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41 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back


Series of jobs you pursue over course of working life

Career planning

Setting goals and a means of achieving them

Career development

Those activities you participate in that you feel will lead you to your goals

Career path

Logical series of jobs in one area

Career anchor

A concern or value that a person will not give up if a choice has to be made

Occupational Orientation

Theory that there are six basic personal orientations that determine the sorts of careers to which people are drawn

Alternative arrangements

1) Flex time

- EE still works standard # of hours per day and week (e.g.: 8 hours a day/40 a week) but can choose their own start and finish time (e.g.: 7am-3pm, 10am-6pm)

- ER sets core hours (e.g.: 10am-3pm) when all staff should be in office.


- EEs can meet personal need (e.g.: day care, dentists etc)

- EE will take less time off work.

- Longer hours of coverage of the office (e.g.: 7 10 am)


- May not be the right for the business (call centres, production factories – workplace has to be set to make deadlines).

- For a manager, it is difficult to keep track of EE schedules

- Mgmt and other coworkers may not be there when guidance is needed.

2) Compressed work week

- Hour set by ER (not EE)

- EE works more hours each day so they will have more time off (e.g.: EEs work 40 hours in 4 ½ days a week or EEs work 80 hours in 9 days)


- Can reduce ER overtime cost as EEs work longer days.

- EEs have more personal time off

- Cuts down on commuting


- Can be physically/mentally draining on the worker

- May be difficult for EE to fit other actives into shorter day

3) Job Sharing

- 1 F/T job is done by 2 EEs.


- Nearing retirement employees want more time off and do not necessarily need the money

- ER gets to keep talent of those nearing retirement and use as mentors

- Do not need to make layoffs


- Less money/experience for EEs

- Problem of disorganization

- Delayed responses/confusion

4) Telecommuting

- EE works from home F/T or P/T

- ER equips home office


- EE works from comfort of home

- Less facility costs for ER


- ER has less control over EE does not know how much time they are putting in

- EEs can feel isolated from the office. Doesn’t work for everyone– need self-discipline.

Ratings problems in performance evaluations

Star Wars Has Bad Critic Ratings

- Wrong factors being used: factors aren’t measurable or observable (e.g.: attitude –can’t measure it)

- Halo effect distorts reality: One high or low rating influences other ratings

- Central tendency – everybody is “average”

- Lenience/ strictness among supervisors: some supervisors have higher performance standards than others

- Bias – supervisor favouritism

- Recency effect – wrong time period: Evaluation should be based on full 12 months, managers only evaluate based on the months leading up to the evaluation.

Use of formal performance evaluations and why ERs like them

Courtney Performed an Intensely Suggestive Dirty Dancing Re-enactment Causing Matej To Flush

- Feedback – how am I doing? –Forces the situation

- Two-way communication – opens up communication

- Discipline / termination documentation

- Clarification - job understand/clarification

- Measurement against standards

- Potential for promotion

- Improvement – training needs

- Career Development

- Compensation – pay for performance

- Succession planning

- Job re-design

Job evaluation #

- A systematic comparison to determine the relative worth of jobs with a firm

Grade vs. class

Grades: Group of jobs that are similar in difficulty but often different in other respects

Classes: A group of similar types of jobs

Red circle pay rate

A rate of pay that is above the pay range maximum


- Freeze pay rate of EE until scary increases bring other jobs in line with it

- Transfer or promote employees to jobs they can legitimately be paid at such salary

- Otherwise pay will be cut to maximum in range

Pay compression #

Occurs in two ways:

- If there’s a skill shortage - the person you get might get paid more than the EEs currently working there.

- Supervisor earns less than the staff that reports to them - overtime.

Profit sharing, Gain sharing and Share Purpose #

1) Profit sharing - Most or all EE share in company profits

2) Share purchase - give EEs option to purchase at rate lower than public.

3) Gainsharing – EEs share in financial gains – if you contribute ideas for specific financial improvements (production, cost reductions, cost savings) you get a portion of the gain i.e.:10% of 1000). One-time payment – reason why it isn’t popular.

Incentive comp

- Any pay that ties to productivity or profitability

- Short term – annual or shorter

- Long term – over 1 year - motivate with stock option or shared units


For large companies –it reduces the number of job levels and increase pay between levels (i.e.– 29k-44k for non mgmt., 42k-72k for middle mgmt., 70k-11k for sr. mgmt. derived from 6 grade levels. 2 grade levels instead of 6.)

Guidelines for evaluations

1. Stay positive!

- Begin by highlighting a specific accomplishment or contribution by the EE.

- End the evaluation by stressing your confidence that the EE will meet the objectives discussed during the next evaluation period.

2. Be professional

- Make it clear that the evaluation is intended to provide feedback (nor personality) on performance only.

- Conduct the session in an objective,factual, business-like manner.

- Conduct the interview in private with no interruptions.

3. Be supportive

- Constructive criticisms

- Specific examples

- Offer tools/resources to help

4. Be future-orientated

- Identify specific future expectations,goals, activities to improve performance

- Remove any obstacles that are inhibiting performance

Compensable factor

Essential factors to a job (e.g.: skill, effort, working condition, responsibility) that enable ERs to compare job value

Classification/grading method

Method for categorizing jobs into different groups

Point method

Job evaluation method that identifies compensable factors and assigns points to calculate value

Fixed pay

Pay the independent of performance

Straight vs. guaranteed vs. differential piecework plan

Straight: Paid for each piece produced

Guaranteed: Minimum hourly pay, plus incentive for each piece produced above a set number per hour

Differential: Minimum hourly pay, plus extra % of base rate for production exceeding the standard per hour or per day

Capital accumulation programs

Long term incentives typically offered to senior executives

Stock options

The right to purchase a stated number of shares of company stock at todays price at sometime in the future

Learning organization

An organization skilled at creating, acquiring, and transferring knowledge

Developmental job rotation

Moving trainee from department to department to broaden her experience

Action learning

Mgmt trainees work in departments other than their own for a period of time analyzing and solving problems

In house development centre

Exposing mgmt trainees to realistic exercises in order to help develop their skills

Behavioural modeling

Trainees first shown good mgmt techniques and then asked to play roles in simulated situation then offered feedback on their performance

Mgmt game

Teams of managers compete with one another by making decisions regarding simulated companies

Performance Mgmt

Improving EE performance, productivity, and effectiveness

Task vs. contextual performance

task: Individual direct contribution to their job related processes

contextual: individuals indirect contribution to organization beyond specified duties

Alternation vs paired comparison

Alternation: Ranking EE from best to work on a particular trait

Paired comparison: Comparing each EE to another in all factors

Critical incident method

- record exceptionally good or bad performance examples

Behavioural anchored rating scale

Quantifiable rating scale that offers examples of good and poor performance

360 degree appraisal

Uses multiple raters including peers, supervisors, customers

Business process engineering

ER rethinks and redesigns core business and processes (often in response to a recession)

Two questions: “Why do we do what we do?,” “Why are we doing it how we do it?”

Tips for Effective Performance Evaluations

- Factors for evaluation are job-related

- Expectations/standards clearly defined

- No surprises for EEs

- Standardization/ consistency

- Trained supervisors

- Must be legallyd efensible

- Process controlled by HR


Anything that an EE finds rewarding about working for a particular ER.

Direct compensation

- anything of immediate value to the EE

- wages, bonuses, commissions, shift premiums (off shifts pay more), overtime pay, vacation pay, severance pay, car allowances

Indirect compensation

- Future oriented, differed

-Group insurance plans, leaves of absence,tuition assistance, pension plans, subsidies (meals, day care), ER contributions to -CPP, EI & WSIB.