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83 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Describe the Conservative Reaction

all of Europe was governed by traditional monarchies by 1815

Who was the only Constitutional Monarchy?

France ruled by a Bourbon King, Charles X

Charles X in France was what type of king?


reversion back to monarchy was a _________.


There was relative _____ between nations for __ years.

peace, years

What was the dialectic flow of the reversion back to monarchy?



Synthesis--Liberal Kings

What were the roots of nationalism?

1) Imagination -- folk tales, ways, and native dress.

2) Political -- liberation of Greeks and Serbs from Turks

3) Kings were over their own countries

4) Most of South American became free of the Eur. nations

French revolution of 1830 did what to Charles X?

Deposed him

Who replaced Charles X?

Constitutional Monarch Louis Phillipe

How does England avoid revolution?

REFORM; organic change

Until the 1830s, most manufacturing was done where? Except in?

the Countryside, except in England?

When did rapid growth in industrialism/urbanization take place until?

Where and where not?

Until the 1830s; England; France; Belgium; German-states. NOT: Eastern and Southern Europe; Russia

What were the 3 classes of labor?

artisans/craftsmen, skilled, unskilled

The Guild system was replaced by _____ _____.

Wage Labor

Wage labor led to _______.


labor for the first time becomes a commodity


What is Wage Slavery?

workers at the mercy of owners who shop for the cheapest wages and fire the higher paid.

What was the debate between the Liberal Ure and Conservative Ruskin regarding factory production?


pg. 122, 123

When did England limit the work hours? How many could one work a day?

1833; 10

Where was a production unit where all contributed?


What separated home and production?

The Factory

What is the concept that "my action logically implies that I want all people to act just as I am acting," that's also similar to the golden rule? Which philosopher is this under?

Categorical imperative; Immanuel Kant

Where was the ideal community in which all work for the common good and share the fruit of all their labors?

"New Lanark" in Scotland

Which Marxian Utopia failed due to quarreling?

New Harmony, Indiana

Many of the Marxist communes were radical why?

they were creating theoretical places where a new man could thrive - sexual liberation was a common theme.

who rejected industry and dominance of government?


What shows progress of class warfare?

Dialectical Materialism.

Why was class warfare called "scientific" by Marx?

because he thought he could prove it from history

What is a tool of the ruling class to oppress the lower classes?


What did class conflict lead to in the socialist/utopian era?

the triumph of the proletariat over the bourgeoisie and abolition of private property and marriage.

What was the motto of the Communist Manifesto in 1848

"Working men of all countries, unite!" You have nothing to lose but your chains.

When was the year of revolution all over europe?


Who instigated revolutions and allied with workers?

Liberals (NOT communists)

Liberals realized the dangers of ______ workers and wanted to avoid a repeat of 1789.


Partisan workers in France wanted a _____.

Social Revolution

What was declared in France when King Louis-Philippe abdicates?

a "Second Republic"

What year did Napoleon III declare himself Emperor?


The French election gave power to ________ and ________.

moderates, conservatives

Understand the history of slaves in the Western world.


Church's voice against slavery:

Christians ended most slavery in Europe by 1000 AD.

The Catholic Church denounced slavery in the 1400s and strongly condemned it in 1537.

The Protestant and Methodist Church in England & U.S. ended the European trade of African slaves and England worked to eradicate the Arab enslavement of Africans.

Which philosopher says: "scientifically verifiable statements are meaningful. Statements like morality, justice, beauty, truth, and religion are verifiable."

David Hume

Which philosopher "wants to find a valid basis for morality and identifies it within the individual?
"We must act logically, without contradicting ourselves."

Also believes in Categorical Imperative.

Immanuel Kant

Which philosopher thinks "movement in history is Spiritual (metaphysical)" and believes in Dialectical Idealism


"All clashes of ideas end on a higher plane" is termed ______ ________.

Dialectical Idealism

Which philosopher believes in materialism (only matter exists), positivism, and is the Father of Sociology?

Auguste Comte

A concept where the truth is imposed upon the mind by experience, not by revelation or intuition

From experience, society defines morality and value.


Who thinks in terms of dialectical materialism, that private property is the root of all evil, and alienation?

Karl Marx

When does materialism reach perfection?


Memorize the 7 Elements of Communism

1. Classless society

2. Means of production owned by all the people

3. Elimination of private property

4. Abolition of marriage and family

5. Elimination of religion

6. Man will no longer be alienated, but integrated into a community

7. Utopia is the result: a New Eden, the Ideal World

When were the 7 elements of communism delineated?


Which philosopher believes in English practical empirical (scientific evidence) school as opposed to continental theorists like Hegel, Kant, and Marx?

Also puts emphasis on the individual.

Science shows that happiness is the highest goal of all people.

Morality is based on what helps people achieve happiness.


"ON LIBERTY" is his great essay on the rights of individuals

John Stewart MIll

Actions are right or wrong based on their utility for achieving it is called ____________.


wrote "Origin of Species" - survival of the fittest.

Belived evolution, that progress is inevitable.

Not a philoph. himself, but ideas inspired major philophs.

Charles Darwin

Philosopher who believed "Social Darwinism" = survival of the fittest at the human level/ if the weak receive too much help and survive, the human species will deteriorate.

Herbert Spencer

Did these men consider themselves Liberals or Conservatives?

Liberals because most of these ideas were untraditional and shocked the world

What are the defining characteristics of Realism in the Arts?

- more interest in people than nature

- more interest in real rather than ideal/exotic topics

- focus on the objective portrayal "what is actually seen

- showed people in their grunginess

- stress on the seamier side of life: weariness/poverty

- later realism called Naturalism stressed the material nature of humans - just another animal; there is no spiritual nature)

What are defining characteristics of realism in literature?

instead of writing about the upper class, realist writers wrote about problems of workers and social issues.

authors applied the new ideas of religion, moraliy, and philosophy to their stories

began to portray man as just another animal, more degraded, no longer the imago Dei

later realists would write without judging the situation; ie: this is just how life is.

How did Realism view religion?

It treated the Bible as a record created by humans as opposed to being God's revelation of himself.

"Higher Criticism"

Early Social Realism Author: Early childhood poverty, working at age 12. Drew into horrible living conditions of the common man Showed objectively what is there with the intent of invoking compassion and change.

Charles Dickens

Realist Author: Later realist; captured darker themes of the human condition.

Wrote "Silas Marner" the miser

Was a Materialist: life makes us what we are and we are helpless against impersonal forces

Mary Anne Evans (George Eliot)

Later Realist Author: captured darker themes of human condition

"Tess of the D'Urbervilles" - fate rules, impersonal forces, materialist,

"Return of the Native"

Thomas Hardy

Russian Realist who wrote "Dead Souls," satire to show the greed that corrupts mankind

Nikolai Gogol

Russian realist who was frustrated with the slow progress of change in Russia compared with West Europe.

"Fathers and Sons" introduces radical European concepts of anarchy and nihilism

Ivan Turgenev

The first nihilist character in literature. Rejected all forms of authority: "I never look up to heaven except when I need to sneeze."

Rejects human emotions. "Love destroys humans but you don't find the other animals being so foolish."


Father of Psychological Realism

Christian Existentialist

Main themes: -moral redemption through suffering, man is special because God allows him freedom to choose. Only this freedom makes him dif. from the animals. Modernists, materialists remove dignity from the human.

IN our freedom we all chose to sin.

Redemption comes when we recognize our sin and choose Christ - ultimate suffering servant.

Embracing the suffering as Jesus did is the great act

Fyodor Dostoevsky

Story in which an aristocratic Father is a drunk with no interest in 4 sons.

Dmitri (eldest) = like father, but hates him

Ivan = modern rationalist, atheist, nihilist

Alyosha = saintly monk seeking to serve Christ

Smerdyakov = bastard, listens to Ivan, kills father and does

Dmitri accused of murder and is convicted without protest

"Brothers Karamazov" by Fyodor Dostoevsky

Story in which Jesus returns to earth, to Spain, and the Inquisition condemns him to death again.
Says that Jesus should have accepted Satan's 3 offers and ppl would follow him.

Jesus condemned people to freedom = misery.

"The Grand Inquisitor" - Ivan

Story in which a nihilist (character name) imagines himself a superman for whom anything is allowed. Decides to murder a hateful pawnbroker to use her money for great purpose, also kills sister.

Sonia = sacrifices self as prostitute to support drunken father

"Crime and Punishment"

Main Character: Raskolnikov

Who was the author of great Russian Epics "War and Peace" and "Anna Karenina"

Leo Tolstoy

What two Russian Realists show opposing views that split intellectual elites in Europe?

Dosteoevsky and Tolstoy:

How did Dostoevsky and Tolstoy show the opposing views that split the intellectual elites in Eur.?

Most Western Intellectuals accepted Nihilist rejection of the past. Dostoevsky and Tolstoy accepted Christian tradition

Who refused Dostoevsky and Tolstoy's insights?

The Russian Elites

Which Art Style does this describe?

Social focus

City and Civilization focus

Formal, intellectual, logical, follow the rules


Themes inspired by the Greek and Roman classical era


Which art style is this?

focus on individual


informal and emotional


Themes from Nature and Medeival era: gothic, ruins overwhelmed by nature


Which art style is this?

focus on the struggle "the struggle is real"

weary, poor, unheroic ppl

did not idealize city or nature -- just "real situations"

early Realism

which art style is this?

stressed the material nature of humans as being just another animal

naturalism/Late Realism

Seven painters formed the _________ __________ to oppose what they saw as the corrupting influence of mid-19th C art in England

Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood

Pre-Raph painters believed Art is: (MEMORIZE)


Expresses meaningful ideas

Represents nature precisely

Must be serious and heartfelt

Must reject conventional and mechanical stylistic devices

Pre-Raph's believe these 5 things were sources and themes of the Art (MEMORIZE)

The Bible


Dante's Divine Comedy

Arthurian Legent

Medieval Art

What does Pre-Raphaelite mean?

They preferred the bright colors and clarity and content of medieval art - hence "pre-raphael"

Andrew Ure's Arguments for the Conditions of Factory production:

1) many people too feeble to provide for themselves earn abundant food.

2) people are screened from the summer and winter.

3) the apartment is more airy than a metropolis

4) the power of steam substitutes painful muscle use

John Ruskin's arguments for the Conditions of Factory Production

1) Men were not intended to work with the accuracy and precision of tools

2) dehumanization of man; becoming a tool.

3) Men have no pleasure in their work

4) men look to wealth as the only means of pleasure

who was the #1 neo-classical artist?

Jacque David