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34 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
plant response to gravity
plant response to light
plant response to touch
produced in growing tips. transport in parenchyma of vascular tissue. effects cell elongation, lateral bud dormancy, fruit development.
produced in young leaves, apical tips, embryo. transported in xylem and phloem. effects cell division and elongation, fruit development.
produced in roots. transported upwards in xylem. effects cell division, lateral bud expansion, chloroplast development.
abscisic acid
produced in leaves. transported in phloem. effects seed maturation, stomatic function, dormancy.
produced in response to stress. transported in air- gas. effects fruit ripening, leaf abscission, flower senescence.
response of plants to length of day
long day plants
flower when night length is less than critical period. (short nights)
short day plants
flower when night length is longer than critical period. long night.
translocated incompatibility
something in stock translocated to scion that causes it to die or union to break down.
localized incompatibility
won't grow together. interstock insertion can help.
t-cut made on stock through bark. bark peeled back and bud with wood is slid under bark. wrap it with budding tape.
patch budding
used when bark is too thick for t-bud. patch bud is removed from scion, then same size bark cut away on stock. put in place then wrapped tightly.
spring budding
budwood collected when dormant. 1 year top, 2 year root. t buds inserted as growth begins in spring.
june budding
1 year top and rootstock
fall budding
seedlings grow through spring and summer, bud inserted in beginning of fall, seedlings cut back next spring.
whip and tongue graft
two cuts made in scion and stock, so that they fit together. usually done for fairly small plants. flexible wood needed with not much of a pith.
splice graft
better with less flexible wood with more of a pith. one diagonal cut for each part, then wrapped and waxed.
side graft
scion cut to form smooth edge. slanting cut made into stock. scion inserted into cut in stock. tension of stock will hold it well. put in at angle for cambial contact.
saddle graft
cut to point of sides of stock. indent scion so fits on top of piont. stock and scion must be same size. best done when dormant.
cleft graft
several different scion added to much larger stock. good for topworking. cleft made in stock, wood should be fairly flexible. scion cut in wedge shape, placed into cleft.
saw-kerf graft
3 cuts made in stock, scion tapped into the middle, cambien must match up.
bark graft
easier but makes for weaker union. larger stock, section of bark cut out, scion cut to match it, can be put under flexible bark or just nailed in place. do during active growth. subject to wind breaks.
bridge grafts
for repairing injured stock. do in spring. scion material put around stem when bark was stripped. scion slipped under bark at top and bottom. ring of scion becomes means of transport for stock. polarity important b/c of phloem.
banana graft
cut bark of stock in strips. peel back and cut off exposed wood. stick in scion and pull strips back up. susceptible to wind damage, needs to be staked.
central leader
main trunk, going straight up. ex apples, pears.
modified leader
top pruned off occasionally so central leader not as straight.
open form
center was pruned and side branches allowed to come up . peaches, plums.
pests- biters
ex beetles. bite steam and leaf, root, steam borers, fruit feeders
pests- suckers
ex mites, aphids, leafhoppers, mealy bugs. mostly in house plants.
tiny worms (vom) in soil. adequate soil moisture and fertilization cut down on losses. good weed control important.
integrated pest management
look at number of different ways to control pests in way that's best for environment. economic injury level is when chemicals are used. monitoring process is key.