Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

86 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

organizational behaviour

a field of study that investigates the impact that individuals groups and structure have on behaviour within organizations

what does OB look at?

consistencies - not everyone is the same but there are fundamental consistencies in how all people behave

what do consistencies help OB with

predicting behaviour

what type of approach does OB take?

contingency - considers behaviour in context, behaviour usually depends on the situation

what can knowledge of OB improve

organizational effectiveness

- employee commitment and well being

- committed and happy employees work better

what are challenges at the individual level

1. individual differences and personality

2. job satisfaction

3. emotion at work

4. motivation

5. ethical behaviour and decision making

what are challenges at the group level

working with others

- conflict

- influence

- power dynamics

- team decisions

work place diversity

what are the challenges at the organizational level

effective change management

improving employee production

effective leadership

helping employees with work life balance

creating a positive work environment


relatively stable pattern of behaviour and consistent internal states that explains how an individual tends to react and interact with others

hexaco/big 5

1. extraversion

2. openess to experience

3. emotionality/neuroticism

4. conscientiousness

5. agreeableness

6. honesty/humiilty


assertive, talkative, sociable, expressive

openess to experience

creative, flexible, curious, imaginative, intellectual


-anxious, easily stressed


organized, responsible, dependable, persistent


good natured, cooperative, trusting, warm

honesty humility

sincere, honest, loyal, modest

Conscientiousness at work


leadership and longevity

academic success

less likely to be deviant

openness to experience at work

leadership and adaptability

agreeableness at work

performance in service jobs

less likely to be deviant

extraversion at the work place

- performance in sales and managerial

- team performance and leadership: except when members are proactive because extraverts make them feel discouraged



-threshold amount needed for adequate performance

-strongest link to job satisfaction

-lower levels of stress

- less likely to be deviant

honesty and humility at work

less likely to be deviant

positively related to job performance

-strongly linked to ethical leadership

core self evaluation

the degree to which people like themselves and see themselves as capable

- among the strongest predictor of job satisfaction and performance

what are the 4 factors of core self evaluation

1. self esteem

2. self efficiency

3. locus of control

4. emotional stability


a person who has a grandiose sense of self importance, requires excessive admiration, has sense of entitlement and is arrogant


the ability to pay attention to the external environment and respond accordingly

proactive personality

ability to identify opportunities show initiative take action and persevere until meaningful change occurs

what yields stronger performance evaluations

when a employee is pro social

type A personality

- moves, eats, walks rapidly



-dislikes leisure time


-measures success in terms of things aquired

type b personality

-rarely suffers from an urgency of time

-doesnt need to display or discuss achievements

-plays for fun and relaxation not to win

-can relax without guilt


the process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions

why is perception important

- all behaviour based on our perceptions of reality not on reality itself

-influences judgements attitudes and behaviors

factors that influence perception

1. the perceiver

2. the target

3. the situation

the perceiver

attitudes, motives, interests, past experiences

expectations, personality

the target

motion, size, sound, proximity, novelty

the situation

work, social setting, time, relationships

attribution theory

explains how we determine the causes of behaviours and events. to see if a behaviour is internal or external

3 factors to determine if behaviour is externally or internally caused

1. distinctiveness - does the person act similarly across different situations

2. consensus- do others behave the same way in the same situation

3. consistency - does the person behave the same way over time

fundamental attribution error

the tendency to underestimate external factors and overestimate internal factors when making judgments about others behaviour

self-serving bias

the tendency to attribute ones own success to internal factors while putting the blame on our failures to external factors

selective attention

people have a limited capacity to process information

- people selective interpret what they see based on their interests, background, experience and attitudes

halo effect

drawing a general impression about an individual based on a single characteristic


attributing ones own characteristics to other people

we assume people behave the same way we do

contrast effects

a persons evaluation is affected by comparisons with other individuals recently encountered


judging someone based on the basis of your perception of the group to which that person belongs


unfounded dislike for a person or group based on their belonging to a stereotyped group

social identity theory

1. a persons sense of who she is based on group membership

2. people seek to belong to a positive group relative to others

3. sterotypes, prejudice, and biases negative serve to put people into more negative "out groups"

how can we reduce the bias q

1. increase awareness of your bias

2. make processes as objective as possible

3. evaluate the presence of bias

4. expose yourself to environments that challenge stereotypes


evaluative statements either positive or negative about objects, people or events

2 most important work attitudes

1. job satisfaction

2. organizational commitment

job satisfaction

an individuals general attitude toward his or her job

sources of job satisfaction

1. the work

2. pay and promotion opportunities

3. supervisors and coworkers

Active and constructive expression of dissatisfaction


complaints and suggestions

constructive and passive expression of dissatisfaction


sticking it out

passive and destructive expression of dissatisfaction


long breaks and calling in sick

active and destructive expression of dissatisfaction



organizational commitment

a state in which an employee identifies with a particular organization and its goals

affective commitment

attachment to and identification with the organization

"i love my company"

normative commitment

percieved obligation to stay within the organization

"i should stay with my company"

continuance commitment

perception that leaving would be too costly

" i need to stay with my company"

reasons employees commit

1. they are proud of the company's aspirations and accomplishments and share its values

2. they know what each person is expected to do and how performance is measured why it matters

3. autonomy at work

4. recognized for the quality of individual performance

5. have fun and enjoy the supportive and highly interactive environments


internal and external factors that lead an individual to engage in goal directed behaviour


how hard a person tries


where effort is channeled


how long effort is maintained

intrinsic motivators


an internal desire to do something because of interest, challenge, and personal satisfaction

extrinsic motivators

comes from the outside the person and includes such things as pay bonuses and other tangible rewards

needs theories

individuals have needs that when satisfied will result in motivation

- motivation hygiene

process theories

helps us understand the ways in which people can be motivated

- expentancy theory, goal setting theory

motivation hygiene theory

sources of satisfaction are different from sources of dissatisfaction

- not on one continuum but two

sources of dissatisfaction (hygiene factors)

extrinsic factors

poor working conditions

company policies

bad supervisor

not getting along with peers

unfair benefits and pay

sources of satisfaction

intrinsic factors






expectancy theory

motivation depends on whether effort will lead to good performance and if good performance will lead to a given outcome and whether that outcome is attractive

goal setting theory

specific and difficult goals lead to higher performance


direct attention

regulate effort

increase persistance

encourages people to develop strategies and action plans

what do SMART goals need to be




Results oriented/ Relevant

Time bound

Equity theory

individuals compare their job inputs and outcomes with referent others

-employees attempt to eliminate any inequities

responses to inequity

- change inputs

- change outcomes

- adjust perceptions of self

- choose a different referent

- leave the field

motivating employees

1. recognition

2. pay programs and incentives

3. job design

employee recognition

use multiple sources of recognition

variable pay programs

base a portion of employee pay on individual or group or organizational performance

individual incentives

1. piece rate pay plans

- employees are paid a fixed sum for each unit of production completed

2. bonuses

- one- time rewards for defined work rather than ongoing entitlements

group incentives

1. gain sharing

- employees indentify ways to improve productivity

organizational incentives

profit sharing plans

- distribute compensation based on a formula designed around a company's profitability

employee stock ownership plans

- employees acquire stock as a part of their benefits

rewarding the wrong things

1. organizations don't look at the big picture

2. management focuses on short term results

3. rewards the wrong thing ... long hours = burn out

job characteristic model

a variety of factors contribute to motivating work

1. skill variety.

2. task identity

3. task significance

4. autonomy

5. feedback


1. meanfulness

2. accountability

3. knowledge of results


1. work motivation

2. performance

3. job satisfaction

4. lower absenteeism/ turnover