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86 Cards in this Set

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organizational behaviour

a field of study that investigates the impact that individuals groups and structure have on behaviour within organizations

what does OB look at?

consistencies - not everyone is the same but there are fundamental consistencies in how all people behave



what do consistencies help OB with

predicting behaviour

what type of approach does OB take?

contingency - considers behaviour in context, behaviour usually depends on the situation

what can knowledge of OB improve

organizational effectiveness


- employee commitment and well being


- committed and happy employees work better

what are challenges at the individual level

1. individual differences and personality


2. job satisfaction


3. emotion at work


4. motivation


5. ethical behaviour and decision making



what are challenges at the group level

working with others


- conflict


- influence


- power dynamics


- team decisions


work place diversity

what are the challenges at the organizational level

effective change management


improving employee production


effective leadership


helping employees with work life balance


creating a positive work environment

Personality

relatively stable pattern of behaviour and consistent internal states that explains how an individual tends to react and interact with others

hexaco/big 5

1. extraversion


2. openess to experience


3. emotionality/neuroticism


4. conscientiousness


5. agreeableness


6. honesty/humiilty

Extraversion:

assertive, talkative, sociable, expressive

openess to experience

creative, flexible, curious, imaginative, intellectual

emotionality/neuroticism

-anxious, easily stressed

conscientiousness

organized, responsible, dependable, persistent

agreeableness

good natured, cooperative, trusting, warm

honesty humility

sincere, honest, loyal, modest

Conscientiousness at work

performance


leadership and longevity


academic success


less likely to be deviant

openness to experience at work

leadership and adaptability

agreeableness at work

performance in service jobs


less likely to be deviant

extraversion at the work place

- performance in sales and managerial


- team performance and leadership: except when members are proactive because extraverts make them feel discouraged


-happiness

emotionality/neuroticism

-threshold amount needed for adequate performance


-strongest link to job satisfaction


-lower levels of stress


- less likely to be deviant

honesty and humility at work

less likely to be deviant


positively related to job performance


-strongly linked to ethical leadership

core self evaluation

the degree to which people like themselves and see themselves as capable


- among the strongest predictor of job satisfaction and performance

what are the 4 factors of core self evaluation

1. self esteem


2. self efficiency


3. locus of control


4. emotional stability



narcissism

a person who has a grandiose sense of self importance, requires excessive admiration, has sense of entitlement and is arrogant

self-monitoring

the ability to pay attention to the external environment and respond accordingly

proactive personality

ability to identify opportunities show initiative take action and persevere until meaningful change occurs

what yields stronger performance evaluations

when a employee is pro social

type A personality

- moves, eats, walks rapidly


-impatient


-multitasks


-dislikes leisure time


-competitive


-measures success in terms of things aquired

type b personality

-rarely suffers from an urgency of time


-doesnt need to display or discuss achievements


-plays for fun and relaxation not to win


-can relax without guilt



perception

the process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions

why is perception important

- all behaviour based on our perceptions of reality not on reality itself


-influences judgements attitudes and behaviors

factors that influence perception

1. the perceiver


2. the target


3. the situation

the perceiver

attitudes, motives, interests, past experiences


expectations, personality

the target

motion, size, sound, proximity, novelty

the situation

work, social setting, time, relationships

attribution theory

explains how we determine the causes of behaviours and events. to see if a behaviour is internal or external

3 factors to determine if behaviour is externally or internally caused

1. distinctiveness - does the person act similarly across different situations

2. consensus- do others behave the same way in the same situation


3. consistency - does the person behave the same way over time



fundamental attribution error

the tendency to underestimate external factors and overestimate internal factors when making judgments about others behaviour

self-serving bias

the tendency to attribute ones own success to internal factors while putting the blame on our failures to external factors

selective attention

people have a limited capacity to process information

- people selective interpret what they see based on their interests, background, experience and attitudes

halo effect

drawing a general impression about an individual based on a single characteristic

projection

attributing ones own characteristics to other people


we assume people behave the same way we do

contrast effects

a persons evaluation is affected by comparisons with other individuals recently encountered

stereotyping

judging someone based on the basis of your perception of the group to which that person belongs

predjudice

unfounded dislike for a person or group based on their belonging to a stereotyped group

social identity theory

1. a persons sense of who she is based on group membership


2. people seek to belong to a positive group relative to others


3. sterotypes, prejudice, and biases negative serve to put people into more negative "out groups"

how can we reduce the bias q

1. increase awareness of your bias


2. make processes as objective as possible


3. evaluate the presence of bias


4. expose yourself to environments that challenge stereotypes

Attitudes

evaluative statements either positive or negative about objects, people or events

2 most important work attitudes

1. job satisfaction


2. organizational commitment

job satisfaction

an individuals general attitude toward his or her job

sources of job satisfaction

1. the work


2. pay and promotion opportunities


3. supervisors and coworkers



Active and constructive expression of dissatisfaction

voice


complaints and suggestions

constructive and passive expression of dissatisfaction

loyalty


sticking it out

passive and destructive expression of dissatisfaction

neglect


long breaks and calling in sick

active and destructive expression of dissatisfaction

exit


quitting

organizational commitment

a state in which an employee identifies with a particular organization and its goals

affective commitment

attachment to and identification with the organization


"i love my company"

normative commitment

percieved obligation to stay within the organization


"i should stay with my company"

continuance commitment

perception that leaving would be too costly


" i need to stay with my company"

reasons employees commit

1. they are proud of the company's aspirations and accomplishments and share its values


2. they know what each person is expected to do and how performance is measured why it matters


3. autonomy at work


4. recognized for the quality of individual performance


5. have fun and enjoy the supportive and highly interactive environments

motivation

internal and external factors that lead an individual to engage in goal directed behaviour

intensity

how hard a person tries



direction

where effort is channeled

persistance

how long effort is maintained

intrinsic motivators

`

an internal desire to do something because of interest, challenge, and personal satisfaction

extrinsic motivators

comes from the outside the person and includes such things as pay bonuses and other tangible rewards

needs theories

individuals have needs that when satisfied will result in motivation


- motivation hygiene

process theories

helps us understand the ways in which people can be motivated


- expentancy theory, goal setting theory

motivation hygiene theory

sources of satisfaction are different from sources of dissatisfaction


- not on one continuum but two

sources of dissatisfaction (hygiene factors)

extrinsic factors


poor working conditions


company policies


bad supervisor


not getting along with peers


unfair benefits and pay



sources of satisfaction

intrinsic factors


achievement


recognition


challenge


responsibility


advancement

expectancy theory

motivation depends on whether effort will lead to good performance and if good performance will lead to a given outcome and whether that outcome is attractive

goal setting theory

specific and difficult goals lead to higher performance

goals

direct attention


regulate effort


increase persistance


encourages people to develop strategies and action plans

what do SMART goals need to be

Specific


Measurable


Attainable


Results oriented/ Relevant


Time bound

Equity theory

individuals compare their job inputs and outcomes with referent others


-employees attempt to eliminate any inequities

responses to inequity

- change inputs


- change outcomes


- adjust perceptions of self


- choose a different referent


- leave the field

motivating employees

1. recognition


2. pay programs and incentives


3. job design

employee recognition

use multiple sources of recognition

variable pay programs

base a portion of employee pay on individual or group or organizational performance

individual incentives

1. piece rate pay plans


- employees are paid a fixed sum for each unit of production completed


2. bonuses


- one- time rewards for defined work rather than ongoing entitlements

group incentives

1. gain sharing


- employees indentify ways to improve productivity



organizational incentives

profit sharing plans


- distribute compensation based on a formula designed around a company's profitability




employee stock ownership plans


- employees acquire stock as a part of their benefits

rewarding the wrong things

1. organizations don't look at the big picture


2. management focuses on short term results


3. rewards the wrong thing ... long hours = burn out

job characteristic model

a variety of factors contribute to motivating work


1. skill variety.


2. task identity


3. task significance


4. autonomy


5. feedback


=


1. meanfulness


2. accountability


3. knowledge of results


=


1. work motivation


2. performance


3. job satisfaction


4. lower absenteeism/ turnover