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33 Cards in this Set

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Training
Planned effort within a fixed-term event intended to facilitate ees’ learning of job-related competencies and skills
Development
Acquiring knowledge, skills, and behaviors that improve an ee’s ability on the job
KAIZEN
Continues Learning: - A learning system that expects ee’s to acquire new skills, apply them on the job, and share what they have learned with other employees
Types of training
Management development
Communication skills
Diversity and cross-cultural
Literacy or basic skills training
Sales skills
Types of Training
Technology and basic computer skills
Technical skills (e.g. equipment, programs)
HR programs (e.g. new compensation scheme, career development)
Personal growth and wellness
Trends in Training:
Focus moving from Specific Skills to broader focus on creating
shared knowledge
Training Professionals are redesigning themselves into broad based
change agents and performance improvement consultants
1. Increased online

2. Training is being included in system-wide changes to gain
1. e-learning

2. competitive advantage

3.
1
1. weak
2. In Economic Downtowns
3/
Is considered more of an expectation, particularly for top ers– thus
hus is more important today than in the past
Why Does Training Fail?
1. Somtimes tries to used as an overall
2. When cause of problem was something else
1. panacea
2. (e.g. faulty selection, suboptimal technology, outdated processes, low ee motivation, poor supervision)
3.

Why does Training Fail?

1. Conducted and executed
2. Lack of
3. Lack of applying learnings
1. Inefficeintly
2. Following all the steps
3. directly to the job (3rd day)
Training can provide:
Provide basic managerial skills
Provide ees basic skills to work with new technology
Give ees a chance to practice skills (e.g. listening, coaching, interviewing)
Shape a company culture (e.g. ensure that the company’s culture emphasizes innovation, creativity, and learning)
Training can provide (2)
Foster employment security by providing new ways for employees to contribute to the company when their jobs or interests change, or when their skills are outdated
Prepare employees to accept and work more effectively with each other, particularly with minorities and women
Fulfill psychological contract (giving a “gift” to ee’s…)
Compel thriving at work (thriving = energy + learning)
Training Process Step 1: Needs Assessment
Organizational Analysis- What is going on with…
Our strategy? (short and long term goals)
The internal environment? (e.g., job types, culture)
The external environment? (e.g., laws)
Any support for training by managers/peers?
Our available resources? (time, $, internal/external)
Training Process Step 2: Ensure employee readiness
for training
What are the characteristics of the employees?

Attitudes and motivation to learn

Basic skills
Prerequisites?
Certain KSAs, cognitive or reading abilities?

Timing
Given work fluctuations and work load
When do they need the training by?
Step 3: Create a learning environment
Create a work environment that is favorable to and supportive of training efforts
Before, during, and after the training
E.g.:
Identify learning objectives
Meaningful material
Clarity of instructions
Provide opportunity to practice
Feedback
Observation of others (e.g. role modeling)
Social support
Step 4: Select a method Who will train?
WHO WILL TRAIN?
If consultants, create an RFP (request for proposals) to establish a set of criteria for evaluation
Who’s going to design it?
Approx. 60% of training is typically designed internal
Do we have the content expertise in-house?
Are the in-house experts willing and able? (e.g. do they have time?)
Who’s going to deliver it?
Approx. 70% typically done by internal employees
Need firm-specific knowledge?
Do we have the content expertise in-house?
Train-the-trainer sessions
Step 4 How to Train
Presentation methods
Live classroom instruction
Recorded instructions
E-learning
Audiovisual techniques (e.g. Skype)
Hands-on methods
On-the-job training
Self-directed learning
Simulations
Business games and case studies
Interactive DVD
Adventure learning/team training
Step 5: Ensuring transfer of training
Ensure that what is learned from training gets transferred to performance on the job

Identify key learning points
Reinforce with reminders
From different directions (e.g. self, peer, boss, upper mgmt)

Create climate for transfer
Make it normative, and regular
Teach others

Set specific goals
1
Leverage manager and peer support
Talk to others about what you learned
Add to performance evaluation

Seek opportunities to use skills
E.g. short term projects or assignments, temporary teams
Tell others!

Use technology
E.g. a weekly email reminder with key principles
Things You Can Do To Ensure Training Transfer (2)
Self-manage effectively
E.g. create own goals and deliverables to evaluate progress towards incorporating learning to the job

Create action plans– specific, actionable, doable

Use visual or learning aids to reinforce application

Have systematic and exciting visual reminders (e.g. tchotchkes)
Step 6: Evaluating training programs
Typically completely insufficient, if done at all!
Training objectives should determine
Measures used
Evaluation targets (e.g. ee, client, coworkers, direct reports)
Did we achieve the desired outcomes?
Test or evaluation at the end of training
E.g. skills-based like listening skills, use work samples or customer feedback
E.g. affective or attitudes, use interviews or surveys
Did we have the correct design?
Instructor or design evaluation form
Identify strengths and weaknesses of the program
1
Get top management support and visible commitment

Use of behavioral models and real-life work examples and simulations

Avoid training overload (time it right)

Get the right instructors (characteristics, expertise, credibility)
Training growing trend
competitive advantage

considered an expectiation for top employers

Measurement and evaluation still weak
Used as a panacea

Takesu up time and little justifcation for time spent

Conducted insufficiently
problem is something else and try training

Conducted inefficiently

lack of following all the steps, not applying learnings directly to the job
Step 1 Conduct a needs assessement
Identify the root problem, training may not be solution
step 2 : ensure employees readiness for training
charcheristics of employees, attidues and motivation to learn, basic skills needed, timing
step 3: Create a learning environment
create a work enviornment favorable and suppaortive of training efforts
Step 4: Who will train
mostly in house today, or a consultant.
Step 5: ensuring transfer of training
ensure what is learned from training gets transferrred to the job. improve job performance
Step 6 Evaluatie the training program
Typically insufficient if done at all.

did we achieve desired outcomes?
Did we have correct design?
Training fails cuz of 3 reasons
Panacea (problem was something else than being trained on)
Conducted:
Inefficiently (take up too much time), and insufficiently (no evaluation).