Internal respiration

Amount of air breathed in a normal inspiration/expiration

Tidal volume (TV)

Largest amount of air in one breath

Vital capacity (VC)

Amount of air that can be forced out after expelling tidal volume

Expiratory reserve volume (ERV)

Amount of air remaining in lungs after forceful expulsion

Residual volume

4 bones of paranasal sinuses

Frontal, ethmoidal, maxillary, sphenoidal (FEMS)

Characteristic of people with AIDS

Leukopenia

Approximate number of WBCs in a cubic millimeter of blood

7,500

T/F: Person with B antigen and A anti-bodies would have type A blood

False

T/F: Person with A antigen and B anti-bodies would have type A blood

True

Part of clot that becomes dislodged and moves through blood stream

Embolus

3 types of plasma proteins

Albumins: thicken


Globulins: fight infection


Fibrinogen: clotting

Adults have how many liters of blood?

4-6

Lymphatic capillaries in small intestine that absorb fat

Lacteals

General protection from any threat

Non-specific immunity (tears, skin, etc)

Active vs Passive immunity

-body responds to bacteria

-immunity inherited



Natural vs Artificial immunity

Artifical (immunization)

2 classes of hormones

Steroid and protein (non-steroid)

Minimal level of stimulation required to cause a fiber to contract

Threshold stimulus


- fibers are all or none, muscles are not

Isotonic contraction

Typically at a joint, muscle changes length, produces movement

2 types of isotonic contraction

Eccentric: insertion moves away from origin


Concentric: insertion moves toward origin

Isometric contraction

Increase in tension, no movement, muscle doesn't shorten

Disuse atrophy

Muscles shrink in mass due to prolonged inactivity

Hypertrophy

Increase in muscle size due to exercise

Contracting muscles against heavy resistance, resulting in hypertrophy and increased myofilaments

Strength training

Endurance/aerobic training

Increases muscle's ability to sustain moderate exercise for long periods; increased blood vessels in muscle

Continuous low-strength muscle contraction providing posture

Tonic contraction

Nerve fibers that stimulate muscle fibers

Motor neurons

Muscle mainly responsible in movement

Prime mover

Muscles that assist prime mover in contraction

Synergists

Muscles that relax during others' contraction

Antagonists

Thick and thin filaments composed of?

Thick - myosin


Thin - actin

4 major parts of brain

Brainstem, diencephalon, cerebellum, cerebrum

Convolutions of brain

Gyri

Grooves/fissures of brain

Sulci

7 types of connective tissue

Areolar, adipose, dense fibrous, bone, cartilage, blood, homatopoietic

4 stages of cell divison

Prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase


(people must answer telephones)

3 types of active transport

Ion pumps, phagocytosis, pinocytosis

4 types of tissue

Epithelial, muscular, nervous, connective

Bumps that bind dermis to epidermis; characterize fingerprints

Dermal papillae

Melanin produced by

Melanocytes => skin pigment

Receptor close to surface that detects light touch

Meissner corpuscle

Receptor deep in dermis tat detects pressure

Pacini/lamellar corpuscle

Lubricates hair and skin and increases during adolescence

Sebum

Structures of dense/compact bone

Osteons (Haversion systems)


Concentric lamella

2 types of microscopic bone

Dense/compact bone


Spongy bone

Living bone cells in lacunae

Osteocytes

Bone-forming cells

Osteoblasts

Bone-resorbing cells

Osteoclasts

Tiny "fingers" that increase absorption

Villi and microvilli

Tough membrane covering testes

Tunica albuginea

Coiled tubes that comprise the bulk of the testes

Seminiferous tubules - where sperm are formed

Tube allowing sperm to move from the scrotum to the abdomen

Vas deferens

Joining point of seminal vesicles and vas deferens

Ejaculatory duct

How many ovarian follicles at birth and develop into mature follicles?

1 million ==> 350-500

Accessory glands of female reproductive system

Bartholin's glands, breasts, external genitals

Afferent lymph vessels

Allow fluid to enter (one-way)

Efferent lymph vessels

Fluid Exits (one-way)

T-cells develop in?

Thymus from thymosin

Functional tissue replaced with fat occurs where?

Involution = Thymus

Anti-body mediated immunity

Humoral immunity

Responsible for anti-body production

Lymphocytes

3 types of granulocytes (WBCs)

Neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils

3 types of agranulocytes (WBCs)

Monocytes, lymphocytes, macrophages

Clot that stays in the place it is formed

Thrombus

Erythroblastosis fetalis

Baby born to Rh- mom and Rh+ dad...

If baby is Rh+, mom develops Rh-antibodies. If she has another Rh+ baby they will attack it

Shelf-like protrusions in nasal cavity that humidify and warm air

Conchae

3 divisions of pharynx

Nasopharynx


Oropharynx


Laryngopharynx

Thyroid cartilage - Adam's apple - found in?

Larynx (voice box)

Vocal chords stretch across?

Larynx (voice box)

Combined pressure in blood of respiratory gases

Partial pressure (P)

How oxygen moves during respiration

lungs > blood > tissue capillary membrane > interstitial fluid > cells

What percent of O2 can dissolve into blood

1.5%

O2 combines with hemoglobin in blood creating

Oxyhemoglobin

Percentages of CO2 in substances for transport

10% dissolves in blood


20% combines with hemoglobin = carbaminohemoglobin


70% becomes bicarbonate ions

Normal blood pressure reading

120/80

Hold functioning neurons together and protect them

Glia

Divisions of nervous system

CNS PNS


1. Somatic (voluntary)


2. Autonomic (involuntary)


a. Sympathetic (Fight/Flight)


b. Parasympathetic


(Rest/Digest)

Reflex arc consists of?

2 neuron arc: Sensory neuron + motor neuron = one synapse


3 neuron arc: sensory neuron + interneuron + motor neuron = 2 synapses

Tough, fluid-containing membrane surrounding brain and spinal cord

Meninges

2 types of autonomic neurotransmitters

Cholinergic fibers: parasymp postgang release acetylcholine


Adrenergic fibers: symp postgang neurons release norepinephrine