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10 Cards in this Set

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  • Back

Who opposed the Tsar?

Socialist Revolutionaries

- Social Democrats

- Liberals

Who were the Social Revolutionaries?

Example: Marie Spirodonova


- to get rid of the Tsar and his government

- to give all the land to the peasants to farm collectively in communes


- peasants


- Propaganda

- Violent acts (terrorism) to bring about he collapse of the government

Who were the Social Democrats?

Example: Lenin, Trotsky (…at the Social Democrat conference in 1903 he sided with the Mensheviks)


- to overthrow the Tsar

- to create a Socialist state

What were the tactics of the Social Democrats?

In 1903 the SDs split over tactics:


- mass organisation which all workers could join

- organisation would grow and take power

- work with other groups (trade unions) to improve wages and working conditions


- believed in a small, tightly disciplined party of professional revolutionaries who would seize power when the time was right

- against a large party as could be infiltrated by police spies

- planned for only 3/4 people to get into factories and organise strikes and demonstrations

Who were the Liberals?


- middle and educated classes

- some members of the gentry


- free elections, a parliament

- constitutional monarchy

- civil rights

What were the tactics of the Liberals?




publishing articles

books calling for change

Why did Russia explode in revolution in 1905?

economic problems

the russo-japanese war

Bloody Sunday

What were the economic problems leading to the 1905 revolution?

Russia's industries were backward, so the government set about improving these. Peasants had to pay heavy taxes on things i.e. grain. 1902, industrial slump, poor harvests in 1900 and 1902. Peasants starving as well as penniless, Tsar tried to crush everything with violence.

What was the Russo- Japanese war?

Nicholas thought war with Japan in 1902 was good, it would show people he was a competent leader.

But, prices rose, shortages of food caused, lack of industrial materials caused factory closeage.

Japan kept inflicting defeat on Russia but the papers lied about it - humiliating. Japanese also captured Port Arthur, renewed protest about government incompetency.

What was Bloody Sunday?

1905, conditions were bad in St Petersburg.

22nd January a priest led a peaceful petition delivered to the Tsar demanding longer working hours, a higher wage, and better working conditions

they were met with guns and shot down before the Tsar had a chance to see them.