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84 Cards in this Set

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General Federation of Women’s Clubs
founded in 1890 during the Progressive Movement, is a federation of over 3,000 local women's clubs which promote civic improvements through volunteer service.
Progressive Era
was a time period in American history lasting from the 1890s through the 1920s. At the turn of the century, America was experiencing rapid urbanization and industrialization.
Women’s Christian Temperance Union
In 1874, the WCTU was founded. Under the leadership of Frances Willard, the WCTU became the most powerful women's organization in the late nineteenth-century.

Frances Willard

American educator and reformer, influential in passing 18th and 19th amendments.
Margaret Sanger
American birth control activist in NBCL.
Comstock Laws
Prohibit the distribution of any sexually explicit material via US mail but also the spread of medically inclined text based on safe sex. Passed by congress on March 3, 1873, "Suppression of Trade in, and Circulation of, Obscene Literature and Articles of Immoral Use"
Jane Addams
social worker , author, leader in world suffrage and women’s peace. Co-founded Hull house
Hull House
Settlement house in Chicago founded in 1889 -Jane Addams and Ellen Gates Starr. Opened it’s doors to incoming European immigrants to teach women how to be American.
National Consumers League
Founded in 1891 by Florence Kelley as a consumer organization. Private representation group that represented consumers to maximize women’s power and focused on labor.
Charlotte Cooper
English Tennis player who won five singles titles at Wimbledon and in 1900 became the first female Olympic champion
Babe Didrikson Zaharias
American athlete who saw success in Basketball, Track and Field, and largely Golf.
All-American Girls Baseball League
was a women's professional baseball league founded by Philip K. Wrigley which existed from 1943 to 1954. It was more concerned with a marketable appearance. Had an absence of reform and a different standard.
Philip Wrigley
chewing gum manufacture as well as Major League Baseball executive, family owned Chicago Cubs
Grantland Rice
20th century sportswriter , writing was popular all around the country and even talked about on most radios at the time.
Carlisle Indian School
the flagship Indian boarding school in the United States from 1879 through 1918.
Pittsburgh Crawfords
a professional Negro league baseball team based in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Named after the Crawford Grill, a club in the Hill District of Pittsburgh owned by Gus Greenlee.
Negro National League
Founded by Rube Foster and proposed an 8 team MNL league (baseball) from teams all around the Midwest, Existed 1920-1932
Jack Dempsey
was the world heavyweight boxing champion from 1919 to 1926 who only lost when he 'forgot to duck”
Gertrude Ederle
an American competitive swimmer, Olympic champion, and former world record-holder in five events. In 1926, she became the first woman to swim across the English Channel
Satchel Paige
Was a pitcher for the pittsburgh crawfords of phenomenal skill, Pitched in the negro league and the MLB and was the first african american player inducted into the MLB hall of fame. he played till he was 47 years old
Jim Thorpe
born 1888 in OK, mixed heritage part french, irish and native american. early life very traumatic with death of parents and brother. Carlisle indian college is when his success really begins(finds his place) plays every sport particularly football. breaks high jump record in street clothes. Wins ⅘ events to win the gold in triathlon and wins gold in decathlon. 1912 olympics make him a celebrity, but returns to controversy because he was paid to play minor league baseball. stripped of his gold medals and signs to the canton bulldogs an early member of the NFL.
Babe Ruth
played baseball for the Boston Red Sox before getting traded to the New York Yankees causing the infamous Red Sox’s curse. Also known as “the Great Bambino” or “the Sultan of Swat” with a career 714 home runs.
Black Sox Scandal
People offered Joe Jackson money to throw the world series in favor of the Reds. “Chick” Gandil offered him $20,000, he was only paid $5,000 though, and that was paid by Lefty Williams. Eddie Cicotte also received $10,000 for his part in throwing the world series.
Red Grange
“The Galloping Ghost” College and Professional running back for the University of Illinois and the Chicago Bears, shortly played baseball for the New York Yankees
Katherine Switzer
Female competitor in 1967 Boston Marathon whose number was stripped off by Jock Semple due to a ban on female competitors
Jock Semple
Ripped Katherine Switzer's jersey from her because of a ban on females in the 1967 Boston Marathon. Was a race official for the Boston marathon
Education Amendment of 1972
Mink is a cosponsor of the bill to revise how American government handles education. seen as an uptake of earlier education legislation.
Bobby Riggs
55 older aging individual. He had previously beat the woman's world #1 before this match. He does not prepare for this match or take it at all seriously, Billie Jean King is 29.
“Battle of the Sexes”
Riggs vs. King tennis match where and older man will challenge the younger women in a televised tennis match for $100,000. King wins in straight sets 6-4, 6-3, 6-3. the victory is hugely symbolic at the time and a huge positive for women
Title IX
part of the education amendment of 1972, broad legislative language/ wide purview. Immediate Impact on the number of athletes that participate in women's sports going up more each year. supposed to be proportional in its opportunity
“Dear Colleague” letter
April 4 2011 has to do with how sexual harassment/assault cases handled on college campuses
Great Migration
was the movement of 6 million African Americans out of the rural Southern United States to the urban Northeast, Midwest, and West that occurred between 1910 and 1970.
Brown v. Topeka Board of Education
Overturned Plessy. Majority opinion: “Separate is inherently unequal”
Formed in 1909 to protect and fight for the rights of colored american citizens. (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People)
“Separate but equal”
The result of the landmark case Plessy v. Ferguson which stated that segregation was “legal” by some standards
Martin Luther King, Jr.
was an American Baptist minister, activist, humanitarian, and leader in the African-American Civil Rights Movement. He is best known for his role in the advancement of civil rights using nonviolent civil disobedience based on his Christian beliefs.
Rosa Parks
was an African-American Civil Rights activist, whom the United States Congress called "the first lady of civil rights" and "the mother of the freedom movement". She is most notably known for refusing to get up to move to the back of the bus where African-Americans were supposed to sit.
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee
SNCC played a major role in student action in sit-ins and freedom rides
Southern Christian Leadership Conference
African American civil rights group. MLK was first president.

Ghandian non-violence

Gandhi objected to violence because it perpetuates hatred. When it appears to do ‘good’, the good is only temporary and cannot do any good in the long run. A true nonviolence activist accepts violence on himself without inflicting it on another. This is heroism, and will be discussed in another section. When Gandhi says that in the course of fighting for human rights, one should accept violence and self-suffering, he does not applaud cowardice.


a form of protest in which demonstrators occupy a place, refusing to leave until their demands are met.

Hank Aaron

retired African American Major League Baseball right fielder. He played 21 seasons for the Milwaukee/Atlanta Braves in the National League and 2 seasons for the Milwaukee Brewers in the American League, from 1954 through 1976. Aaron held the MLB record for career home runs for 33 years with 755, and he still holds several MLB offensive records.

Roberto Clemente

Puerto Rican Major League Baseball right fielder who played 18 seasons for the Pittsburgh Pirates from 1955 through 1972. He was inducted posthumously to the National Baseball Hall of Fame in 1973, becoming the first Latin American and Caribbean player to be enshrined.

George Foreman

American professional boxer, two-time World Heavyweight Champion, Olympic gold medalist, ordained minister,author, and entrepreneur.
Muhammad Ali
Roots in Kentucky. Changed name. Politically active, fought for African-American rights and was an objector to the Vietnam war, served time in jail.
Joe Louis
Fought Max Schmeling twice. won one, lost one. African American leader and community activist along with Jackie Robinson. Opposed Muhammad Ali's anti-war stance and refusal to fight
“Caucasian-only” clause
PGA could deny tournament entry into tournaments on the basis of race. Bill Spiller, an African American golfer sued. The rule, illegal under the Taft-Hartley act, was ended by the PGA is Spiller dropped the suit.
Charlie Sifford
First African-American to win on PGA Tour and receive PGA card
Augusta National
Famous golf course in Georgia where The Masters are aurally held. Admits first African-American player in 1991
Shoal Creek
Country club that up until 1990 did not accept African-American players. When the PGA considered moving the tournament away from shoal creek they accepted Louis J. Willie as first black member. Still only two women members have been accepted to join.
Charles Follis
First professional African-American football player. He played for the Shelby Blues of the "Ohio League" from 1902 to 1906.
Branch Rickey
Brooklyn Dodgers owner who signed Jackie Robinson. Played baseball in college and was bothered by segregation in the sport.
Jackie Robinson
the first african american player to play in Major League Baseball, sporting the number 42 (Brooklyn Dodgers / Second baseman, First baseman, Infielder)

Tommie Smith

Track & Field athlete who won the 200 meter dash at the 1968 olympics, as well as professional football player in the AFL, black power salute raised controversy at the time.

John Carlos

black power salute, American Olympic athlete who won bronze in the 200 meter in 1968 as well as american football player

Howard Cosell

Known as one of the best sports journalist and announcers of all time

Jimmy “the Greek” Snyder

American sports commentator and Las Vegas bookmaker

1968 Olympic Games

the 1968 Black Power salute was an act of protest by African American athletes Tommie Smith and John Carlos during their medal ceremony

Brooklyn– LA Dodgers

Major League Baseball team owned by Branch Rickey, who Jackie Robinson played for when he broke the color barrier in 1947.

Curt Flood

Major League center fielder for 15 years for the Cincinnati Reds, St. Louis Cardinals and Washington Senators who sued the MLB to help create free agency and end the reserve clause

Free agency

where a player who finishes his contract with a team is allowed to chose the next team he plays for. Established in 1970 when Curt Flood sued Major League Baseball to end the reserve clause which restricts the players to one team indefinitely. Flood loses his suit, but his action brought an end to the reserve clause which created free agency.

Pete Rose

All time hits leader in baseball. However is banned for life from baseball because of his role in betting on baseball. Left out of the hall of fame as well.


Legalized in 1931 in Nevada, Continual interest and constant regulation, Destination gambling (Vegas, AC, Reno) emerged in the 1970’s the Hilton Superbook, Publicized point spreads by many to bookies on a nationwide level. By 1951 congress passes a 10% tax on all sports betting in the US, later reduced to 2% after the tax was declared unconstitutional. 1992 PASPA outlaws new gambling in states after year of law.NCAA monopoly- Generated $1.13 billion in 2014. $912 million in annual revenue.

NCAA monopoly

Generated $1.13 billion in 2014. $912 million in annual revenue. Most comes from television. The NCAA makes so much money that they can sell themselves to several T.V. stations.

Football Bowl Subdivision
formerly known as Division I-A, it is the top level of college football in the United States. The FBS is the more competitive subdivision of NCAA Division I, which itself consists of the largest and most competitive schools in the NCAA. As of 2014, there are ten conferences and 128 schools in the FBS.
The Bowl Championship Series was a selection system that created five bowl game match-ups involving ten of the top ranked teams in the NCAA Division I FBS, including an opportunity for the top two teams to compete in the BCS National Championship Game. The system was in place for the 1998 through 2013 seasons and in 2014 was replaced by the College Football Playoff.

Stadium Construction

they are building more luxury boxes in stadiums because they are serving as a big source of a team’s revenue. There is also more public financing of stadiums around the country.

Lake Placid

the site of the 1980 winter olympics, where the US men's national hockey team defeated the Soviet Union team that had not lost a game in the 4 previous olympics and was considered to be the best team in the world. Known as the “Miracle On Ice.”

Olympic Boycott

1980 Summer Olympics boycott of the Moscow Olympics due to the Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan

Walter Hagen

Professional Golfer with 11 major titles good for third most all time

Bobby Jones

Amateur Golfer and Lawyer who founded and help design Augusta National Golf Club

The Masters

Golf tournament each year held at Augusta National Golf Club, one of the four major championships in golf . Winner gets the green jacket which started in 1949. Did not have a black participant until 1975, Robert Lee Elder.

Sports Illustrated

is an American sports media franchise owned by Time Inc and founded in 1954. Its self titled magazine has over 3 million subscribers and is read by 23 million people each week, including over 18 million men.

W.E.B. DuBois

Born into a post civil war world in the north, He attended Fisk college in TN from 1885-1888 where he learns of racism and segregation, 1888 enrolls at Harvard where he earns a degree in sociology in 1889 (granted admissions but not acceptance), The Philly Negro, one of his writings

Talented Tenth
DuBois used the term "the talented tenth" to describe the likelihood of one in 10 black men becoming leaders of their race in the world, through methods such as continuing their education, writing books, or becoming directly involved in social change. He strongly believed that blacks needed a classical education to be able to reach their full potential, rather than the industrial education.

Louis Tewanima

An American two-time Olympic distance runner and silver medalist in the 10,000 meter run in 1912. He was a Hopi Indian and ran for the Carlisle Indian School where he was a teammate of Jim Thorpe.

Andrew Sockalexis

Marathon runner, competed in the 1912 Olympics.

Duke Kahanamoku

Hawaii native. Competitive swimmer. Swam in 1912 Olympics winning gold in 100m freestyle. Shattered swimming records that were never officially counted.

Pop Warner

Glenn Scobey Warner, coached at many schools including Carlisle Indian School. Called the father of football

Booker T. Washington

Born into slavery, Grew up with mother, never knew his father, Lived in 14-14 sq. Foot room shared with mother and brother, Moved to Walden WV, where he hears about the Hampton Normal Agricultural Institute, Founded Tuskegee Institute in 1881, Focuses on political and economical values. (How to exercise freedom and fitting in taking what is given)

Max Schmeling

German boxer that fought Joe Louis twice, beating him the first time and being knocked out by Louis in the 1st round on the second fight.

Jesse Owens

American Olympian who was a 4 time gold medalist. Ran track and field for the 1936 Summer olympics. 100 meters, 200 meters, long jump, 4x1 relay.

1936 Berlin Olympics
America had questioned whether or not they would participate in the games because of possible discrimination of Jewish athletes in Germany. America would end up participating in the games.
Tuskegee Institute
Founded by Booker T. Washington for colored men who wished to be educated in the matters of politics and economics.