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82 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
the study of the relationship between organisms and their environment
greenhouse effect
the warming of the earth due to the insulating effect of gases in the atmosphere, such as carbon dioxide and water vapor.
the area on and around earth where life exists
all the biotic and abiotic components of an environment
all the populations in one area
all the members of a species that live in the same area and make up a breeding group
biotic factor
a living component of an ecosystem
abiotic factor
any nonliving component of an ecosystem
tolerance curve
a graph of a organisms tolerance to a range of an environmental variable
the process of an organisms adjustment to an abiotic factor
an organism that does not regulate its internal environment
an organism that uses energy to control its internal environment
a state of decreased metabolism
when a species moves to another, more favorable habitat
the energy and materials a species needs
fundamental niche
the full range of conditions that a species can tolerate and resources it can use.
realized niche
the range of resources and conditions a species actually uses or can tolerate at optimal efficiency; smaller than fundamental niche
a species with a broad niche that can tolerate a wide range of conditions and can use a variety of resources
a species with a narrow niche that can tolerate a narrow range of conditions and can only a few specific resources
the spatial distribution of individuals in a population.
birth rate
the number of births occurring in a period of time
death rate (mortality rate)
the number of deaths occurring in a period of time
life expectancy
how long, on average, an individual is expected to live
age structure
the distribution of individuals among different ages in a population
survivorship curves
the graph of a species mortality rate data
growth rate
the amount by which a populations size changes in a given time
the movement of individuals into a population
the movement of individuals out of a population.
exponential model
a model of population growth in which the birth and death rates are constant
limiting factor
biotic or abiotic factor that restrains the growth of a population
logistic model
a model of population growth in which birth and death rates vary with population size and are equal at the carrying capacity
carrying capacity
the number of individuals of a species that an ecosystem is capable of supporting
density independent factors
a variable that affects population size regardless of population density
density dependent factors
a variable related to the density of a population that affects population size
mating with relatives
the relationship between different species living in close association with one another.
captures, kills, and consumes other individuals
an individual that is captured, killed, or consumed by another
a defense in which on organism resembles another that is dangerous or poisonous
a consumer that eats primary producers
secondary compounds
a poisonous, irritating, or bad tasting substance synthesized by plants as a defense mechinism
an organism that obtains its nutrition at the expense of another
an organism that supports a parasite
a parasite that lives on a host but does not enter the hosts body.
a parasite that lives inside the hosts body
results from fundamental niche overlap
competitive exclusion
the local extinction of a species due to competition
character displacement
evolution of anatomical differences that reduce competition between similar species
a cooperative relationship in which both species derive some benefit
an interaction in which one species benefits and the other is not affected
species richness
the number of species a community contains
species diversity
a relation of the number of species in a community to the relative abundance of each species
species area effect
a pattern of species distribution in which larger areas contain more species than smaller areas do
the gradual, sequential, regrowth of species in an area
primary succession
the development of a community in an area that has not supported life previously
secondary succession
the sequential replacement of species that follows disruption of an existing community
pioneer species
the typically small, fast-growing species that predominate early in succession
climax community
stable community
autotrophs which capture energy and use it to make organic molecules.
process by which bacteria produce carbohydrates by using energy from inorganic molocules
gross primary productivity
the rate at which producers in an ecosystem capture energy
organic material in an ecosystem
net primary productivity
the rate at which biomass accumulates
eat other consumers
omnivores eat both consumers and producers
a consumer that feeds on dead plants and animals
an organism that obtains nutrients from dead plants and animals
trophic level
a feeding level in an ecosystem
food chain
pathway beginning with producers along which energy is transferred from trophic level to trophic level
food web
the interconnected food chains in an ecosystem
biogeochemical cycle
the process by which materials necessary for organisms are circulated through the environment
ground water
water found in the soil or in underground formations of porous rocks
water cycle
the movement of water between the ground, the atmosphere and bodies of water.
the evaporation of water through stomata
carbon cycle
process in which carbon is cycled through the biosphere
nitrogen cycle
the pathway that nitrogen follows within an ecosystem
nitrogen fixation
the process by which gaseous nitrogen in the air is converted into ammonia
nitrogen fixing bacteria
bacteria that live in the roots of legumes and convert atmospheric nitrogen into ammonia
in the nitrogen cycle, the formation of ammonia compounds
the process in the nitrogen cycle by which nitrates and nitrates are produced
a final step in the nitrogen cycle, during which nitrogen gas is returned to the atmosphere